Tirumala Deva Raya
Tirumala Deva Raya (reign 1565–1572 CE) was the first Crowned King of the Vijayanagara Empire from the Aravidu Dynasty. He was the younger brother of Aliya Rama Raya and son-in-law of Krishna Deva Raya.
|Tirumala Deva Raya|
He, after a few years of hardships, reestablished the Vijaynagar rule in Penukonda, in present-day Andhra Pradesh. During this time the Southern Nayakas of Madurai and Gingee declared partial independence, while some others rebelled over Tirumala Deva Raya’s authority.
In 1567 he encountered another attack by the Bijapur Sultan; this time the Sultan was defeated, but also lost some territories. Tirumala Deva Raya later tactfully approved the new status of Southern Nayaks, who still paid some tributes and held him as their emperor. Tanjore and Mysore rulers still paid the annual tributes while Madurai and Gingee rulers grudgingly followed.
Tirumala Deva Raya also retained most of the Vijaynagar territories and assumed the title “Reviver of the Decadent Karnataka Empire”.
In 1570 he split the Viceroyalty among his three sons: first son Sriranga (Sriranga I) in Penukonda in charge of Telugu country, second son Rama (father of Sriranga II) in Srirangapatna in charge of the Kannada country and third son Venkata (a.k.a. Venkata II) in Chandragiri in charge of Tamil country. Penukonda was the Capital of the empire.
Tirumala Deva Raya retired in 1572 after feeling too old to rule and retired to a religious life of living till 1578.
- Aiyar, R. Sathyanatha (1991) [first published 1924], History of the Nayaks of Madura, Asian Educational Services, ISBN 978-81-206-0532-9
- Rao, Velcheru Narayana; Shulman, David Dean; Subrahmanyam, Sanjay (1992), Symbols of substance: court and state in Nāyaka Period Tamilnadu, Oxford University Press
- Sastri, K. A. Nilakanta (1958), A History of South India: From Prehistoric Times to the Fall of Vijayanagar (Second ed.), Indian Branch, Oxford University Press
- Subrahmanyam, Sanjay; Shulman, David (2008), "The Men who would be King? The Politics of Expansion in Early Seventeenth-Century Northern Tamilnadu", Modern Asian Studies, 24 (02): 225–248, doi:10.1017/S0026749X00010301, ISSN 0026-749X
Aliya Rama Raya
| Vijayanagar empire