Timeline of the Kurdish–Turkish conflict (1978–present)

This is the timeline of the Turkish-Kurdish conflict. The Kurdish insurgency is an armed conflict between the Republic of Turkey and various Kurdish insurgent groups,[1][2] which have demanded separation from Turkey to create an independent Kurdistan,[3][4] or to have autonomy[5][6] and greater political and cultural rights for Kurds inside the Republic of Turkey.[7] The main rebel group is the Kurdistan Workers' Party or PKK,[2] which was founded on November 27, 1978,[8] and started a full-scale insurgency on August 15, 1984 when the PKK announced a Kurdish uprising.[9] The first insurgency lasted until September 1, 1999,[4][10] when the PKK declared a unilateral cease-fire after the capture of its leader Abdullah Öcalan. The armed conflict was later resumed on June 1, 2004, when the PKK declared an end to its cease-fire.[11][12]

Background (1920–1974)

1974–1984: Rise of PKK

  • March 18, 1977, Haki Karer, a leader of the "Revolutionaries of Kurdistan" group is assassinated in Gaziantep.[8]
  • May 18, 1978, Halil Çavgun, another "Revolutionaries of Kurdistan" leader is assassinated by Kurdish landowners.[8]
  • November 27, 1978, the founding congress of the Kurdistan Workers' Party is held in the village of Fis near Lice in Diyarbakır Province.[8]
  • December 25, 1978, Grey Wolves commit Maraş Massacre, killing 109 and injuring 176 Alevi Turks/Kurds in Kahramanmaraş.[13]
  • September 12, 1980, General Kenan Evren seizes power, deposing an elected government led by Süleyman Demirel and his Justice Party in the 1980 Turkish coup d'état. Most of the PKK's leadership move to Syria.[8]
  • November 10, 1980, The Turkish Consulate in Strasbourg, France was bombed causing significant material damage but no injuries. In a telephone call to the Agence France-Presse office, a spokesman said the blast was a joint operation and marked the start of a "fruitful collaboration" between the Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia (ASALA) and the Kurdistan Workers Party.[14]
  • September 24, 1981, the Turkish consulate in Paris is attacked by ASALA. Their demands included the release of five Kurdish revolutionary fighters.[15]
  • March 21, 1982, imprisoned PKK leader Mazlum Doğan burned himself to death in protest of the treatment of inmates at the Diyarbakır Prison.
  • May 7, 1982, PKK members Ferhat Kurtay, Necmi Önen, Mahmut Zengin and Eşref Anyık also burn themselves to death in Diyarbakır Prison.[15]
  • June 6, 1982, start of the First Lebanon War, PKK forces stationed in the Beqaa Valley are ordered to fight alongside the Palestinian Liberation Organisation (PLO) and Syria, against Israel.[8]
  • July 14, 1982, PKK members Kemal Pir, M. Hayri Durmuş, Ali Çiçek and Akif Yılmaz start a hunger strike in Diyarbakır Prison.[15]
  • August 20–25, 1982, the second PKK congress is held in Daraa, Syria.[8]
  • September 7, 1982, Kemal Pir dies as result of his hunger strike in Diyarbakır Prison. M. Hayri Durmuş dies on September 12, Akif Yılmaz on September 15 and Ali Çiçek on September 15.[16]
  • April 12, 1984, a 75-day hunger-strike is started by Kurdish prisoners in Istanbul. Four prisoners die as result of the hunger-strike.

1984–1999: First insurgency

  • August 15, 1984, the PKK starts the armed Kurdish rebellion with an attack on police and gendarmerie bases in Şemdinli, Hakkâri Province and Eruh, Siirt Province.
  • August 17, 1984, the PKK raids a police station in Siirt.[17]
  • March 21, 1986, the PKK's military commander: Mahsum Korkmaz aka "Agit" is killed by Turkish forces.[8]
  • July 19, 1987, the Grand National Assembly of Turkey declared a civil state of emergency in 10 Southeastern provinces in response to the PKK's insurgency.[18]
  • February 5, 1990, over 500 Iraqi Kurds protested in Diyarbakir and clashed with Turkish security forces. Ninety-five people were arrested.[19]
  • March 14, 1990, start of Kurdish popular protests and civil uprising known as Serhildan and in the city of Nusaybin.
  • May 27, 1990, about 100 Kurdish political prisoners went on hunger strike.[19]
  • June 2, 1990, during a protest by 2,000 Iraqi Kurds, five protesters and a policeman were killed.[19]
  • June 8, 1990, ten Kurdish MPs, led by Ahmet Fehmi Işıklar from the Social Democratic Populist Party broke away from the party to form Turkey's first pro-Kurdish party: the People's Labor Party (HEP).[19]
  • August 28, 1990, a Kurdish representative to the United Nations Commission on Human Rights accused Turkey of using the Gulf Crisis to forcibly expel thousands of Kurds from their mountain homeland and executing those who refused to leave. The government of Turkey denied the accusation.[19]
  • February 1, 1991, the Turkish government eased the ban on the Kurdish language, by lifting the ban on speaking Kurdish and the ban on Kurdish music. However, the use of Kurdish was still forbidden in printed material, public gatherings, demonstrations and education.[19]
  • March 2, 1991, during a major riot in Diyarbakir nearly 1000 Kurds fought troops with stones and sticks. Two Kurds and one Turkish soldier were killed.[19]
  • April 1991, Yeşilova incident between British Royal Marines protecting Iraqi-Kurdish refugees, and Turkish Armed Forces allegedly preventing the refugees from receiving aid, in a refugee camp in Yeşilova.
  • August 18–21, 1992, Battle of Şırnak, between Turkish armed forces and PKK fighters in the town of Şırnak leading to the destruction of much of the town.
  • October 3, 1992, start of similar operations in the town of Kulp in Diyarbakır Province.
  • October 5, 1992, Turkey launches Operation Northern Iraq to support the Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP) and Patriotic Union of Kurdistan in an armed conflict with the PKK in Iraqi Kurdistan.
  • November 17, 1992, truce signed between the KDP, PUK and PKK.[20]
  • March 20, 1993 - PKK unilateral cease-fire declaration. Turkish President Turgut Özal plans pro-Kurdish reform package, but dies in office (17 April 1993) before he can bring it forward (see Castle Plan and 1993 alleged Turkish military coup).
  • May 24, 1993, the PKK kills 33 unarmed Turkish soldiers in an ambush on the highway between Elazığ and Bingöl
  • July 5, 1993, 100 militants attack the village of Başbağlar, near Erzincan, killing 33 civilians. The Turkish government claimed the PKK to be responsible for the massacre.
  • July 1993, the HEP is banned by the Constitutional Court of Turkey.[21]
  • May 11, 1994, Kurdish lawyer Murat Bozlak formed the People's Democracy Party (HADEP),[22]
  • November 1994 – March 1995, Turkish Winter Campaign to cut the PKK off from their winter supplies.
  • March 20 – May 4, 1995, Turkish Operation Steel against PKK forces in Northern Iraq. The operation was relatively unsuccessful because PKK forces had enough time to withdraw during the military buildup. The Operation ended on May 4 and resulted in displacement of over 15,000 Iraqi Kurds.[23]
    • April 19, 1995 Turkish Troops and aircraft laid siege to Kurdish PKK rebels in eastern Turkey as Ankara's military offensive in northern Iraq entetered a fifth week, in the Alibogazi ravine area in Tunceli province.[24]
  • December 24, 1995, during the Turkish general election of 1995 the HADEP won 1,171,623 or 4.17% of the votes.[25]
  • 1997, 4 Turkish soldiers are killed in the Sazak assault, a joint operation between the PKK, the DHKP/C and TKP/ML near the city of Reşadiye in Tokat Province.[26]
  • May July 12–7, 1997, Turkish and KDP forces launch Operation Hammer against the PKK in Iraqi Kurdistan during the Iraqi Kurdish Civil War.
  • September 25 – October 15, 1997, Turkish Operation Dawn, a second intervention to support the KDP against the PKK in the civil war in Iraqi Kurdistan.
  • April 23, 1998,[27] 40,000 Turkish troops are used in Operation Murat, the largest military operation in the history of the Republic of Turkey (1925–present)[28] attacking PKK forces in Kulp, Lice and Hani in Diyarbakır Province and Genç in Bingöl Province.[29] In Kulp Turkish forces managed to corner senior PKK commande Murat Karayılan, however he managed to escape and retreat into Iraqi Kurdistan.[30]
  • October 9,[17] 1998, Abdullah Öcalan is forced to leave Syria and go to Moscow, Russia.[31]
  • February 1, 1999, Abdullah Öcalan arrives at Greek island of Corfu and flown to Nairobi, Kenya on February 2.[31]
  • February 15, 1999, Abdullah Öcalan is captured in Nairobi, Kenya and brought to Turkey to stand trial[31]
  • February 15 – February 18, February 1999 Kurdish protests break out worldwide against the arrest of Abdullah Öcalan, attacking Greek, Kenyan and Turkish diplomatic missions worldwide.[31]
  • March 13, 1999, a petrol bomb was detonated at a crowded shopping center in Istanbul, killing 13 people. The next day two people, including a soldier are injured in Bahçelievler by a bomb placed under a truck. Turkish police suspect the PKK was behind the attacks.
  • April 18, 1999, during the general election HADEP won 1,482,196 or 4.75% of the votes.[32] During local elections that same day, the party received 1,094,761 or 3.48% of the votes.
  • September 1, 1999, the PKK declares a unilateral 10-year cease-fire. End of the first insurgency.[33]

1999–2004: Ceasefire

  • January 17, 2000, the Kurdish Hezbollah's leader Hüseyin Velioğlu is killed by Turkish forces in Istanbul.[34]
  • February 2000, PKK declares formal end to the war.[22]
  • April 10, 2002, the PKK abolished itself and formed to form a political organization named KADEK (Kurdistan Freedom and Democracy Congress), claiming the PKK had fulfilled its mission and would now move on as purely political organisation.[17][35]
  • May 13, 2003, members of Turkey's constitutional court decided unanimously to disband HADEP and ban the party.[22]
  • November 2003, KADEK and the Kurdish parliament (KNK) were merged into a new organization named KONGRA-GEL.[17]
  • January 13, 2004, the PKK and all its organizations were added to the U.S. State Department list of Foreign Terrorist Organizations.[17]
  • April 5, 2004, the EU added the PKK to its list of designated terrorist organizations.[17]
  • June 1, 2004, after a power struggle between moderates and hardliners in the within the PKK is won by hardliners and Murat Karayılan becomes leader of the PKK, the group declares an end to the September 1999 ceasefire and start of the second insurgency.[17]

2004–2012: Second insurgency

2005

  • July 2, 2005, six people are killed and 15 injured by a train bomb planted by Kurdish guerrillas, on a train travelling between Elâzığ and Tatvan in Bingöl province.[36]
  • July 6, 2005, a bombing at a holiday resort in Kuşadası kills at least five people including a British and an Irish citizen.[36]

2006

  • February 13, 2006, six people are injured in a bombing of an Istanbul supermarket. The Kurdistan Freedom Hawks (TAK) claim responsibility for the blast and vow more attacks.[36]
  • June 25, 2006, a bombing hits a tourist resort near Antalya, killing four and injuring 28 people. The TAK claim responsibility for the attack.[36]
  • August 27, 2006, ten British and six Turkish citizens are wounded in a minibus bombing in Marmaris. Five people are injured by two other bombs.[36]
  • August 28, 2006, Three people are killed and 87 injured in a blast in Antalya. The TAK claim responsibility.[36]
  • September 12, 2006, a bombing in Diyarbakir kills ten civilians. The Turkish Revenge Brigade (TİT) claimed responsibility for the attack on their website, threatening to kill ten Kurds for every Turk killed in the conflict.[37]

2007

  • May 22, 2007: A suicide bombing hits Ankara, killing eight and wounding over 100. This attack was attributed to the PKK and the Turkish army decided to launch a military action against them.[38]
  • May 31, 2007: The Turkish military announced they were prepared to launch an incursion into Iraq. Leader of Iraqi Kurdistan Massoud Barzani announced that the Peshmerga will defend itself in case of a Turkish incursion.
  • June 2, 2007: American troops and civilians have withdrawn from all of Iraqi Kurdistan. Massoud Barzani again warns the Turkish military that any incursion will be fought against by the Peshmerga. An estimated 100,000 Turkish troops are mobilized on the border between Turkey and Iraq.
  • June 4, 2007: A PKK grenade attack kills seven soldiers and wounds six at an army base in Tunceli.[39]
  • June 5, 2007: There are reports of limited shelling and air strikes by the Turkish army attacking PKK bases in Iraqi Kurdistan.
  • June 7, 2007: Several hundred Turkish troops cross into Iraq on a "hot pursuit" raid against Turkish rebels.[40] Turkey declares a three-month martial law in Kurdish areas near the Iraq border and bans civilian flights to the area. It has been confirmed that 3 Turkish soldiers have been killed by a PKK landmine.[41]
  • September 27, 2007, two Turkish gendarme are killed in Bitlis Province by a bomb planted by Kurdish separatists.[36]
  • October 7, 2007: Yüksekova incident. 27 Turkish soldiers and 33 PKK militants are killed.
  • Oct 17, 2007: Turkish Grand National Assembly approves a government request for their troops to cross the Iraqi border to attack Kurdish rebels.[42][43] Action was delayed on request by the US government on the condition that "swift steps" were taken to deal with the militants.
  • Oct 21, 2007: 12 Turkish troops killed in PKK ambush on their army post, less than three miles from the Iraq border.
  • October 24, 2007: Turkish fighter jets bombed several PKK targets on the Iraqi side of the border.[44]

2008

  • January 3, 2008, a bomb attack against a military vehicle outside a school in Diyarbakır kills five and injures 110 people.[36]
  • February 21, 2008: Turkey launches a ground incursion into northern Iraq, sending 10,000 troops across the border supported by air assets.[45] A total of 27 Turkish soldiers and 724 PKK militants are killed.
  • May 9, 2008, three people are killed and five wounded in Batman province when a landmine destroys their minibus.[36]
  • July 27, 2008: Turkey blames the PKK for two bombings in Istanbul which kill 17 and injure 154.
  • August 7, 2008: The PKK claimed responsibility for the explosion that halted the operation of the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan oil pipeline.[46]
  • October 1, 2008: One Turkish security force soldier was killed, with another one wounded, in an attack staged by PKK militants in southeastern Turkey.[47]
  • October 4, 2008: Fifteen Turkish soldiers were killed, with another 20 also wounded, after a PKK attack from northern Iraq with the firing of heavy weapons at a military outpost in the Semdinli region bordering Iraq and Iran. At least 23 members of the PKK were also killed.[48]

A statement issued after an emergency meeting of the Counter Terrorism Higher Board, chaired by Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan, said: "Our struggle against terrorism will be pursued under all conditions and above all other concerns through effective cooperation between state bodies and every measure will be implemented with determination."[49]

The British foreign office said: "The United Kingdom utterly condemns Friday's terrorist attack in Hakkâri, Turkey. There can be no excuse for the use of violence to achieve one's aims. The UK stands shoulder-to-shoulder with Turkey in its fight against terrorism and strongly supports ongoing efforts between the Turkish and Iraqi authorities to prevent the PKK from using northern Iraq as a base from which to mount attacks against Turkey."[50][51]

The European Union also condemned the on the gendarmerie station in a statement released by the Union's French presidency, saying: "Europe expresses its complete solidarity with the Turkish authorities and offers its condolences to the families and friends of the victims."[52]

2009

  • April 29, 2009, a PKK detonated bomb kills nine soldiers after ripping through their vehicle in Diyarbakir province.[36]
  • May 4, 2009, Village Guards dressed as PKK fighters attack a wedding party with rifles and grenades, killing at least 44 people in a family feud.[36]
  • May 28, 2009: 6 Turkish soldiers were killed and 7 others were reportedly injured when their vehicle struck a landmine, in the Hakkâri Province of south-eastern Turkey.[53]
  • December 7, 2009: Seven Turkish soldiers were killed and three wounded in an ambush in Resadiye, Northern Turkey. The gunmen are suspected Kurdish militants, but their identities have not yet been confirmed.

2010

  • March 14, 2010: 1 Turkish soldier was killed and another soldier was injured during a clash with PKK militants, in the Hakkâri Province of south-eastern Turkey.[54]
  • April 15, 2010: 1 Turkish soldier was killed and 2 were wounded during clashes in the Batman province.[55] In the Siirt Province 2 PKK militants were killed and 3 soldiers wounded.[56]
  • April 19, 2010: 2 Turkish police officers were killed after suspected PKK militants opened fire upon their police patrol car with automatic weapons in the northern Turkish province of Samsun.[57]
  • April 26, 2010: 1 Turkish soldier was killed and 2 others were reportedly wounded after a landmine detonated, as their military vehicle was crossing a bridge near to the town of Dereli within the Giresun province.[58]
  • April 29, 2010: 2 Turkish soldiers were killed and another 3 other soldiers were wounded in a clash with PKK militants within the Hakkâri Province, in the south east of the country. These deaths and injuries come as the Turkish military launches a new military operation against PKK militants, in south eastern Turkey.[59]
  • May 1, 2010: At least 4 Turkish soldiers were killed and another 7 others were apparently injured after PKK militants attacked a military command post within the Tunceli Province, in eastern Turkey.[60]
  • May 2, 2010: 1 Turkish soldier was killed and one other soldier was reportedly wounded after PKK militants launched an attack upon a military command post within the Diyarbakır Province.[61]
  • May 7, 2010: 2 Turkish soldiers and 5 PKK militants were killed in a clash, after Kurdish militants launched an overnight attack upon a military command post in the Daglica district, in the south-eastern Hakkâri Province. One other soldier was also reportedly injured in this engagement.[62]
  • May 8, 2010: 2 Turkish soldiers were killed in two separate explosions, as they patrolled remote areas of both the Hakkâri Province and the Şırnak Province, which are border provinces of the country. Turkish special forces also pursued and killed at least 5 PKK militants, after they followed them into northern Iraq with helicopter gunships and drones. This Turkish incursion reportedly came as 2 other Turkish soldiers were killed by PKK militants, according to a military command website.[63]
  • May 21, 2010: At least 4 PKK militants were killed when Turkish military aircraft attacked rebel targets inside northern Iraq. This incident has been proclaimed the largest government operation in more than a year, according to military officials in the country.[64]
  • May 25, 2010: 1 child was killed and 4 other people were wounded after an unidentified explosive device detonated near a military barracks, in the Diyarbakır Province of south eastern Turkey.[65]
  • May 26, 2010: 4 PKK militants were killed by Turkish security forces, in a military clash within the mountainous Tunceli Province, in eastern Turkey.[66]
  • May 27, 2010: 1 Turkish soldier was killed and another 3 other soldiers were reportedly wounded after Turkish military forces clashed with PKK militants in the Şırnak Province, in south eastern Turkey near to the border with Iraq.[67]
  • May 29, 2010: 2 Turkish soldiers and 3 state-backed village guards were killed in two separate clashes with PKK militants within the Şırnak Province, of south eastern Turkey. It has also been reported that 6 other people were wounded in these two clashes.[68]
  • May 30, 2010: At least 2 Turkish soldiers, 3 village guardsmen, 1 private security guard and a PKK militant were killed in a series of clashes and attacks, which occurred in the Şırnak Province within the east of the country. It has also been reported that 3 other people were wounded in all of these incidents, engagements and clashes that occurred across the country.[69]
  • May 31, 2010: Iskenderun, Turkey PKK fighters launched a rocket attack against a Turkish naval base in the Mediterranean port city of Iskenderun, in southern Turkey. It was later reported that at least 6 Turkish soldiers were killed in this attack and that another 7 other soldiers were apparently wounded in this rocket assault.[70]
  • June 2, 2010: 1 Turkish soldier was killed and at least 3 other soldiers were wounded after a clash occurred between security forces and PKK militants within the Hakkâri Province of south-eastern Turkey. It has also been reported that 2 PKK militants were also killed in this engagement with the security forces within this particular province in the south east of the country.[71]
  • June 6, 2010: 3 PKK militants were killed in clashes with security forces within the Şırnak Province, which is located within eastern Turkey. This operation was launched after a roadside bomb blast was blamed on PKK militants however nobody was reportedly injured in this bombing.[72]
  • June 8, 2010: A roadside bomb exploded next to a police vehicle within Turkey's largest city of Istanbul. In this explosion it was reported that up to 15 people were injured, as a result of this blast. PKK militants are being suspected, of carrying out this particular attack.[73]
  • June 11, 2010: 1 Turkish soldier was killed and 14 other people were wounded after PKK militants launched two attacks against security forces within the Hakkâri Province and the Tunceli Province in the east of the country.[74]
  • June 14, 2010: 1 Turkish soldier was killed and 4 others were wounded after security forces clashed with PKK militants in the Hakkâri Province, which is located near to the border with Iraq.[75]
  • June 15, 2010: 1 Turkish soldier was killed and another 3 others were reportedly injured after an improvised explosive device exploded within the Şırnak Province, which is located within the east of the country.[76]
  • June 16, 2010: 4 PKK militants were killed by Turkish security forces in an offensive across the border into northern Iraq. The Turkish military have also claimed that air strikes were also launched against rebel positions deeper inside the Iraqi territory.[77]
  • June 19, 2010: At least 8 Turkish soldiers were killed and another 14 other soldiers were wounded in a clash with PKK militants at an outpost near the city of Semdinli, in the Hakkâri Province. It has been reported that this particular clash came as PKK militants launched a raid upon a Turkish outpost near to the city of Semdinli. It is known that 12 PKK militants were also killed in these subsequent clashes and that Turkish military aircraft later proceeded to bomb PKK militant positions in the north of Iraq.[78] Two further Turkish soldiers were killed when PKK militants trod on a land mine.[79]
  • June 22, 2010: At least 5 people were killed and 12 others were injured after a remote-control bomb exploded near to a military convoy within Turkey's largest city in Istanbul. It was later reported that those killed consisted of 4 Turkish soldiers and 1 civilian, as both military personnel and civilians were present aboard this military bus. Another 12 others were also injured in this bombing, with two of those in a critical condition. This incident was later considered by Turkish authorities to be a terrorist attack and PKK militants are being considered as the most likely of perpetrators. At least 7 PKK militants and 1 Turkish soldier were killed in clashes within different areas and provinces of the country. It was also reported that two soldiers and three civilians had apparently been wounded in these clashes and that one PKK militant had been captured by the Turkish security forces in these operations.[80][81]
  • June 24, 2010: 2 Turkish soldiers and 1 civilian were killed after PKK militants assaulted a group of villagers, as they returning home in the Elazığ Province, of eastern Turkey. It has been reported that four civilians and one Turkish soldier were also apparently wounded, as a result of this PKK militant ambush.[82]
  • June 25, 2010: 2 PKK militants were killed by Turkish police after the Turkish security forces attacked their hideout after they had received a tip-off, in the eastern sectors of the country.[83]
  • June 26, 2010: 1 PKK militant was killed and several others were wounded in a clash with the Turkish military within the Kars Province, which is located in the east of the country.[84]
  • June 28, 2010: Turkish military warplanes bombarded PKK military positions in the Sidakan district of the Arbil province within the mountainous region of north-eastern Iraq. There were no accurate reports on the extent to how much damage or how many casualties were sustained in this renewed bombing campaign.[85]
  • July 1, 2010: 2 Turkish soldiers, 3 government-allied militia and 12 PKK militants were killed in clashes near the town of Pervari within the Siirt Province, in south-eastern Turkey.[86]
  • July 6, 2010: 3 Turkish soldiers and 13 PKK militants were killed in two separate incidents after Kurdish rebels attacked a Turkish military outpost and yet also attacked a Turkish military patrol, in both the Hakkâri Province and the Elazig Province within south-eastern Turkey. It was also reported that a total of nine Turkish soldiers were apparently injured in these two particular attacks towards the Turkish military within these two different provinces, which are located within the east and the south-eastern sectors of the country.[87]
  • July 7, 2010: 1 Turkish soldier was killed and 2 other soldiers were injured after PKK militants launched an overnight attack upon a Turkish military outpost within the Batman Province, in south-eastern Turkey.[88]
  • July 15, 2010: 1 Turkish soldier was killed and another soldier was reportedly injured, as a result of an explosive device detonation, which is suspected to have been staged by PKK militants within the Van Province of eastern Turkey.[89]
  • July 20, 2010: 6 Turkish soldiers were killed and 15 other soldiers were reportedly injured after PKK militants launched an attack upon a military outpost, near to the town of Cukurca within the Hakkâri Province of south-eastern Turkey. It was also reported that 1 PKK militant was also reportedly killed in this attack upon the military outpost. It was later reported that one Turkish soldier was killed in a separate attack after his military unit was fired upon by PKK militants within the Van Province, of eastern Turkey. This latest attack brings the total number of Turkish soldiers to be killed in PKK militant attacks to seven on this particular day.[90][91]
  • July 24, 2010: 4 Turkish soldiers were killed in a roadside bomb explosion near to the town of Doğubeyazıt within the Ağrı Province, of eastern Turkey. PKK militants are suspected of carrying out this particular bombing.[92]
  • July 27, 2010: 4 Turkish police officers were killed after unidentified assailants launched an armed attack upon a police station in the town of Dortyol, which is located within the Hatay Province of south-eastern Turkey. PKK militants are suspected of carrying out this recent attack.[93]
  • August 1, 2010: 4 Kurdish civilians (including BDP members) were killed after their vehicle struck a roadside bomb within the Batman Province of south-eastern Turkey. It is believed that PKK militants reportedly planted this explosive device, which killed all those within the vehicle.[94]
  • August 3, 2010: 1 Turkish police officer and 3 PKK militants were killed after Kurdish militants attacked police buildings in the town of Eruh, which is located within the Siirt Province of south-eastern Turkey. It was also reported that 1 police officer was also apparently injured in these clashes within this town.[95]
  • August 5, 2010: 1 Turkish soldier and 6 PKK militants were killed in military clashes between the two forces. In a separate incident, it was reported that 3 PKK militants were killed in the Hakkâri province within the south-east of the country in clashes with the Turkish military. Meanwhile, it is also known that another 3 PKK militants were also apparently killed after they opened fire at a local governor's office within the eastern city of Van. In this clash, it was reported that 2 police officers apparently sustained injuries in this militant attack. It was reported that police also managed to confiscate explosives from a car near to the city of Diyarbakir, in south-eastern Turkey. It is known that 2 suspected PKK militants were reportedly detained by the authorities after this incident.[96]
  • August 8, 2010: 3 Turkish soldiers were killed and 1 other police officer was apparently injured after PKK militants detonated an explosive device by remote near to Turkish security forces within the Mardin Province of south-eastern Turkey.[97]
  • August 9, 2010: 5 PKK militants were killed in clashes with the Turkish military within the Batman Province of south-eastern Turkey. It was also reported that 2 Turkish soldiers were also reportedly injured during these military clashes.[98]
  • August 10, 2010: 2 Kurdish civilians were killed and 1 other civilian was wounded after a suspected mine explosion detonated near to an oil pipeline within the Şırnak Province of south-eastern Turkey. PKK militants are suspected of carrying out this particular bombing.[99]
  • August 24, 2010: 1 Turkish imam was shot dead after prayer in Hakkâri.[100] According to Hakkâri governor, assailants were identified as PKK members.[101]
  • September 6, 2010: 1 imam from Şırnak was shot dead after prayer.[101]
  • September 7, 2010: 1 Turkish soldier and 9 PKK militants were killed after clashes broke out after militants had raided a hydroelectric power plant within the Dinar Deresi region of the Tunceli province, which is located in eastern Turkey.[102]
  • September 12, 2010: 1 Turkish soldier was killed in a landmine explosion within the Eruh district of the Siirt Province, in south-eastern Turkey. PKK militants are suspected over carrying out this particular landmine attack.[103]
  • September 16, 2010: At least 9 Kurdish civilians were killed and 3 others were reportedly injured in a minibus blast, which is believed to have been caused by a suspected mine explosion that occurred near to the city of Hakkâri, in south-eastern Turkey. PKK militants are suspected of carrying out this particular bombing.[104]

2011

  • March 15, 2011: 3 PKK militants who were noticed during a routine field scanning mission were killed.[105]
  • April 2011: In Kahramanmaraş in Turkey's Mediterranean Region, three PKK militants were shot dead by security forces amidst protracted street protests.[106]
  • May 2011: 12 PKK militants were killed while they were trying to pass the Turkish-Iraqi border.
  • July 14, 2011: A PKK grenade starts a forest fire near Silvan that leaves 13 Turkish soldiers dead and seven injured.[107]
  • July 24: Three Turkish soldiers are killed in an ambush near Ikipinar, in Mardin province.[108]
  • August 1: An ambush in Baskale, Van, leaves three Turkish soldiers dead.[109]
  • August 17: Nine soldiers and a village guard die in landmine blasts in Hakkâri province.[110][111]
  • August 18: In response to the Hakkâri attack, Turkish F-16s launched attacks on PKK positions in northern Iraq. Turkey claimed to have hit 168 targets in Iraq, including in the Qandil Mountains.[112]
  • September 21: PKK killed 4 Kurdish civilian women and wounded 2 others in Siirt by attacking a civilian vehicle.[113]
  • October 19: PKK killed 24 Turkish soldiers during overnight attacks on military installations in Hakkâri province.[114] PKK lost 23 militants in the attack,[115] and at least 49 more on the following operations by Turkish army.[116]
  • December 28–29: 35 Kurdish civilians (probably smugglers), mostly teenagers, were killed by Turkish airforce jet bombardment on the Turkish-Iraqi Kurdistan border. The Turkish government offered compensation for the families of the killed,[117] who according to Turkish officials were mistakenly killed in airstrike, identifying them as PKK militants. Turkish President Erdogan expressed personal regret over the killing.[118] Nevertheless, the Turkey's largest pro-Kurdish party, the BDP, called the event a "crime against humanity".[119]

2012

  • February 8–9: Turkish clashes with PKK militants kill 14. Among the PKK, 13 were killed, 3 were captured and two wounded; 1 Turkish soldier was killed as well.[120]
  • February 11–12: Turkish warplanes performed overnight strikes on suspected PKK targets in northern Iraq.[119] The planes targeted the Zab and Hakurk areas, returning successfully according to Turkish military sources.[119]
  • May 25: A suicide attack was made to a police office in Kayseri, killing one police officer.[121]
  • June 12: A bomb was exploded in front of a police office in İstinye, İstanbul. Only the perpetrator died.
  • July 23: A military operation was commenced in Şemdinli, Hakkari. Operation lasted until August 11, 115 guerillas and 8 soldiers were killed.[122]
  • August 9: In Foça, İzmir, a bus exploded in a bombing that killed two soldiers and wounding several civilians.
  • August 12: Kurdish MP Hüseyin Aygün was kidnapped in his home town by PKK. He was released two days later.
  • August 19: On the first day of the religious fest, 15 guerillas were killed in the province of Hakkari and two soldiers died in a mine explosion.[123]
  • August 20: On the evening of the second day of the religious fest, a car full of explosives was exploded in the province of Gaziantep, killing 9 civilians (four of them were children) and wounding 56.[124] With this attack, the number of civilian casualties since 2007 reached 65, including 23 children.[125]
  • August 21: In the morning, nine soldiers died in a car accident involving a military vehicle in the Kurdish populated region, Uludere, Şırnak.[126] On the evening, 6 PKK fighters have been killed in Şırnak.[127]
  • August 22: A landmine explosion near a military vehicle killed 5 soldiers.[128]
  • August 23: Turkish soldiers killed 21 PKK fighters who launched a bomb attack on a military convoy that killed five soldiers.[129][130]
  • September 1: After a week of unofficial ceasefire, PKK attacked a group of soldiers and wounded one. On the evening of the same day, Turkish forces killed an insurgent in a pursuing conflict.[131]
  • September 2: 10 soldiers were killed in an outpost raid in Beytüşşebap, Şırnak, leaving 20 insurgents dead in return.[132] With this attack, since June 2011, nearly 800 people have died in the conflict in Turkey, including about 500 PKK fighters, more than 200 security personnel and about 85 civilians, according to estimates by thinktank the International Crisis Group.[133]
  • September 7: 30 insurgents were killed and 1 soldier died in a major offensive in Mount Kato, following a suspicious arsenal blast in Afyon which claimed the lives of 25 soldiers.[134]
  • September 9: 25 PKK fighters were killed in cross-border bombings in Iraq.[135]
  • September 10: 2 Turkish soldiers were killed and 7 others were wounded in an armed conflict in Şemdinli, Hakkari.[136]
  • September 12: 2 Turkish soldiers and 25 PKK fighters were killed in an armed conflict in Şemdinli, Hakkari.[137]

2013–2015: Solution process

2012

2013

  • 3 January – Ahmet Türk and BDP deputy Ayla Akat Ata went to İmralı island where they met Abdullah Öcalan.
  • 7 January – 14 PKK rebels killed on Iraqi Kurdistan border.[138]
  • 10 January - 3 Kurdish activists assassinated in Paris.[139]
  • 14 February - The Turkish government has announced that a second delegation of BDP members will be meeting with Öcalan.[140]
  • 23 February - BDP deputy parliamentary group chair Pervin Buldan, Istanbul deputy Sırrı Süreyya Önder and Diyarbakır deputy Altan Tan went to Öcalan's prison on İmralı island. The delegation, which was granted special authorization by the Ministry of Justice to hold deliberations with Abdullah Öcalan, heard out the PKK leader's proposed roadmap for the government to put an end to the issue of terrorism in the country. Öcalan also passed on letters to Kandil, the PKK's European administration and to the public via the BDP delegation.[141]
  • 11 March - A six-person delegation has left Diyarbakır to meet the eight public workers to be released by PKK in Iraq. The delegation includes the president of Human Rights Association (IHD) and the Chairman of Mazlumder.[142]
  • 13 March - The PKK freed eight Turkish prisoners held for two years in Iraq. The release of the eight captives came after a request by Öcalan.[143]
  • 3 April - Turkey has set up a consultative body of "wise people" to help shape public opinion on the peace process with the PKK.[144]
  • 8 May - PKK members start withdrawal from Turkey.[145]
  • 9 May - The wise people committee gave its first report to Erdoğan and shared their impressions on the level of support regarding the process.[146]
  • 28 June - 1 protester killed.[147]
  • 4 July - none to 1 killed.[148][149]
  • 6 December - 2 Kurds killed in clashes over PKK cemetery.[150] 1 later died in hospital.[151]

2014

  • March - 3 Turkish military killed and 5 wounded in Nigde (assailants not specified).[152]
  • 16 June - Kurdish teenager killed in clashes in Turkey.[153]
  • 16 July - 3 Turkish soldiers and 6 PYD/PKK members killed on Turkish-Syrian border.[154]
  • 7–10 October - At least 37 people (including 2 police officers) were killed in Kurdish protests against the Turkish government's apparent support of ISIS in the Siege of Kobani.[155]
  • 27 September - 3 Turkish police killed.[156]
  • 9 October - 2 Turkish policemen killed in Turkey's East.[157]
  • 14 October - Turkey conducts airstrikes against PKK targets near Daglica.[158]
  • 22 October - 1 Turkish officer killed by PKK.[159]
  • 25 October - 3 Turkish soldiers were killed by PKK in Hakkari.[160]
  • 27 October - one Turkish soldier killed.[161]
  • 27 December - 2 killed in Islamist-Kurdish clashes in the country.[162]

Early 2015

  • 22 March - Abdullah Ocalan wrote a letter to Turkey. His letter states a new era with PKK and Turkey. That means peace with PKK and Turkey and go against ISIL.[163]

2015–present: Third insurgency

2015

  • 20 July 2015, a bombing in the Kurdish district of Suruç, allegedly perpetrated by the ISIL-linked Dokumacılar group, killed 32 young activists and injured over 100. Many Kurdish groups blamed Turkey for involvement or non-prevention of the terror act. Shortly, violence was reported in Adiyaman Province, eastern Turkey that day. Fighters, identified by Turkey as PKK, fired on patrolling soldier with long-barreled rifles, killing a corporal and wounding two NCOs. While on patrol duty, the soldiers had discovered several caves filled with supplies by Kurdish guerrilla.[164]
  • 22 July - 2 Turkish police officers were killed in their home in Şanlıurfa Province; PKK claimed responsibility as revenge for the 2015 Suruç bombing.[165]
  • 23 July - 1 Turkish police officer was killed and another seriously wounded when masked PKK gunmen opened fire on them in Diyarbakir Province.[166] On the same day one soldier was killed and two wounded when shots were fired at a border checkpoint from beyond the Syrian border; Turkish security forces returned fire. The attack is currently blamed on Islamic State-linked jihadist militias.[167]
  • 24 July - Operation Martyr Yelcin was a launched by the Turkish Air Force against Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) positions in Syria and Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) positions in Northern Iraq on 24 and 25 July 2015.[168] PKK bombed a police station in Diyarbakir Province, wounding 7 police officers.[169]
  • 25 July - A PKK car bomb killed 2 Turkish soldiers and wounded 4 in Diyarbakir Province; hours later, masked Kurdish guerillas attacked a police patrol in Istanbul, severely wounding 3 police officers and lightly harming 1 civilian.[169] On the same day 15 construction workers and 1 police officer were abducted by PKK fighters in Sirnak Province. Shots were fired.[170]
  • 26 July - 1 Turkish police officer killed by gunfire from inside a home in Istanbul while detaining terrorism suspects in the neighborhood. It is unclear whether PKK or the leftist DHKP-C is responsible for the shooting.[171]
  • 27 July - 1 Turkish gendarmerie officer was killed in a PKK attack in Turkey's eastern Muş Province.[172]
  • 29 July - 3 Turkish soldiers were killed while securing a road in Sirnak in a coordinated PKK ambush. One PKK fighter was also killed.[173]
  • 29 July - On the same day PKK militants staged a rocket attack on a compound in Hakkari province housing several Turkish government officials. There were no casualties but Turkish government promised to "retaliate".[174]
  • 30 July - 3 Turkish soldiers, including one high-ranking officer, were killed while trying to secure a road in Sirnak Province.[175] On the same day 1 police officer and one civilian sitting in front of a tea house were also killed in a drive-by shooting in Çinar district, Diyarbakir Province.[176]
  • 31 July - 2 police officers and 2 Kurdish guerillas were killed in a PKK attack on a police station in Adana. PKK fighters stormed the police station covering their assault with heavy gunfire and killing 2 security officers. Turkish police returned fire, shooting and killing 2 Kurds. Security forces took strict measures to secure the department attacked and the surrounding area.[177]
  • 1 August - 2 police officers and 1 soldier were killed in two separate PKK attacks. The police officers were killed in a PKK suicide bombing on their station while the soldier ran into a landmine buried by PKK in Mardin.[178]
  • 2 August - 3 soldiers were killed when PKK fighters staged a suicide attack on an army outpost in borderline Agri Province. PKK fighters drove an old tractor filled with explosived into the base and detonated it, wounding additional 31 soldiers, 4 of whom are in serious conditions.[179]
  • 2 August - 1 soldier was killed and 8 soldiers wounded as their armed vehicle ran over a PKK landmine in the town of Midyat.[180]
  • 3 August - The PKK staged two different attacks in Turkeys eastern Bitlis Province: on the early hours of August 3, PKK fighters detonated a landmine on the Bitlis-Diyarbakir highway as two military vehicles passed by; some hours earlier, Kurdish fighters opened fire on a military hospital in Bitlis. Both attacks resulted in no casualties.[181]
  • 4 August - 3 Turkish soldiers were killed in two separate attacks in Sirnak Province: Turkish gendarmerie Private Abdülkadir Pektaş and Sergeant Mehmet Acar were killed by an IED explosion while patrolling near the village of Balveren. Private Abdulhalik Araz was killed by gunfire in the Silopi District of Sirnak Province.[182]
  • 4 August - On the same day, PKK staged a massive bomb attack on Shah-Deniz Pipeline carrying natural gas from Azerbaijan to Turkey, but the attack did not interrupt the gas flow since it was previously halted for maintenance.[183]
  • 6 August - 3 Kurdish youths were killed and 7 civilians wounded in clashes between PKK followers and security forces in Silopi district, Sirnak Province. 2 police officers were wounded by gunfire while in riot control duty; riots broke out when local Kurdish residents built barricades to prevent Turkish security forces from destroying abandoned PKK shelters around the city.[184]
  • 7 August - 1 Turkish soldier was killed by gunfire while patrolling the site of a PKK arson attack on vehicles in Turkey's south-eastern Van Province. 1 bus staff member was killed and three iranian citizen were wounded too in the accident when Kurdish fighters opened fire on an iranian bus refusing to stop at the PKK checkpoint.[185][186]
  • 7 August - 1 Turkish police officer was killed and at least 1 wounded when PKK fired a rocked-propelled grenade against their armored vehicle while security forces were engaged on a riot control duty mission in Çizre, Sirnak Province. 3 police officers were also killed in separate attacks in Turkey's south-eastern provinces.[187][188]
  • 8 August - KODAR (Free and Democratic Society of Eastern Kurdistan, considered to be the name assumed by PKK in Iran) and its armed wing claimed the killing of 20 iranian police officers in an attack on the city of Mariwan, Iranian Kurdistan.[189]
  • 8 August - 1 Turkish police officer died after sustaining gunshot wounds in Friday's clashes between security forces and members of the PKK in Silopi district of Turkey's southeastern Sirnak province[190]
  • 9 August - 1 police officer killed and 1 wounded in a PKK attack in Midyat, Mardin Province.[191]
  • 9 August - 1 PKK fighter supposed of being involved in Saturday's killing of a Turkish security officer was captured after he was wounded in a clash with Turkish army on Monday[192]
  • 10 August - 1 Turkish soldier was killed and another one wounded when PKK launched an attack against an army helicopter in Turkey's southeastearn Sirnak province[193]
  • 10 August - 4 Turkish police officers were killed by a PKK landmine in Sirnak province[194]
  • 10 August - In the morning, two groups conducted simultaneous attacks with rocket launchers on the district police department and gendarmerie command in southeastern district of Lice in the Diyarbakır province, no casualties were reported[194]
  • 10 August - 1 Turkish police officer was killed in Istanbul during a suicide car bomb attack against a police department[195] while two militant who attacked the police station were killed[196]
  • 10 August - The U.S. Consulate in Istanbul were under attack by two militants of the Revolutionary People's Liberation Party-Front (DHKP-C), later one of the militant are arrested[197]
  • 11 August - 1 soldier died of his injuries after PKK fighters launched a coordinated attack on 2:00 AM against Akdizgin army base in Sirnak Province[198]
  • 12 August - 1 Turkish Gendarmerie officer killed, 4 soldiers and 2 village guards wounded in a PKK attack on their base in Diyarbakir. 2 attackers were also killed, Turkish security forces reported. PKK denied the claim[199]
  • 13 August - 1 Turkish soldier was killed in Sirnak Province. Turkish army flew attacks against 17 PKK targets in response[200]
  • 13 August - 1 Turkish soldier was killed by stepping on a PKK landmine in Bingöl Province[201] while seven PKK fighters were killed in clashes[202]
  • 14 August - 3 soldiers were killed and 6 wounded by PKK in the southeastern Hakkari province during clashes[203]
  • 15 August - 3 soldiers were killed and 6 wounded by PKK in the Bingöl Province, PKK detonated a bomb via a remote control when a military armored vehicle was passing the road on which the bomb was placed[204]
  • 15 August - A police officer was killed by PKK in the Hakkari province[205]
  • 19 August - 8 Turkish soldiers were killed when a PKK booby trap blew up their vehicle in Siirt Province.[206]
  • 20 August - 4 Turkish soldiers were killed in clashes with PKK fighters in two separate districts of Turkey's Diyarbakir Province.[207]
  • 21 August - 1 Turkish Army captain died of his wounds after a PKK overnight attack on his outpost in Sirnak province.[208]
  • 24 August - 2 soldiers killed by a landmine explosion in Hakkari province.[209]
  • 30 August - A 13 year old kid (Fırat Sımpil) is killed by the landmine of PKK on road in Silvan, Diyarbakir Province.[210]
  • 31 August - 1 civilian doctor was killed by PKK on his escape attempt with car from PKK's blockade on road in Diyarbakir Province.[211]
  • 3 September - 4 Turkish police officers were killed by a PKK landmine in Mardin province.[212]
  • 4 September - 1 Turkish police officer was killed, and 1 police officer and 2 civilian were injured in an attack by Kurdish militants on a police station in the city of Tunceli.[213]
  • 6 September - 2 police officer were killed and three others injured in Diyarbakır.[214]
  • 6 September - As many as 16 soldiers were killed in attack on a convoy in Hakkari province. 2 F-16 and 2 F-4 jets struck 13 PKK targets.[215]
  • 8 September - Dozens of Turkish warplanes struck PKK targets in northern Iraq overnight, killing tens of PKK militant.[216]
  • 8 September - 15 police officers were killed in two bombs attacks. 14 police officers were killed in a minibus in igdir province. 1 police officer was killed and 3 were injured in bomb attack in Mardin province.[217]
  • 24 September - 1 civil ambulance driver and 2 Turkish soldier were killed by PKK in Şırnak, Beytüşşebap. 8 Turkish soldiers, 6 police and 1 village guard were wounded. 2 other medical staff were kidnapped by PKK. Turkish Armed Forces reported 34 death PKK militants in official website.[218][219]
  • 27 September - 2 civilians including a 9 years old girl (Elif Şimşek) lost their life and 5 civilians wounded after rocket attack by PKK towards police vehicle hitting the civilian house in Diyarbakir Province, Bismil. 2 PKK militants were killed after police operation.[220]
  • 8 October - 9 years old child (Hasan Yılmaz) died and three others were wounded when a bomb that they found exploded on PKK barricade the southeastern province of Diyarbakır's Silvan district.[221]
  • 10 October - 2015 Ankara bombings kill 97 people and injure more than 400 others, during a peace rally for the solution of the Kurdish rebellion in the East. ISIL is suspected for the bombing.

2016

2017

2018

2019

  • 3 July - A Turkish soldier was killed and another injured during an operation in Eruh district, southeastern Siirt province.[222]
  • 9 July - PKK militants ambushed a Turkish military vehicle in Hakkari province, killing two soldiers and wounding another inside. The wounded soldier succumbed to his injuries on July 14.[223] Militants also allegedly executed two shepherds they had kidnapped earlier in the day in Şırnak Province.[224]
  • 14 July - Three soldiers were killed and another wounded during clashes with the PKK in rural areas of Hakkari province.[225]
  • 15 July - In Sirnak Province, a vehicle carrying construction workers was hit by an IED explosion, killing one worker and injuring two more, while in Tunceli Province, another bomb killed an 8-year-old boy and his 4-year-old sister who were walking in a pasture.[226]
  • 16 July - An IED killed a Turkish soldier in northern Iraq, during Operation Claw-2.[227]
  • 17 July - Amidst Operation Claw-2, three assailants attacked a group of Turkish diplomats in a restaurant in Erbil, killing the Turkish deputy consul for Erbil and a consulate employee, while two Iraqis sitting nearby were shot, one fatally. No group claimed responsibility, but the attack was blamed on the PKK.[228]
  • 19 July - A soldier was killed and six more wounded during Operation Claw-2 in northern Iraq, while a gendarmerie major was killed by an IED device that exploded in Bitlis Province.[229]
  • 23 July - A bomb buried next to a road in Semdinli district of Hakkari Province detonated when a civilian car passed by, killing the occupant.[230]
  • 18 August - An IED detonated while a civilian car passed by in Hakkari Province, killing one person.[231]
  • 21 August - Three soldiers were killed and another wounded during operations in Şırnak Province's Silopi district.[232]
  • 25 August - Operation Claw-3; three Turkish soldiers were killed and another seven wounded during an operation in Iraq's north.[233]
  • 4 September - A roadside bomb killed a soldier and wounded two more as they were passing by in Mardin province.[234]
  • 7 September - A police officer was killed by the PKK in Ömerli, Mardin Province. Another was wounded.[235]
  • 12 September - A roadside IED exploded in Kulp district, Diyarbakir Province, as a vehicle carrying many villagers passed by, killing seven of them and injuring 10 more.[236]
  • 22 September - An IED exploded in Mardin, killing a civilian.[237]
  • 23 September - Operation Claw-3: Two Turkish soldiers were killed when an IED exploded as a supply convoy was passing in northern Iraq.[238]
  • 9 October – Turkey started Operation Peace Spring in Syria.[239]
  • 20 October - A soldier was killed by PKK fire in Hakkari province.[240]

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