Timeline of the Mongol Empire

This is the timeline of the Mongol Empire from the birth of Temüjin, later Genghis Khan, to the ascension of Kublai Khan as emperor of the Yuan dynasty in 1271, though the title of Khagan continued to be used by the Yuan rulers into the Northern Yuan dynasty, a far less powerful successor entity, until 1634.

12th century


1162Temüjin is born in Delüün Boldog near Burkhan Khaldun to the Mongol chieftain Yesugei and Hoelun[1]


1171Yesugei takes Temüjin east through Tatar territory to the Khongirad homeland to arrange a future marriage between his son and Börte. Temüjin stays with the Khongirads to learn their ways, however Yesugei is poisoned by the Tatars during his return trip. Temüjin leaves Börte for his father, but arrives too late to see his father alive. His father's followers scatter and Hoelun is left to care for their children by herself.[2] She takes them to the Khentii Mountains, where they live for several years.[3]
1173Temüjin becomes anda, blood brothers, with Jamukha of the Jajirad (Jadaran) clan[4]


1184Temüjin leaves to claim Börte. Börte's father gives him a black sable cloak as dowry, which he later gives to Toghrul of the Keraites to gain his favor. Soon after the Merkits abduct Börte and Temüjin flees. Several months later Temüjin assembles an allied force of over 20,000 with his ally Toghrul and sworn blood brother Jamukha, who attack the Merkits and rescue Börte.[3]
1185Mongols gather at Burkhan Khaldun to throw their support behind Temüjin in fear of the rising power of Jamukha[3]
1187Temüjin allies himself with the Khongirad to wage war on the Tatars. His blood brother Jamukha refuses to acknowledge his leadership and wages war on him. They clash at the Battle of the Thirteen Wings, which ends inconclusively. However Jamukha's rash and vindictive behavior towards his allies alienates him.[3]


1192Jin dynasty starts constructing fortifications in the northwest to prevent depredations by the Mongols[5]
1196Jin and Mongol troops carry out a punitive expedition against the Tatars[6]

13th century


1201Mongols opposing Temüjin promote Jamukha to gür-khan[4]
1202Mongols exterminate the Tatars[7]
1203Temüjin splits with Toghrul[8]
springThe Keraites defeat Temüjin at Qalaqaljid Sands[9]
autumnTemüjin defeats Toghrul at Jeje'er Heights[9]
Temüjin creates the Kheshig, an elite military guard[10]
1204Temüjin defeats the Naimans, Merkits, and Jamukha; Merkit leaders and Jamukha flee to the Altai Mountains[10]
fallTemüjin pursues Jamukha and defeats him in several battles. Eventually Jamukha's allies betray him and turn him over to Temüjin, who kills him by breaking his back.[10]
The Uyghurs and Ongud submit to Temüjin[11]
1205springMongol conquest of Western Xia: Temüjin of the Mongols raids Western Xia's border settlements[12]
1206springKokochu, also known as Teb Tengri, chief shaman of the Mongols, bestows upon Temüjin the title of Genghis Khan, "Universal Ruler" of the Mongol Empire, at the kurultai of Burkhan Khaldun, sacred mountain of the Mongols[13]
1207Mongol conquest of Western Xia: Genghis Khan sacks Wulahai, a Western Xia garrison along the Yellow River near modern Wuyuan[14]
Jochi subjugates the 'forest peoples' - Kyrgyz, Oirat, and Buryat[15]
1208Toq'toa Beki of the Merkits is killed by Mongols and Uyghurs[15]
1209autumnMongol conquest of Western Xia: Genghis Khan penetrates Western Xia from Wulahai and defeats a Tangut army before laying siege to Zhongxing, however the Mongols accidentally flood their own camp in the process of breaking the Yellow River dikes and are forced to retreat[16]
Qocho, Qayaligh, and Almaliq submit to Genghis Khan; Almaliq and the Issyk-Kul region given to Chagatai[17]


1210Mongol conquest of Western Xia: Emperor Xiangzong of Western Xia submits to the Mongol Empire and hands over a daughter in marriage to Genghis Khan as well as a large supply of camels, falcons, and woven textiles; a Mongol garrison is left at Wulahai[16]
Kokochu is killed by Qasar in a wrestling match[18]
1211Mongol conquest of the Jin dynasty: Jochi, Ögedei, and Chagatai invade Inner Mongolia[19]
OctoberMongol conquest of the Jin dynasty: Jebe takes Juyong Pass from the Jin dynasty[20]
winterMongol conquest of the Jin dynasty: Mongol forces retreat from Jin territory[21]
Karluks rebel against the Qara Khitai and defect to the Mongol Empire[22]
1212FebruaryBattle of Yehuling: Genghis Khan and Muqali crush the Jin army led by Wanyan Jiujin, Duji Sizhong, and Hushahu[21]
12135 JanuaryMongol conquest of the Jin dynasty: Jebe takes the Eastern Capital[20]
July–AugustMongol conquest of the Jin dynasty: Genghis Khan crushes a Jin army led by Zhuhu Gaoqi[23]
autumnMongol conquest of the Jin dynasty: Jochi, Ögedei, and Chagatai ravage Hebei and Shanxi[24]
NovemberMongol conquest of the Jin dynasty: Genghis Khan and Jebe pass through the Zijing Gap[25]
121431 MarchMongol conquest of the Jin dynasty: Genghis Khan lays siege to the Central Capital[26]
11 MayMongol conquest of the Jin dynasty: Jin dynasty becomes a tributary and agrees to hand over a daughter of the previous emperor; the Mongols lift the siege[26]
JulyMongol conquest of the Jin dynasty: Khitan and Tatar defectors lay siege to the Central Capital[25]
DecemberMongol conquest of the Jin dynasty: Muqali wipes out Jin centers in Liaoning and southern Manchuria[25]
121531 MayBattle of Zhongdu: Mongol Empire takes the Central Capital and places the Khitan Shimo Ming'an and Jabar Khoja in charge of the city[26]
23 SeptemberKublai is born to Tolui and Sorghaghtani Beki[27]
1216Mongol conquest of the Qara Khitai: Jebe seizes Kashgar from the Qara Khitai and Kuchlug flees[28]
Subutai raids the Kipchaks[29]
1217Mongol conquest of the Jin dynasty: Genghis Khan appoints Muqali as viceroy of North China and leaves for Mongolia[30]
Mongol conquest of the Jin dynasty: Muqali removes Jin presence in the steppes[25]
1218autumnMongol conquest of Khwarezmia: Muhammad II of Khwarezm's forces clash with a Mongol army led by Jochi and Subutai, the battle ending inconclusively[31]
winterMongol conquest of Khwarezmia: A Muslim merchant delegation sent by Genghis Khan arrives at Otrar and the governor Inalchuq kills them, seizing their goods for himself; a sole survivor reaches Mongolia and alerts Genghis, who sends three more envoys to demand custody of Inalchuq - they are also killed[31]
Mongol conquest of Western Xia: Mongol Empire lays siege to Zhongxing and Emperor Xiangzong of Western Xia flees west; his son and officials make peace with the Mongols[32]
Mongol conquest of the Qara Khitai: Shepherds in Badakhshan capture Kuchlug and hand him over to Jebe, who beheads him; so ends the Qara Khitai[33]
1219JanuaryGoryeo becomes a tributary of the Mongol Empire[34]
fallMongol conquest of Khwarezmia: Ögedei and Chagatai take Otrar and massacres its population; Genghis Khan dispatches Jochi to conquer Syr Darya and another army to conquer Fergana[35]
Western Xia refuses to send auxiliaries for the Mongol Empire's western campaigns[36]


122015 FebruaryMongol conquest of Khwarezmia: Genghis Khan takes Bukhara and places Yelü Ahai in control of Transoxiana[35]
16 MarchMongol conquest of Khwarezmia: Genghis Khan takes Samarkand and Muhammad II of Khwarezm flees to Nishapur; Genghis Khan dispatches Jebe and Subutai to destroy the sultan[35]
MayMongol conquest of Khwarezmia: Jebe and Subutai take Balkh and capture Muhammad II of Khwarezm's mother Terken Khatun and family in the Zagros Mountains[37]
winterMongol conquest of Khwarezmia: Muhammad II of Khwarezm dies[35]
1221MarchMongol conquest of Khwarezmia: Tolui destroys Merv[35]
AprilMongol conquest of Khwarezmia: Jochi, Chagatai, and Ögedei destroy Urgench while Tolui takes Nishapur and Herat[35]
springBattle of Parwan: Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu defeats a Mongol army led by Shikhikhutug in the Hindu Kush[35]
Mongol conquest of Khwarezmia: Genghis Khan takes Termez[35]
Siege of Bamyan (1221): Genghis Khan takes Bamyan; Chagatai's son Mutukan dies in the process[19]
NovemberBattle of Indus: Genghis Khan defeats Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu, who swims across the Indus River and escapes[35]
1222Subutai and Jebe conquer the Kuban steppe and crush the Cumans[29]
1223Mongol conquest of the Jin dynasty: Muqali dies and the Mongol Empire loses control of Henan, central Shaanxi, and southeast Shandong[25]
springGenghis Khan returns to Mongolia[35]
31 MayBattle of the Kalka River: Subutai and Jebe defeat the forces of Mstislav Mstislavich, Mstislav III of Kiev, Daniel of Galicia, Mstislav II Svyatoslavich, and Köten before sacking Novhorod-Siverskyi and heading back to Mongolia[38]
Mongol Empire sacks Sudak[39]
1224Bulgars ambush Subutai and Jebe near Saqsin[40]
Goryeo stops paying tribute[34]
1226FebruaryMongol conquest of Western Xia: Mongol Empire seizes Khara-Khoto from Western Xia and sack cities across the Gansu Corridor[36]
NovemberMongol conquest of Western Xia: Mongol Empire sacks Lingzhou[32]
4 DecemberMongol conquest of Western Xia: Genghis Khan crosses the Yellow River and defeats a Tangut relief column[32]
1227SeptemberMongol conquest of Western Xia: Emperor Mozhu of Western Xia surrenders to the Mongol Empire and is promptly executed; so ends the Western Xia[41]
Jochi dies and is succeeded by his son Batu Khan[24]
AugustGenghis Khan dies near the Jing River and Tolui becomes regent[42]
122913 SeptemberÖgedei Khan is elected ruler of the Mongol Empire at a kurultai near the Kherlen River[43]
Mongol invasion of Volga Bulgaria: Sunitay and Kukedey attack Bulgar outposts on the Ural River[40]


1230Mongol conquest of the Jin dynasty: Doqolqu and Subutai attack Tong Pass and are defeated by Wanyan Heda[25]
autumnMongol conquest of the Jin dynasty: Ögedei Khan and Tolui take Fengxiang[25]
1231AugustMongol conquest of Khwarezmia: Chormaqan defeats Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu, who escapes only to be killed by some random Kurd; so ends the Khwarazmian dynasty[37]
Mongol invasions of Korea: Sartai subjugates Goryeo, however the Mongol overseers are immediately killed afterwards[34]
"Thunder crash bombs" are employed by Jin troops in destroying a Mongol warship.[44]
1232springMongol conquest of the Jin dynasty: Tolui invades Henan and Ögedei Khan pushes through the Tong Pass[25]
13 FebruaryMongol conquest of the Jin dynasty: Tolui kills Wanyan Heda[25]
8 AprilMongol siege of Kaifeng: Subutai lays siege to Kaifeng[25]
Mongol invasions of Korea: Sartai heads back to Goryeo and dies from an arrow[45]
Mongol invasions of Georgia: Chormaqan subjugates Azerbaijan[46]
Tolui is struck by sickness and dies[47]
Mongol conquest of the Jin dynasty: Reusable fire lance barrels made of durable paper are employed by Jin troops during the Mongol siege of Kaifeng.[44]
12335 MarchMongol siege of Kaifeng: Kaifeng surrenders[25]
DecemberSiege of Caizhou: Mongol Empire lays siege to Caizhou[25]
12349 FebruarySiege of Caizhou: Emperor Aizong of Jin abdicates to a distant relative, Hudun, who becomes Emperor Mo of Jin, and commits suicide; Emperor Mo of Jin is killed by the Mongols; so ends the Jin dynasty[48]
Ögedei Khan announces his plans to conquer Goryeo, the Song dynasty, and Cumania[49]
1235Ögedei Khan constructs Karakorum[49]
1236Mongol invasion of Volga Bulgaria: Subutai destroys Bolghar and takes Saqsin[50]
Mongol invasions of Georgia: Chormaqan subjugates Georgia and Armenia[46]
123721 DecemberSiege of Ryazan: Batu, Orda, Güyük, and Möngke sack Ryazan and Suzdal[51]
Large bombs requiring several hundred men to hurl using trebuchets are employed by Mongols in the siege of Anfeng (modern Shouxian, Anhui Province).[52]
12384 MarchBattle of the Sit River: Mongol Empire kills Yuri II of Vladimir[53]
springSiege of Kozelsk: Batu struggles to take Kozelsk for two months before Kadan and Büri take it in three days[54]
Mongol Empire conquers Crimea[39]
12393 MarchMongol invasion of Rus': Mongol Empire sacks Pereiaslav-Khmelnytskyi[51]
18 OctoberMongol invasion of Rus': Mongol Empire sacks Chernihiv[51]


12406 DecemberSiege of Kiev (1240): Mongol Empire sacks Kiev, Halych, and Vladimir-Suzdal, so ends Kievan Rus[51]
Mongol invasions of Tibet: Doorda Darkhan sacks Reting Monastery[55]
12419 AprilBattle of Legnica: Orda defeats the combined force of Henry II the Pious, Mieszko II the Fat, Sulisław of Cracow, and Boleslaus Děpoltic[56]
11 AprilBattle of Mohi: Boroldai and Subutai defeat a combined army from the Kingdom of Hungary, Croatia, and Knights Templar[56]
DecemberMongol invasion of Europe: Kadan crosses the Danube[56]
11 DecemberÖgedei Khan dies on a hunting trip after lengthy drinking and his wife Töregene Khatun becomes regent[57]
1242Mongol invasion of Europe: Mongol Empire forces Bulgaria to pay tribute[58]
springMongol invasion of Europe: Mongol forces retreat after receiving news of Ögedei Khan's death; Batu Khan stays at the Volga River and his brother Orda Khan returns to Mongolia[56]
Mongol invasions of Anatolia: Mongols take Erzurum[59]
Chagatai Khan dies and his grandson Qara Hülegü succeeds him[60]
124326 JuneBattle of Köse Dağ: Baiju defeats Kaykhusraw II and subjugates the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia[61]
1244The Ayyubid dynasty gives tribute to the Mongols[59]
Badr al-Din Lu'lu' of Mosul submits to the Mongol Empire[62]
1246Temüge tries to seize the throne without a kurultai but fails[63]
24 AugustGüyük Khan is elected ruler of the Mongol Empire at a kurultai on the Kherlen River[64]
Güyük Khan appoints Yesü Möngke as head of the Chagatai Khanate[65]
124820 AprilGüyük Khan dies on his way to confront Batu Khan and his wife Oghul Qaimish becomes regent[66]


12511 JulyMöngke Khan is elected ruler of the Mongol Empire at a kurultai in the Khentii Mountains[67]
fallMöngke Khan places his brothers Hulagu Khan and Kublai Khan in charge of West Asia and China, respectively[68]
Möngke Khan appoints Qara Hülegü as head of the Chagatai Khanate, who dies soon after, and his wife Orghana becomes regent for her young son Mubarak Shah[65]
1252summerMöngke Khan places Kublai Khan in charge of the invasion of the Dali Kingdom and Hulagu Khan the invasion of the middle east[69]
fallMongol forces depart from Shanxi and reach the Tao River[69]
Mongol conquest of the Song dynasty: Mongol forces under the Chinese general Wang Dechen advance into Sichuan and occupy Lizhou[69]
Kublai Khan advances with the main force towards the Dali Kingdom[69]
Niccolò and Maffeo Polo set off from Venice for China[70]
Mongol invasions of Tibet: Qoridai invades Tibet as far as Dangquka[71]
1253Kublai Khan's forces set up headquarters on the Jinsha River in western Yunnan and march on Dali in three columns[69]
SeptemberMongol conquest of the Song dynasty: Mongol forces occupy Lizhou[72]
Kublai Khan meets Phagpa Lama and promotes the Sakya school of Tibetan Buddhism[73]
1254JanuaryThe Dali Kingdom is conquered, although its dynasty remains in power, and the king, Duan Xingzhi, is later invested with the title of Maharajah by Möngke Khan; so ends the Dali Kingdom[74]
winterKublai Khan returns to Mongolia and leaves Subutai's son Uryankhadai in charge of campaigns against local Yi tribes[74]
Kublai Khan starts building an independent power base in Henan and Jingzhao where Chinese-style government is implemented[75]
Mongol conquest of the Song dynasty: Mongol raids on the northern Song border intensify[76]
Mongol invasions of Korea: Jalairtai Qorchi plunders Goryeo[34]
1255Mongol invasions of Korea: Mongol Empire takes Sinuiju and attacks coastal islands[34]
Batu Khan dies and is succeeded by his son Sartaq Khan, who dies soon after, and then Ulaghchi[77]
1256summerMongol conquest of the Song dynasty: Möngke Khan declares war on the Song dynasty, citing imprisonment of Mongol envoys as casus belli[76]
20 NovemberHulagu Khan takes Alamut from the Assassins[78]
Mongols defeat Kaykaus II at Aksaray and enthrone Kilij Arslan IV[79]
Daniel of Galicia expels Mongol garrisons from his territory[56]
Kublai Khan constructs a capital north of the Luan River[80]
1257Uriyangkhadai, son of Subutai, pacifies Yunnan and returns to Gansu[74]
winterMongol invasions of Vietnam: Uriyangkhadai returns to Yunnan and invades the Trần dynasty of Đại Việt[74]
Möngke Khan launches an investigation into Kublai Khan's activities and subjects officials in Henan and Shanxi to interrogation, executes Kublai's chief pacification officer in Shanxi, and imposes large levies on Shanxi[76]
Ulaghchi dies and Berke, a Muslim, succeeds him[81]
125817 JanuarySiege of Baghdad (1258): Hulagu Khan sends a Mongol contingent across the Tigris River which suffers a defeat against Aybak[82]
18 JanuarySiege of Baghdad (1258): Baiju floods the enemy camp and attacks, driving them back[82]
29 JanuarySiege of Baghdad (1258): Hulagu Khan lays siege to Baghdad[82]
1 FebruarySiege of Baghdad (1258): Mongol siege weapons breach Baghdad's Ajami tower[83]
3 FebruarySiege of Baghdad (1258): Mongol forces take Baghdad's walls[83]
10 FebruarySiege of Baghdad (1258): Al-Musta'sim, his sons, and 3,000 dignitaries surrender[83]
13 FebruarySiege of Baghdad (1258): Mongols sack Baghdad and Hulagu Khan takes the title of Ilkhan, meaning "obedient khan"[83]
20 FebruarySiege of Baghdad (1258): Al-Musta'sim and his family are executed, so ends the Abbasid Caliphate[83]
Kublai Khan returns to Mongolia to placate his brother[76]
springMongol conquest of the Song dynasty: Möngke Khan's forces reach Gansu[72]
Mongol invasions of Vietnam: Đại Việt recognizes Mongol suzerainty and Trần Thái Tông sends his son as hostage to the imperial court[74]
MarchMongol conquest of the Song dynasty: Mongols capture Chengdu[84]
Buqa Temür takes Wasit[78]
fallMongol conquest of the Song dynasty: Möngke Khan's forces reach Lizhou[72]
Mongol invasions of Korea: Wonjong of Goryeo goes to the Mongol court as hostage[85]
1259JanuaryMongol conquest of the Song dynasty: Möngke Khan's forces take Yazhou[72]
FebruarySiege of Diaoyu Castle: Möngke Khan's forces lay siege to Diaoyu Fortress[86]
JulySiege of Diaoyu Castle: Möngke Khan calls off the siege of Diaoyu Fortress[87]
AugustMongol conquest of the Song dynasty: Taghachar attacks Huainan[72]
12 AugustMongol conquest of the Song dynasty: Möngke Khan dies from dysentry or a wound inflicted by a Song trebuchet, forcing Mongol campaigns throughout Eurasia and China to come to a halt[88]
SeptemberMongol conquest of the Song dynasty: Kublai Khan's forces cross the Yangtze and lays siege to Ezhou, however he receives news of Möngke Khan's death and Ariq Böke's mobilization, forcing hm to withdraw and deal with his brother[89]
Wonjong of Goryeo goes back to Goryeo to become ruler - henceforth becoming a Mongol tributary[85]
Second Mongol invasion of Poland: Berke and Boroldai invade Poland and Daniel of Galicia flees, however his sons and brother Vasilko of Galicia join the Mongols to plunder Lithuania and Polish territories[56]
Golden Horde elements in Bukhara rebel and Alghu suppresses them[81]


1260JanuarySiege of Aleppo (1260): Hulagu Khan takes Aleppo from An-Nasir Yusuf; so ends the Ayyubid dynasty[78]
The Principality of Antioch submits to the Mongol Empire[90]
2 FebruarySack of Sandomierz (1260): Berke and Boroldai sack Sandomierz[56]
5 MayKublai Khan convenes a kurultai at Kaiping, which elects him as ruler of the Mongol Empire; so ends the centralized Mongol Empire[91]
MayToluid Civil War: Ariq Böke proclaims himself great khan of the Mongol Empire at Karakorum[91]
6 JuneHulagu Khan receives news of Möngke Khan's death and retreats to Ahlat[92]
26 JulyBattle of Ain Jalut: Qutuz of the Mamluks advance into Palestine and drive the Mongols from Gaza[92]
springHulagu Khan's son Yoshmut and commander Elege of the Jalayir take Mayyafaraqin and Mardin[78]
AugustKitbuqa sacks Sidon[90]
3 SeptemberBattle of Ain Jalut: Qutuz of the Mamluks defeats Mongol forces under Kitbuqa and push them back to the Euphrates[92]
10 DecemberFirst Battle of Homs: Baibars defeats a Mongol expedition into Syria[78]
Toluid Civil War: Berke of the Golden Horde allies with Ariq Böke and declares war on Hulagu Khan[93]
Toluid Civil War: Alghu, a grandson of Chagatai Khan, deposes Mubarak Shah, an appointee to the Chagatai Khanate of the Mongol Empire[88]
Mongol conquest of the Song dynasty: Kublai Khan's envoy Hao Jing proposes that the Song dynasty acknowledge Kublai as Son of Heaven in return for autonomy and gets jailed[94]
Kublai Khan appoints Drogön Chögyal Phagpa as Imperial Preceptor[73]
Ajall Shams al-Din Omar, from Bukhara, is appointed a commissioner of a district in north China[95]
Kublai Khan issues three currencies but the paper Jiaochao, backed by silver, prevails; total value of paper money amounts to 73,352 silver ingots[96]
1261Mongol conquest of the Song dynasty: Kublai Khan sends funds to Li Tan of Shandong to make war on the Song dynasty[97]
Franks with blonde hair visit Kublai Khan's court at Shangdu[98]
Badr al-Din Lu'lu' dies and his son Malik Salih kills all the Christians, causing a rebellion in Mosul and Cizre[78]
126222 FebruaryMongol conquest of the Song dynasty: Mongol-allied warlord of Shandong, Li Tan, defects to the Song dynasty[99]
AugustMongol conquest of the Song dynasty: Kublai Khan's Chinese generals Shi Tianze and Shi Chu crush Li Tan's forces and capture him; Li Tan is trampled to death by horses[97]
summerRebellions in Mosul and Cizre are suppressed[78]
NovemberHulagu Khan kills his vizier Saif-ud-Din Bitigchi and replaces him with Shams al-Din Juvayni[100]
Berke–Hulagu war: Berke of the Golden Horde allies with the Mamluks and invades Azerbaijan[93]
Hulagu Khan gives Khorasan and Mazandaran to his son Abaqa and Azerbaijan to his other son Yoshmut[100]
Kublai Khan prohibits nomads' animals from roaming on farmlands[101]
Kublai Khan appoints Ahmad Fanakati to the Central Secretariat to direct state finances[102]
126313 JanuaryBerke–Hulagu war: Berke defeats Hulagu Khan's army on the Terek River[100]
Kublai Khan reestablishes the Privy Council to oversee the Imperial Bodyguards and Kheshig[103]
1264Toluid Civil War: Kublai Khan defeats Ariq Böke[93]
Kublai Khan founds the Supreme Control Commission to administer Tibet and Buddhists[104]
Mongol invasion of Thrace: Berke attacks Thrace and secures the release of Kayqubad II[105]
12658 FebruaryHulagu Khan dies and is succeeded by his son Abaqa Khan[106]
Mongol conquest of the Song dynasty: Song dynasty and Mongol forces clash in Sichuan[94]
Niccolò and Maffeo Polo arrive at Kublai Khan's court[70]
12669 JulyKublai Khan appoints his son Nomukhan Beiping Wang (prince of the pacification of the north)[107]
Berke dies in Tbilisi and is succeeded by his grandnephew Mengu-Timur[106]
Alghu dies and is succeeded by Mubarak Shah, who is deposed by Ghiyas-ud-din Baraq[81]
Kublai Khan orders the construction of Daidu, known to the Chinese as Dadu, or Khanbalikh to the Turks[108]
1267Drikung Kagyu rebels against the Supreme Control Commission and Kublai Khan dispatches forces to crush them[73]
Kublai Khan orders the construction of an Imperial Ancestral Temple[109]
Kublai Khan designates Xu Heng as chancellor of the Guozijian[110]
Mengu-Timur grants Genoa Caffa[111]
1268Battle of Xiangyang: Mongol forces under Aju lay siege to Xiangyang[112]
The rebellion in Tibet is suppressed and Drogön Chögyal Phagpa is reinstated along with a Mongol pacification commissioner[73]
Kublai Khan creates the "General Administration for the Supervision of Ortogh" (Muslim merchant association) to lend money at low interest to the ortogh[96]
1269Kaidu–Kublai war: Kaidu, a grandson of Ögedei Khan, rebels against Kublai Khan[93]
Sambyeolcho Rebellion: Im Yeon engineers a coup against Wonjong of Goryeo and Kublai Khan sends 3,000 troops to vanquish the rebels and reinstate Wonjong[113]
Golden Horde assists Vladimir-Suzdal in evicting the Germans from Narva[105]
Drogön Chögyal Phagpa invents the 41 letter 'Phags-pa script, which Kublai Khan designates as the state script[114]
Niccolò and Maffeo Polo return to Europe[70]


1270Mongol invasions of Tibet: Mongol forces crush the rebellion in Tibet and implement regular administration[71]
Ghiyas-ud-din Baraq of the Chagatai Khanate invades the Ilkhanate but suffers defeat[115]
Kublai Khan founds the Institute of Muslim Astronomy[116]
1271Ghiyas-ud-din Baraq dies and Kaidu takes control of the Chagatai Khanate, installing Negübei as puppet khan[65]
Kublai Khan declares himself emperor of the Yuan dynasty and for the first time, annual sacrifices at the altars of Soil and Grain are done in the Chinese style; so ends the unified Mongol Empire[109][117]

See also


  1. Mote 2003, p. 403.
  2. Mote 2003, p. 415-416.
  3. Mote 2003, p. 419.
  4. Atwood 2004, p. 259.
  5. Twitchett 1994, p. 246.
  6. Twitchett 1994, p. 251.
  7. Sinor 1990, p. 29.
  8. Mote 2003, p. 421.
  9. Atwood 2004, p. 425.
  10. Mote 2003, p. 422.
  11. Mote 2003, p. 424.
  12. Twitchett 1994, p. 206.
  13. Twitchett 1994, p. 343.
  14. Mote 2003, p. 254.
  15. Sinor 1990, p. 30.
  16. Twitchett 1994, p. 208.
  17. Atwood 2004, p. 445.
  18. Atwood 2004, p. 531.
  19. Atwood 2004, p. 81.
  20. Atwood 2004, p. 265.
  21. Atwood 2004, p. 224.
  22. Biran 2005, p. 75.
  23. Atwood 2004, p. 281.
  24. Atwood 2004, p. 416.
  25. Atwood 2004, p. 277.
  26. Atwood 2004, p. 620.
  27. Twitchett 1994, p. 415.
  28. Biran 2005, p. 83.
  29. Atwood 2004, p. 455.
  30. Atwood 2004, p. 393.
  31. Atwood 2004, p. 431.
  32. Atwood 2004, p. 591.
  33. Atwood 2004, p. 446.
  34. Atwood 2004, p. 319.
  35. Atwood 2004, p. 307.
  36. Twitchett 1994, p. 210.
  37. Atwood 2004, p. 308.
  38. Atwood 2004, p. 283.
  39. Atwood 2004, p. 121.
  40. Atwood 2004, p. 53.
  41. Twitchett 1994, p. 213.
  42. Atwood 2004, p. 100.
  43. Twitchett 1994, p. 367.
  44. Andrade 2016, p. 46.
  45. Atwood 2004, p. 32).
  46. Atwood 2004, p. 196.
  47. Twitchett 1994, p. 372.
  48. Twitchett 1994, p. 264.
  49. Atwood 2004, p. 418.
  50. Atwood 2004, p. 51.
  51. Atwood 2004, p. 479.
  52. Andrade 2016, p. 47.
  53. Atwod 2004, p. 479.
  54. Atwood 2004, p. 36.
  55. Atwood 2004, p. 538.
  56. Atwood 2004, p. 79.
  57. Twitchett 1994, p. 382.
  58. Atwood 2004, p. 73.
  59. Jackson 2005, p. 74.
  60. Atwood 2004, p. 82.
  61. Atwood 2004, p. 331.
  62. Atwood 2004, p. 323.
  63. Atwood 2004, p. 363.
  64. Twitchett 1994, p. 385.
  65. Atwood 2004, p. 83.
  66. Twitchett 1994, p. 389.
  67. Twitchett 1994, p. 392.
  68. Twitchett 1994, p. 394.
  69. Twitchett 1994, p. 405.
  70. Twitchett 1994, p. 463.
  71. Atwood 2004, p. 539.
  72. Twitchett 1994, p. 410.
  73. Twitchett 1994, p. 461.
  74. Twitchett 1994, p. 407.
  75. Twitchett 1994, p. 408.
  76. Twitchett 1994, p. 409.
  77. Atwood 2004, p. 37.
  78. Atwood 2004, p. 225.
  79. Jackson 2005, p. 116.
  80. Twitchett 1994, p. 418.
  81. Atwood 2004, p. 202.
  82. Atwood 2004, p. 28.
  83. Atwood 2004, p. 29.
  84. Twitchett 2009, p. 869.
  85. Atwood 2004, p. 320.
  86. Twitchett 2009, p. 870.
  87. Twitchett 2009, p. 410.
  88. Twitchett 1994, p. 411.
  89. Twitchett 1994, p. 422-423.
  90. Jackson 2005, p. 117.
  91. Twitchett 1994, p. 423.
  92. Atwood 2004, p. 6.
  93. Twitchett 1994, p. 412.
  94. Twitchett 1994, p. 431.
  95. Twitchett 1994, p. 460.
  96. Twitchett 1994, p. 449.
  97. Twitchett 1994, p. 426.
  98. Jackson 2005, p. 294.
  99. Twitchett 1994, p. 257.
  100. Atwood 2004, p. 226.
  101. Twitchett 1994, p. 447.
  102. Twitchett 1994, p. 474.
  103. Twitchett 1994, p. 452.
  104. Twitchett 1994, p. 462.
  105. Jackson 2005, p. 202.
  106. Atwood 2004, p. 234.
  107. Twitchett 1994, p. 443.
  108. Twitchett 1994, p. 454.
  109. Twitchett 1994, p. 458.
  110. Twitchett 1994, p. 459.
  111. Atwood 2004, p. 122.
  112. Twitchett 2009, p. 922.
  113. Twitchett 1994, p. 437.
  114. Twitchett 1994, p. 466.
  115. Atwood 2004, p. 231.
  116. Twitchett 1994, p. 451.
  117. Twitchett 1994, p. 457.


  • Andrade, Tonio (2016), The Gunpowder Age: China, Military Innovation, and the Rise of the West in World History, Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0-691-13597-7.
  • Asimov, M.S. (1998), History of civilizations of Central Asia Volume IV The age of achievement: A.D. 750 to the end of the fifteenth century Part One The historical, social and economic setting, UNESCO Publishing
  • Atwood, Christopher P. (2004), Encyclopedia of Mongolia and the Mongol Empire, Facts On File
  • Barfield, Thomas (1989), The Perilous Frontier: Nomadic Empires and China, Basil Blackwell
  • Barrett, Timothy Hugh (2008), The Woman Who Discovered Printing, Great Britain: Yale University Press, ISBN 978-0-300-12728-7 (alk. paper)
  • Beckwith, Christopher I. (2009), Empires of the Silk Road: A History of Central Eurasia from the Bronze Age to the Present, Princeton University Press, ISBN 0-691-13589-4
  • Beckwith, Christopher I (1987), The Tibetan Empire in Central Asia: A History of the Struggle for Great Power among Tibetans, Turks, Arabs, and Chinese during the Early Middle Ages, Princeton University Press
  • Biran, Michal (2005), The Empire of the Qara Khitai in Eurasian History: Between China and the Islamic World, Cambridge Studies in Islamic Civilization, Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521842263
  • Bregel, Yuri (2003), An Historical Atlas of Central Asia, Brill
  • Drompp, Michael Robert (2005), Tang China And The Collapse Of The Uighur Empire: A Documentary History, Brill
  • Ebrey, Patricia Buckley (1999), The Cambridge Illustrated History of China, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-66991-X (paperback).
  • Ebrey, Patricia Buckley; Walthall, Anne; Palais, James B. (2006), East Asia: A Cultural, Social, and Political History, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, ISBN 0-618-13384-4
  • Golden, Peter B. (1992), An Introduction to the History of the Turkic Peoples: Ethnogenesis and State-Formation in Medieval and Early Modern Eurasia and the Middle East, OTTO HARRASSOWITZ · WIESBADEN
  • Graff, David A. (2002), Medieval Chinese Warfare, 300-900, Warfare and History, London: Routledge, ISBN 0415239559
  • Graff, David Andrew (2016), The Eurasian Way of War Military Practice in Seventh-Century China and Byzantium, Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-46034-7.
  • Haywood, John (1998), Historical Atlas of the Medieval World, AD 600-1492, Barnes & Noble
  • Jackson, Peter (2005), The Mongols and the West, Pearson Education Limited
  • Latourette, Kenneth Scott (1964), The Chinese, their history and culture, Volumes 1-2, Macmillan
  • Lorge, Peter A. (2008), The Asian Military Revolution: from Gunpowder to the Bomb, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-60954-8
  • Luttwak, Edward N. (2009), The Grand Strategy of the Byzantine Empire, The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press
  • Millward, James (2009), Eurasian Crossroads: A History of Xinjiang, Columbia University Press
  • Mote, F. W. (2003), Imperial China: 900–1800, Harvard University Press, ISBN 978-0674012127
  • Needham, Joseph (1986), Science & Civilisation in China, V:7: The Gunpowder Epic, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-30358-3
  • Rong, Xinjiang (2013), Eighteen Lectures on Dunhuang, Brill
  • Schafer, Edward H. (1985), The Golden Peaches of Samarkand: A study of T'ang Exotics, University of California Press
  • Shaban, M. A. (1979), The ʿAbbāsid Revolution, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-29534-3
  • Sinor, Denis (1990), The Cambridge History of Early Inner Asia, Volume 1, Cambridge University Press
  • Sima, Guang (2015), Bóyángbǎn Zīzhìtōngjiàn 54 huánghòu shīzōng 柏楊版資治通鑑54皇后失蹤, Yuǎnliú chūbǎnshìyè gǔfèn yǒuxiàn gōngsī, ISBN 957-32-0876-8
  • Skaff, Jonathan Karam (2012), Sui-Tang China and Its Turko-Mongol Neighbors: Culture, Power, and Connections, 580-800 (Oxford Studies in Early Empires), Oxford University Press
  • Standen, Naomi (2007), Unbounded Loyalty Frontier Crossings in Liao China, University of Hawai'i Press
  • Steinhardt, Nancy Shatzman (1997), Liao Architecture, University of Hawaii Press
  • Twitchett, Denis C. (1979), The Cambridge History of China, Vol. 3, Sui and T'ang China, 589–906, Cambridge University Press
  • Twitchett, Denis (1994), "The Liao", The Cambridge History of China, Volume 6, Alien Regime and Border States, 907-1368, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 43–153, ISBN 0521243319
  • Twitchett, Denis (2009), The Cambridge History of China Volume 5 The Sung dynasty and its Predecessors, 907-1279, Cambridge University Press
  • Wang, Zhenping (2013), Tang China in Multi-Polar Asia: A History of Diplomacy and War, University of Hawaii Press
  • Wilkinson, Endymion (2015). Chinese History: A New Manual, 4th edition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center distributed by Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780674088467.
  • Xiong, Victor Cunrui (2000), Sui-Tang Chang'an: A Study in the Urban History of Late Medieval China (Michigan Monographs in Chinese Studies), U OF M CENTER FOR CHINESE STUDIES, ISBN 0892641371
  • Xiong, Victor Cunrui (2009), Historical Dictionary of Medieval China, United States of America: Scarecrow Press, Inc., ISBN 0810860538
  • Xu, Elina-Qian (2005), HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE PRE-DYNASTIC KHITAN, Institute for Asian and African Studies 7
  • Xue, Zongzheng (1992), Turkic peoples, 中国社会科学出版社
  • Yuan, Shu (2001), Bóyángbǎn Tōngjiàn jìshìběnmò 28 dìèrcìhuànguánshídài 柏楊版通鑑記事本末28第二次宦官時代, Yuǎnliú chūbǎnshìyè gǔfèn yǒuxiàn gōngsī, ISBN 957-32-4273-7
  • Yule, Henry (1915), Cathay and the Way Thither: Being a Collection of Medieval Notices of China, Vol I: Preliminary Essay on the Intercourse Between China and the Western Nations Previous to the Discovery of the Cape Route, Hakluyt Society
This article is issued from Wikipedia. The text is licensed under Creative Commons - Attribution - Sharealike. Additional terms may apply for the media files.