Timeline of psychology

Ancient history – BCE

  • c. 1550 BCE – The Ebers Papyrus mentioned depression and thought disorders.[1]
  • c. 600 BCE – Many cities in Greece had temples to Asklepios that provided cures for psychosomatic illnesses.[2]
  • 540–475 Heraclitus[3]
  • c. 500 Alcmaeon[3] - suggested theory of humors as regulating human behavior (similar to Empedocles' elements)
  • 500–428 Anaxagoras[3]
  • 490–430 Empedocles[3] proposed a first natural, non religious system of factors that create things around, including human characters. In his model he used four elements (water, fire, earth, air) and four seasons to derive diversity of natural systems.
  • 490–421 Protagoras [3]
  • 470–399 Socrates[3] – Socrates has been called the father of western philosophy, if only via his influence on Plato and Aristotle. Socrates made a major contribution to pedagogy via his dialectical method and to epistemology via his definition of true knowledge as true belief buttressed by some rational justification.
  • 470–370 Democritus[3] – Democritus distinguished between insufficient knowledge gained through the senses and legitimate knowledge gained through the intellect—an early stance on epistemology.
  • 460 BC – 370 BCE – Hippocrates introduced principles of scientific medicine based upon naturalistic observation and logic, and denied the influence of spirits and demons in diseases. Introduced the concept of "temperamentum"("mixture", i.e. 4 temperament types based on a ratio between chemical bodily systems.[4][5] Hippocrates was among the first physicians to argue that brain, and not the heart is the organ of psychic processes.
  • 387 BCE – Plato suggested that the brain is the seat of mental processes. Plato's view of the "soul" (self) is that the body exists to serve the soul: "God created the soul before the body and gave it precedence both in time and value, and made it the dominating and controlling partner." from Timaeus[6]
  • c. 350 BCE – Aristotle wrote on the psuchê (soul) in De Anima, first mentioning the tabula rasa concept of the mind.
  • c. 340 BCE – Praxagoras
  • 371–288 Theophrastus[3]
  • 341–270 Epicurus[3]
  • c. 320 Herophilus[3]
  • c. 300–30 Zeno of Citium taught the philosophy of Stoicism, involving logic and ethics. In logic, he distinguished between imperfect knowledge offered by the senses and superior knowledge offered by reason. In ethics, he taught that virtue lay in reason and vice in rejection of reason. Stoicism inspired Aaron Beck to introduce cognitive behavioral therapy in the 1970s.[7]
  • 304–250 Erasistratus[3]
  • 123–43 BCE – Themison of Laodicea was a pupil of Asclepiades of Bithynia and founded a school of medical thought known as "methodism." He was criticized by Soranus for his cruel handling of mental patients. Among his prescriptions were darkness, restraint by chains, and deprivation of food and drink. Juvenal satirized him and suggested that he killed more patients than he cured.[4]
  • c. 100 BCE – The Dead Sea Scrolls noted the division of human nature into two temperaments.[8]

First century

  • c. 50 – Aulus Cornelius Celsus died, leaving De Medicina, a medical encyclopedia; Book 3 covers mental diseases. The term insania, insanity, was first used by him. The methods of treatment included bleeding, frightening the patient, emetics, enemas, total darkness, and decoctions of poppy or henbane, and pleasant ones such as music therapy, travel, sport, reading aloud, and massage. He was aware of the importance of the doctor-patient relationship.[9]
  • c. 100 – Rufus of Ephesus believed that the nervous system was instrumental in voluntary movement and sensation. He discovered the optic chiasma by anatomical studies of the brain. He stressed taking a history of both physical and mental disorders. He gave a detailed account of melancholia, and was quoted by Galen.[4]
  • 93-138 – Soranus of Ephesus advised kind treatment in healthy and comfortable conditions, including light, warm rooms.[4]

Second century

  • c. 130–200 – Galen "was schooled in all the psychological systems of the day: Platonic, Aristotelian, Stoic, and Epicurean"[5] He advanced medicine by offering anatomic investigations and was a skilled physician. Galen developed further the theory of temperaments suggested by Hippocrates, that people's characters were determined by the balance among four bodily substances. He also distinguished sensory from motor nerves and showed that the brain controls the muscles.
  • c. 150–200 – Aretaeus of Cappadocia[5]

Third century

  • 155–220 Tertullian[3]
  • 205–270 Plotinus wrote Enneads a systematic account of Neoplatonist philosophy, also nature of visual perception and how memory might work.[6]

Fourth century

  • c. 323–403 – Oribasius compiled medical writings based on the works of Aristotle, Asclepiades, and Soranus of Ephesus, and wrote on melancholia in Galenic terms.[4]
  • 345–399 - Evagrius Ponticus described a rigorous way of introspection within the early Christian monastic tradition. Through introspection, monks could acquire self-knowledge and control their stream of thought which signified potentially demonic influences. Ponticus developed this view in Praktikos, his guide to ascetic life.[10]
  • c. 390 – Nemesius wrote De Natura Hominis (On Human Nature); large sections were incorporated in Saint John Damascene's De Fide Orthodoxia in the eighth century. Nemesius' book De Placitis Hippocratis et Platonis (On the Doctrines of Hippocrates and Plato) contains many passages concerning Galen's anatomy and physiology, believing that different cavities of the brain were responsible for different functions.[4][6]
  • 397–398 – St. Augustine of Hippo published Confessions, which anticipated Freud by near-discovery of the subconscious.[11] Augustine's most complete account of the soul is in De Quantitate Animae (The Greatness of the Soul). The work assumes a Platonic model of the soul.[6]

Fifth century

  • 5th century – Caelius Aurelianus opposed harsh methods of handling the insane, and advocated humane treatment.[4]
  • c. 423–529 – Theodosius the Cenobiarch founded a monastery at Kathismus, near Bethlehem. Three hospitals were built by the side of the monastery: one for the sick, one for the aged, and one for the insane.[4]
  • c. 451 – Patriarch Nestorius of Constantinople: his followers dedicated themselves to the sick and became physicians of great repute. They brought the works of Hippocrates, Aristotle, and Galen, and influenced the approach to physical and mental disorders in Persia and Arabia[4]

Seventh century

  • 625–690 – Paul of Aegina suggested that hysteria should be treated by ligature of the limbs, and mania by tying the patient to a mattress placed inside a wicker basket and suspended from the ceiling. He also recommended baths, wine, special diets, and sedatives for the mentally ill. He described the following mental disorders: phrenitis, delirium, lethargus, melancholia, mania, incubus, lycanthropy, and epilepsy

Ninth century

Tenth century

  • c. 900 – Ahmed ibn Sahl al-Balkhi urged doctors to ensure that they evaluated the state of both their patients' bodies and souls, and highlighted the link between spiritual or mental health and overall health.[14]
  • c. 900 – al-Razi (Rhazes) promoted psychotherapy and an understanding attitude towards those suffering from psychological distress.[15]

Eleventh century

Twelfth century

Thirteenth century

  • c. 1180 – 1245 Alexander of Hales
  • c. 1190 – 1249 William of Auvergne
  • 1215–1277 Peter Juliani taught in the medical faculty of the University of Siena, and wrote on medical, philosophical and psychological topics. He was personal physician to Pope Gregory X and later became archbishop and cardinal. He was elected pope under the name John XXI in 1276.[6][18]
  • c. 1214 – 1294 Roger Bacon advocated for empirical methods and wrote on optics, visual perception, and linguistics.
  • 1221–1274 Bonaventure
  • 1193–1280 Albertus Magnus
  • 1225 – Thomas Aquinas
  • 1240 – Bartholomeus Anglicus published De Proprietatibus Rerum, which included a dissertation on the brain, recognizing that mental disorders can have a physical or psychological cause.
  • 1247 – Bethlehem Royal Hospital in Bishopsgate outside the wall of London, one of the most famous old psychiatric hospitals was founded as a priory of the Order of St. Mary of Bethlem to collect alms for Crusaders; after the English government secularized it, it started admitting mental patients by 1377 (c. 1403), becoming known as Bedlam Hospital; in 1547 it was acquired by the City of London, operating until 1948; it is now part of the British NHS Foundation Trust.[19]
  • 1266–1308 Duns Scotus
  • c. 1270 – Witelo wrote Perspectiva, a work on optics containing speculations on psychology, nearly discovering the subconscious.
  • 1295 Lanfranc writes Science of Cirurgie[6]

Fourteenth century

  • 1317–40 – William of Ockham, an English Franciscan friar and scholastic philosopher and theologian, is commonly known for Occam's razor, the methodological principle that the simplest explanation is to be preferred. He also produced significant works on logic, physics, and theology, advancing his thoughts about intuitive and abstracted knowledge.
  • 1347-50 – The Black Death devastated Europe.
  • c. 1375 – English authorities regarded mental illness as demonic possession, treating it with exorcism and torture.[20]

Fifteenth century

  • c. 1400 – Renaissance Humanism caused a reawakening of ancient knowledge of science and medicine.
  • 1433–1499 Marsilio Ficino was a renowned figure of the Italian Renaissance, a Neoplatonist humanist, a translator of Greek philosophical writing, and the most influential exponent of Platonism in Italy in the fifteenth century.[5]
  • c. 1450 – The pendulum in Europe swings, bringing witch mania, causing thousands of women to be executed for witchcraft until the late 17th century.

Sixteenth century

  • 1590 – Scholastic philosopher Rudolph Goclenius coined the term "psychology"; though usually regarded as the origin of the term, there is evidence that it was used at least six decades earlier by Marko Marulić.

Seventeenth century

  • c. 1600–1625 – Francis Bacon was an English philosopher, statesman, scientist, lawyer, jurist, author, and pioneer of the scientific method. His writings on psychological topics included the nature of knowledge and memory.
  • 1650 – René Descartes died, leaving Treatise of the World, containing his dualistic theory of reality, mind vs. matter.
  • 1672 – Thomas Willis published the anatomical treatise De Anima Brutorum, describing psychology in terms of brain function.
  • 1677 – Baruch Spinoza died, leaving Ethics, Demonstrated in Geometrical Order, Pt. 2 focusing on the human mind and body, disputing Descartes and arguing that they are one, and Pt. 3 attempting to show that moral concepts such as good and evil, virtue, and perfection have a basis in human psychology.
  • 1689 – John Locke published An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, which claims that the human mind is a Tabula Rasa at birth.

Eighteenth century

  • 1701 – Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz published the Law of Continuity, which he applied to psychology, becoming the first to postulate an unconscious mind; he also introduced the concept of threshold.[21]
  • 1710 – George Berkeley published Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge, which claims that the outside world is composed solely of ideas.
  • 1732 – Christian Wolff published Psychologia Empirica, followed in 1734 by Psychologia Rationalis, popularizing the term "psychology".
  • 1739 – David Hume published A Treatise of Human Nature, claiming that all contents of mind are solely built from sense experiences.
  • 1781 – Immanuel Kant published Critique of Pure Reason, rejecting Hume's extreme empiricism and proposing that there is more to knowledge than bare sense experience, distinguishing between "a posteriori" and "a priori" knowledge, the former being derived from perception, hence occurring after perception, and the latter being a property of thought, independent of experience and existing before experience.
  • 1783 - Ferdinand Ueberwasser designated himself Professor of Empirical Psychology and Logic at the Old University of Münster; four years later, he published the comprehensive textbook Instructions for the regular study of empirical psychology for candidates of philosophy at the University of Münster which complemented his lectures on scientific psychology.[22]
  • 1798 - Immanuel Kant proposed the first dimensional model of consistent individual differences by mapping the four Hippocrates' temperament types into dimensions of emotionality and energetic arousal. [23] These two dimensions later became an essential part of all temperament and personality models.

Nineteenth century


  • c. 1800 – Franz Joseph Gall developed cranioscopy, the measurement of the skull to determine psychological characteristics, which was later renamed phrenology; it is now discredited.
  • 1807 – Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel published Phenomenology of Spirit (Mind), which describes his thesis-antithesis-synthesis dialectical method, according to which knowledge pushes forwards to greater certainty, and ultimately towards knowledge of the noumenal world.
  • 1808 – Johann Christian Reil coined the term "psychiatry".


  • 1812 – Benjamin Rush became one of the earliest advocates of humane treatment for the mentally ill with the publication of Medical Inquiries and Observations Upon Diseases of the Mind,[24] the first American textbook on psychiatry.[25]



  • 1840 – Frederick Augustus Rauch (1806–1841) published Psychology, or a View of the Human Soul, including Anthropology
  • 1843 – Forbes Benignus Winslow (1810–1874) published The Plea of Insanity in Criminal Cases, helping establish the plea of insanity in criminal cases in Britain.
  • 1844 – [[Søren Kierkegaaed The Concept of Anxiety, the first exposition on anxiety.
  • 1848 – Vermont railroad worker Phineas Gage had a 3-foot rod driven through his brain and jaw in an explosives accident, permanently changing his personality, revolutionizing scientific opinion about brain functions being localizable.
  • 1849 – Søren Kierkegaard published The Sickness Unto Death.


  • 1852 – Hermann Lotze published Medical Psychology or Physiology of the Soul.
  • 1856 – Hermann Lotze began publishing his 3-volume magnum opus Mikrokosmos (1856–64), arguing that natural laws of inanimate objects apply to human minds and bodies but have the function of enabling us to aim for the values set by the deity, thus making room for aesthetics.
  • 1859 – Pierre Briquet published Traite Clinique et Therapeutique de L'Hysterie.





Twentieth century











Twenty-first century




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