Tirumala Deva Raya

Tirumala Deva Raya (reign 1565–1572 CE) was the first Crowned King of the Vijayanagara Empire from the Aravidu Dynasty. He was the younger brother of Aliya Rama Raya and son-in-law of Krishna Deva Raya.

Tirumala Deva Raya
Vijayanagara Empire
Sangama dynasty
Harihara I 1336–1356
Bukka Raya I 1356–1377
Harihara Raya II 1377–1404
Virupaksha Raya 1404–1405
Bukka Raya II 1405–1406
Deva Raya I 1406–1422
Ramachandra Raya 1422
Vira Vijaya Bukka Raya 1422–1424
Deva Raya II 1424–1446
Mallikarjuna Raya 1446–1465
Virupaksha Raya II 1465–1485
Praudha Raya 1485
Saluva dynasty
Saluva Narasimha Deva Raya 1485–1491
Thimma Bhupala 1491
Narasimha Raya II 1491–1505
Tuluva dynasty
Tuluva Narasa Nayaka 1491–1503
Vira Narasimha Raya 1503–1509
Krishna Deva Raya 1509–1529
Achyuta Deva Raya 1529–1542
Venkata I 1542
Sadasiva Raya 1542–1570
Aravidu dynasty
Aliya Rama Raya 1542–1565
Tirumala Deva Raya 1565–1572
Sriranga I 1572–1586
Venkata II 1586–1614
Sriranga II 1614
Rama Deva Raya 1617–1632
Venkata III 1632–1642
Sriranga III 1642–1646

When Rama Raya was killed in the Talikota battle in 1565 he immediately emptied the treasury and fled the capital to taking with him the Royal family and the minor crown prince Sadasiva Raya.

He, after a few years of hardships, reestablished the Vijaynagar rule in Penukonda, in present-day Andhra Pradesh. During this time the Southern Nayakas of Madurai and Gingee declared partial independence, while some others rebelled over Tirumala Deva Raya’s authority.

In 1567 he encountered another attack by the Bijapur Sultan; this time the Sultan was defeated, but also lost some territories. Tirumala Deva Raya later tactfully approved the new status of Southern Nayaks, who still paid some tributes and held him as their emperor. Tanjore and Mysore rulers still paid the annual tributes while Madurai and Gingee rulers grudgingly followed.

Tirumala Deva Raya also retained most of the Vijaynagar territories and assumed the title “Reviver of the Decadent Karnataka Empire”.

In 1570 he split the Viceroyalty among his three sons: first son Sriranga (Sriranga I) in Penukonda in charge of Telugu country, second son Rama (father of Sriranga II) in Srirangapatna in charge of the Kannada country and third son Venkata (a.k.a. Venkata II) in Chandragiri in charge of Tamil country. Penukonda was the Capital of the empire.

Tirumala Deva Raya retired in 1572 after feeling too old to rule and retired to a religious life of living till 1578.



    • Aiyar, R. Sathyanatha (1991) [first published 1924], History of the Nayaks of Madura, Asian Educational Services, ISBN 978-81-206-0532-9
    • Rao, Velcheru Narayana; Shulman, David Dean; Subrahmanyam, Sanjay (1992), Symbols of substance: court and state in Nāyaka Period Tamilnadu, Oxford University Press
    • Sastri, K. A. Nilakanta (1958), A History of South India: From Prehistoric Times to the Fall of Vijayanagar (Second ed.), Indian Branch, Oxford University Press
    • Subrahmanyam, Sanjay; Shulman, David (2008), "The Men who would be King? The Politics of Expansion in Early Seventeenth-Century Northern Tamilnadu", Modern Asian Studies, 24 (02): 225–248, doi:10.1017/S0026749X00010301, ISSN 0026-749X
    Preceded by
    Aliya Rama Raya
    Vijayanagar empire
    Succeeded by
    Sriranga I
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