Timeline of Turkish history

See History of Turkey. See also the Sultanate of Rum, Ottoman Empire and Republic of Turkey.

11th century

YearDateEvent
1071Alp Arslan of the Great Seljuq Empire defeats Romanos IV Diogenes of the Byzantine Empire at Malazgirt, near Muş, Historical Armenia Eastern Anatolia.
1077Suleyman I of Rum is appointed as a governor in Seljuq possessions in Anatolia. But he acts independently and founds a state. Capital İznik (Nicea), Bursa Province, Northwest Anatolia.
1081Tzachas, an independent Turkish sea captain, founds a principality in Izmir, giving the Seljuks access to Aegean Sea.
1084Conquest of Antakya (Antioch), South Anatolia.
1086Süleyman I of Rum tries to add Syria to his realm. But he commits suicide after being defeated by his cousin Tutush I in the battle of Aynu Seylem, Syria.
1092Kılıç Arslan I (1092–1107)
1096Kılıç Arslan I defeats Walter Sans Avoir and Peter the Hermit of People's Crusade at the battles of Xerigordon and Civetot both in Northwest Anatolia.
1097Bohemond of Taranto, Godfrey of Bouillon and Adhemar of Le Puy of First Crusade defeat Kılıç Arslan I in the battle of Dorylaeum (near modern Eskişehir, Central Anatolia). The capital İznik is lost to Crusades. A few years later Konya, becomes the new capital.
1100Danishmend Gazi, an independent bey, defeats Bohemond I of Antioch in the battle of Melitene (Malatya)

12th century

YearDateEvent
1101Kılıç Arslan I defeats Stephen of Blois and Hugh of Vermandois of the second wave of First Crusades at the Battle of Mersivan (near modern Merzifon, Amasya Province, Central Anatolia.)
1107Kılıç Arslan conquers Musul, Iraq, but is defeated in the battle.
1110Şahinşah (1107–1116) (also called Melikşah, not to be confused with the sultan of Great Seljuk Empire with the same name) Continuous struggle with the Crusades weakens the state.
1116Mesut I (1116–1156) During the early years of his reign he has to accept the dominance of Danishmends a rival Turkish state in Anatolia.
1142Mehmed of Danishmends dies and the Sultanate of Rum become the leading power of Anatolia for the second time.
1147Mesut I defeats Holy Roman Emperor Conrad III of Second Crusade in the Second battle of Dorylaeum (near modern Eskişehir)
Mesud I defeats French king Louis VII of Second Crusade at Laodicea (near modern Denizli, West Anatolia).
1156Kılıç Arslan II (1156–1192)
1176Kılıç Arslan defeats Manuel I Komnenos of Byzantine Empire in the battle of Myriokephalon (probably near Çivril, Denizli Province, West Anatolia).
1178Kılıç Arslan II annexes Danishmend realm. (Sivas, and the surrounding territory, Central Anatolia.)
1186Kılıç Arslan II partitions the country into 11 provinces, each governed by one of his sons
1190Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa of Third Crusade crosses West Anatolia. While main Turkish army avoids conflict, several irregular troops try to fight, but are repelled. Temporary German occupation of capital Konya.
1190Frederick Barbarossa of Third Crusade dies near Silifke, Mersin Province in South Anatolia.
1192Keyhüsrev I (1192–1196)
1194After the collapse of Great Seljuk Empire, the Sultanate of Rum become the sole surviving branch of Seljuks.
1196Suleyman II of Rum (1196–1204)

13th century

YearDateEvent
1202Süleyman II of Rum annexes Saltukid realm (Erzurum, and the surrounding territory, Eastern Anatolia.)
Georgian army defeats Süleyman II at the Battle of Micingerd
1204Kılıç Arslan III (1204–1205)
1205Keyhüsrev I (1205–1211) (second time)
1207Conquest of Antalya, access to Mediterranean Sea
1211Keykavus I (1211–1220)
1214Conquest of Sinop, Black Sea coast
1220Alaaddin Kayqubad I (1220–1237)
1221Conquest of Alanya, Antalya Province, Mediterranean coast
1223Construction of an arsenal in Alanya, a sign of Alaaddin Keykubat's interest in maritime trade
1224Alladdin Keykubat annexes a part of Artuqid realm (Harput and surrounding territory, .)
1227Sudak in Crimea is annexed. This is the most notable overseas campaign of Seljuqs.
1228Mongol conquests in Iran result in a flux of refugees to Anatolia, one of the refuges is Mevlana
Alaaddin Keykubat I annexes Mengucek realm (Erzincan and the surrounding territory), Eastern Anatolia .
1230Alaaddin Keykubat defeats Celaleddin Harzemşah of Harzemşah Empire in the Battle of Yassıçemen, near Erzincan
1237Keyhüsrev II (1237–1246)
1238Sadettin Köpek the vizier of the inexperienced sultan who has executed some members of Seljuk house and becomes the de facto ruler of the sultanate is killed.
1239Revolt of Baba Ishak. A revolt of Turkmen (Oguz) and Harzem refugees who have recently arrived in Anatolia. The revolt is suppressed. But the sultanate loses power.
1240Conquest of Diyarbakır in Southeast Anatolia.
1243Bayju of Mongols defeats Keyhüsrev II in the battle of Kösedağ, Eastern Anatolia. From now on, the sultanate is a vassal of Ilkhanids.
1246Keykavus II (1246–1262) Governs together with his two brothers. But the real ruler is vizier Pervâne who has married to late sultan's widow Gürcü Hatun.
1256Mongols defeat Seljuk Turks at the Battle of Sultanhan, Aksaray Province, Central Anatolia.
1258Mongols partition the country. Double sultanate
1262Kılıç Arslan IV 1260–1266
1266Keyhüsrev III 1266–1284
1277Karamanoğlu Mehmet Bey, a semi independent bey, allies himself with the Mameluk sultan Baybars who invades a part of Anatolia.
Karamanoğlu Mehmed Bey conquers Konya and enthrones his puppet Jimri. But Ilkhanids intervene and reestablish Keyhüsrev's reign. (During his short stay in Konya Mehmed Bey declares Turkish as the official language in his realm).
1284Mesut II 1284–1297
1289Seljuk-Ilkhanid coalition defeats the tribes of Germiyanids
1297Alaaddin Kekubat III 1297–1302
1299Osman I, founder of the Ottoman Empire, begin the Ottoman history. (According to Halil İnalcık, expert on Ottoman history, Ottoman Empire was founded in 1302 not 1299.)[1]

14th century

YearDateEvent
1302Mesut II 1302–1307 (last sultan of Rum)
137127 SeptemberBattle of Maritsa. Most of Macedonia is conquered.
138915 JuneBattle of Kosovo. Most of Serbia is conquered.
139625 SeptemberBattle of Nicopolis. Bulgaria is conquered.

15th century

YearDateEvent
144410 NovemberBattle of Varna. Ottoman victory, end of Crusade of Varna.
1453Mehmed II (the Conqueror) captures Constantinople, Christian emperor Constantine XI dies in the fighting and the Byzantine Empire yields to the Ottoman Empire as Mehmed II.
1460Mehmed II conquers Morea.
1461Mehmed II conquers Trabzon thus ends Empire of Trebizond.
1462Mehmed II begins to build his palace, Topkapi Palace (Topkapı Sarayi).
1463Bosnia is conquered.
1473Battle of Otlukbeli; Mehmed II defeats Uzun Hasan of Akkoyunlu Turkmens.
1475Gedik Ahmet Pasha captures Caffa. Crimea becomes vassal of the Ottoman Empire.
1478Albania is conquered.
1480Gedik Ahmet Pasha captures Otranto, the southeast corner of Italy, as a base for further attacks on Italy (only to evacuate after the death of Mehmet II).
14813 MayMehmed II dies. Bayezid II ascended to the throne.
1482Herzegovina is conquered.
1498Montenegro is conquered.

16th century

YearDateEvent
1514Battle of Chaldiran; Selim I defeats Ismail I of Safavid Persia; Kurdistan under control of Ottoman Empire.
1516Battle of Marj Dabiq; Selim I defeats Al-Ashraf Qansuh al-Ghawri of Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt. Syria and Palestine under Ottoman rule.
1517Battle of Ridaniya; Selim I defeats Tuman bay II of Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt. Egypt under Ottoman rule; Selim I takes the title caliph.
1519Algeria is conquered.
1520The reign of Suleiman the Magnificent (Suleiman I) begins.
1521Suleiman I captures Belgrade.
1522Suleiman I captures Rhodes.
1526Battle of Mohács. Suleiman I defeats Louis II of Hungary and Bohemia
1529Siege of Vienna.
1533Iraq under Turkish control.
1538Sea Batte of Preveza. Turkish navy controls most of Mediterranean Sea.
1550Sultanate of Women
1551Libya is conquered.
1541Suleiman I captures Budapest (known as Buda), which eventually leads to conquest of most of Hungary.
1547Most of Hungary under Turkish control. Hungary is divided, by agreement between the Ottoman sultan Suleiman I and Ferdinand I of Austria.
1566The reign of Suleiman the Magnificent (Suleiman I) ends.
1569The great fire of Istanbul broke out.
1570Conquest of Cyprus by Piyale Pasha
1571The Spanish and the Venetians defeat the Turks at the Battle of Lepanto.
1574Tunisia is conquered.
1578Tbilisi and most of Georgia conquered.
1590Treaty of İstanbul between Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia; Georgia, Azerbaijan and Armenia as well as west Iran under Ottoman rule.

17th century

YearDateEvent
1610Kuyucu Murat Pasha suppresses Jelali revolts. Turkmens suffer heavily.
1612Treaty of Nasuh Pasha between Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia. Ottoman Empire gives up some gains of Treaty of Istanbul of 1590.
1615Treaty of Serav ratifies Treaty of Nasuh Pasha
168312 SeptemberBattle of Vienna. Ottoman defeat.
1686Hungary evacuated.
1687Mehmed IV is deposed.
1699Ottomans cede Hungary to Austria in the Treaty of Karlowitz.

18th century

YearDateEvent
1718Treaty of Passarowitz signed.
Beginning of Tulip era (up to 1730)
1729First printing press in Turkish by Ibrahim Muteferrika
1730Revolt of Patrona Halil. End of Tulip era. Ahmet III is dethroned.
1739Treaty of Belgrade signed.
1774Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca signed.
1795First newspaper in Ottoman Empire (Bulletin de Nouvelles.)

19th century

YearDateEvent
1807MayKabakçı Mustafa rebellion: Reformist sultan Selim III dethroned.
180821 JulyAlemdar Mustafa Pasha suppresses the rebellion. But Selim III is dead and Mahmut II becomes the new sultan.
181323 AprilSecond Serbian Uprising: The Serbs revolt.
1821Greek War of Independence: The Greek War of Independence begins.
182615 JuneAuspicious Incident. Massacre of the Janissary corps by Sultan Mahmud II: Foundation of a modern western style army.
1830Algeria is gradually ceded to French rule.
183221 JulyGreek War of Independence: Greek sovereignty is formalized.
1831Egyptian–Ottoman War. (to 1833)
18534 OctoberCrimean War: The Crimean War with Russia began which, though won with British, French and Sardinian aid, would further demonstrate how backward the Ottoman military had become.
186021 OctoberFirst newspaper in Turkish published by Agah Efendi.(Tercümen'ı Ahval).
18625 FebruaryA united Romanian autonomous state is established.
187623 DecemberOpened the 1876–1877 Constantinople Conference.
187724 AprilRusso-Turkish War (1877–1878): Another war with Russia begins.
18783 MarchRusso-Turkish War (1877–1878): The Treaty of San Stefano recognizes Romanian and Serbian independence, as well as the establishment of an autonomous Bulgarian principality under nominal Ottoman protection. Austria-Hungary occupies Bosnia by default.
4 JuneCyprus is occupied by Britain.
1881Mustafa Kemal Atatürk was born. Tunisia becomes a French colony.
1882Egypt goes under British protection.
18856 SeptemberThe province of Eastern Rumelia is transferred to Bulgarian jurisdiction.

20th century

YearDateEvent
19083 JulySecond Constitutional Era (Young Turk revolution)
5 OctoberTurkey obtains full independence.
7 OctoberAustria-Hungary annexes Bosnia by mere declaration.
1912The Ottomans are easily defeated by Italy in a short war, with the Italians gaining Libya and ending the 340-year Ottoman presence in North Africa.
28 NovemberFirst Balkan War: Albania declares independence
191317 MayFirst Balkan War: The Ottoman Empire is nearly wiped out from Europe, save for Istanbul and just enough land around to defend it.
19142 AugustThe Empire enters into World War I on the side of the Central Powers. Cyprus is annexed outright by Britain.
191518 MarchThe Gallipoli Campaign was considered one of the greatest victories of the Turks and was reflected on as a major failure by the Allies.
24 AprilThe Ottoman Empire initiates Genocide of Christian Armenians.
1923 29 OctoberThe Republic of Turkey was proclaimed.
Mustafa Kemal (Atatürk) was unanimously elected the first President of the Republic of Turkey by secret vote.
30 OctoberThe first cabinet of the Republic of Turkey was formed by İsmet İnönü.
1924A new policy was instituted that imams be appointed by the government.
3 MarchThe Ottoman caliphate was abolished by the Turkish Grand National Assembly.
The Union of Education (Tevhid-i Tedrisat) Law was passed.
The Ministry of Religious Affairs and all religious schools were abolished.
6 MarchSecond cabinet, again by İsmet İnönü
8 AprilReligious courts were abolished and replaced with civil courts.
20 AprilA new Turkish constitution was accepted.
26 AugustTürkiye Is Bankasi was established.
30 OctoberThe generals who were also in parliament were asked to choose either military profession or politics but not both. (This event is known as the crisies of generals.) Only Prime Minister Ismet Inönü retains his title as General and remains in politics as Prime Minister.
17 NovemberThe second political party in Turkey, the Progressive Republican Party, was formed.
22 NovemberThird cabinet by Fethi Okyar.
192511 FebruaryThe Sheikh Said rebellion started in the eastern provinces.
25 FebruaryA law separating religion from politics was accepted and passed in the TBMM.
4 MarchFourth cabinet by İsmet İnönü
5 MayAn Armenian named Manok Manukyan was executed in Ankara for planning an assassination attempt on Mustafa Kemal.
3 JuneThe Progressive Republican Party was closed and abolished for supposedly exploiting religion for political purposes. Republican Peoples Party of the governing elites remains as the only political organization in the country. According to "Takrir-i Sukun" law, all opposition newspapers are also banned and closed indefinitely and Turkish "Republic" becomes one of the first dictatorships in Europe.
29 JuneSheikh Said and his 46 followers were sentenced to death in Diyarbakır.
27 AugustMustafa Kemal (Atatürk) came to Kastamonu to initiate the Hat Revolution.
1 SeptemberThe first Turkish Medical Congress was assembled.
4 SeptemberTurkish women entered a beauty contest for the first time.
1 OctoberAtatürk opened the Bursa textile factory.
5 NovemberAnkara Law School (then the Ankara University Faculty of Law) was opened.
25 November"Hat Law" was issued, abolishing religious dress.
26 DecemberA law was passed which abolished the lunar calendar in favor of the international calendar.
192617 FebruaryA Turkish civil code based on the Swiss Civil Code was accepted. The code granted expanded civil rights to women and prohibited polygamy.
1 MarchA Turkish criminal code was established based on the Italian Criminal Code.
17 MarchA law was passed to nationalize the iron industry.
24 MarchA law was passed to nationalize the petroleum industry.
19277 MarchThe extraordinary Independence Tribunals were abolished.
15 OctoberMustafa Kemal Atatürk started his "Nutuk" speech.
The second nationwide congress of the Republican People's Party took place.
20 OctoberThe "Nutuk" speech ended.
28 OctoberThe first population census counted the population at approximately thirteen and a half million.
27 NovemberFifth cabinet by İsmet İnönü
25 DecemberThe first female Turkish lawyer, Süreyya Ağaoğlu, began her duty.
192810 AprilThe article "The official religion of Turkey is Islam" was removed from the constitution.
19 MayA law establishing an engineering school was accepted.
1 NovemberA new Turkish alphabet based on the Latin script was accepted.
19293 AprilA new municipal law enabled women to enter municipal elections both as voters and as candidates.
29 AprilThe first female Turkish judges were appointed.
13 MayA trade law was accepted by the TBMM.
1 SeptemberArabic and Persian courses were abolished replaced by Turkish-only language courses.
193011 JuneA law was accepted which established the Turkish Republic Central Bank.
12 AugustThe Free Republican Party, the third party in the republic, was established.
27 SeptemberSixth cabinet by İsmet İnönü
27 OctoberGreek prime minister Venizelos visited Mustafa Kemal Atatürk in Ankara.
17 NovemberAfter the Free Republican Party's cooption by radical religious groups, its leader Fethi Okyar decided to close.
30 DecemberMustafa Fehmi Kubilay, a second lieutenant in the Turkish army, was killed in a reactionary uprising.
193116 MarchThe first female Turkish surgeon, Dr. Suat, received her specialty.
26 MarchThe Measurements Law was accepted, abolishing the former Arabic length and weight measurement units and replacing them with the metric system (kilogram instead of okka, meter instead of endaze, etc.)
20 AprilMustafa Kemal Atatürk historically declared the slogan "Peace at home, peace in the world!"
4 MaySeventh cabinet by İsmet İnönü
25 JulyA new press law was accepted.
193218 JulyTurkey became a member of the League of Nations.
31 JulyTurkish woman Keriman Halis Ece was declared the World Beauty Queen at a contest in Belgium.
13 NovemberDr. Müfide Kazim became the first female Turkish government physician.
12 DecemberAdile Ayda became the first female Turkish civil servant in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
19337 FebruaryThe first Turkish-language mosque prayers began in Istanbul.
31 MayThe 480-year-old Darülfünun was abolished, to be converted into Istanbul University.
JuneSümerbank and Halkbank were established.
26 OctoberTurkish women were granted the right to vote and be elected to Village Councils.
18 NovemberIstanbul University was opened.
1 DecemberThe first five-year development plan was accepted.
193421 JuneThe Surname Law was accepted, abolishing the former titles of Bey, Effendi, Pasha, Sultan, and Hanım as of 26 November.
24 NovemberMustafa Kemal Pasha took the surname Atatürk.
The Hagia Sofia mosque was converted to the Ayasofya (Hagia Sofia) Museum.
5 DecemberTurkish women were granted the right to vote and be elected in Turkish parliamentary elections. (Afterwards, in the first elections, 18 women were elected to the Turkish Grand National Assembly).
19351 MarchEight cabinet by İsmet İnönü.
193629 MayA law determining the size and ratios of the star and crescent in the Turkish flag was accepted.
8 JuneA labor law was accepted which represented the first step towards the Turkish Social Security System.
193727 JanuaryHatay's independence was accepted by the League of Nations in its Geneva meeting.
9 JuneA law establishing a medical faculty in Ankara was accepted.
20 SeptemberAtatürk opened the first art gallery in his residence, the Dolmabahce Palace.
9 OctoberAtatürk opened the Nazilli Printed Cloth Fabric Factory.
25 OctoberNinth cabinet by Celâl Bayar, former minister of Economy
Dersim Rebellion in 1937–1938 : The revolt had quashed by government.
193810 NovemberThe founder Mustafa Kemal Atatürk died. He was succeeded by İsmet İnönü, former prime minister and general. He declares himself "National Chief" (Millî Şef), similar to the titles of some other dictators in Europe at the time.
1939World War II: World War II began. Turkey was to remain neutral for most of the war, until a declaration of war against Germany at its end.
7 JulyThe Province of Hatay joined Turkey.
195014 MayFirst Democratic Elections in Turkish Republic. General İsmet İnönü and his Republican People's Party, which had ruled the country since 1923, loses election to newly formed Democratic Party of Celâl Bayar and Adnan Menderes.
25 JuneKorean War: The Korean War began. Turkey was a part of the joint UN operation.
Müfide İlhan mayor of Mersin. First ever woman mayor in Turkey.
1952Turkey became a NATO member country strategically important in countering Soviet influence.
195327 JulyKorean War: The war ended.
1954Turkey began to host the United States Air Force at the Incirlik Air Base as a deterrent to the Soviet Union.
19556 SeptemberIstanbul Pogrom: The Istanbul Pogrom started the process of driving many Greeks and Christians from Turkey.
7 SeptemberIstanbul Pogrom: The pogrom drew to a close.
196027 May38 officers of Army form a junta and organize the 1960 Turkish coup d'état. They claim the Islamists had gained influence in the government. After this clash over the "separation of religion and state/government" between İnönü's Republican People's Party and his opponents, democratically elected President Celâl Bayar and Prime Minister Adnan Menderes of Democratic Party, Prime Minister Adnan Menderes was held responsible by a kangaroo court selected by the junta and was executed with two of his ministers.
196514 OctoberMilitary rule bowed out to civilian rule, and former Millî Şef (National Chief) İsmet İnönü again loses a democratic election, this time to the Justice Party of Mr. Süleyman Demirel.
197112 MarchMilitary officials forced an advisory committee on the government due to the increasing anarchical situation caused by the Right (fascist/capitalist) – Left (communist) clash and ineffective policies in maintaining order. Although the military were not in charge they had significant influence.
1974Turkey invaded Cyprus in response to a Greek-backed coup on the island.
198012 SeptemberThe 1980 coup d'état took place. Martial law was almost immediately established and a quarter of the military (about 475,000) were mobilised to settle the resistance to the coup.
19836 NovemberAfter the establishment of a new 1982 Constitution, the military regime dissolved itself.
1991After the ending of the 1991 Persian Gulf War, the Incirlik Air Base enforced the northern no-fly zones in Iraq.
199924 MarchKosovo War: NATO interceded in the Balkans to end a civil war in the region. Turkey was part of the mission.
10 JuneKosovo War: The war ended.

21st century

YearDateEvent
2002JuneTurkey assumed command of the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) in Afghanistan.
2003FebruaryTurkey relinquished command of the ISAF.
200417 DecemberThe European Union (EU) agreed to begin negotiations on the eventual accession of Turkey.
200514 FebruaryTurkey assumed command of the ISAF in Afghanistan for a second time.
3 OctoberThe European Union (EU) started accession talks with Turkey. The talks did not start at the desired time due to disagreements.[2]
201124 MarchTurkey gave NATO the green light and allowed Izmir to become the command center of the operation to oust Muammar Gaddafi's regime in Libya.[3][4]
2012
201317 DecemberA corruption scandal to topple the ruling AKP failed.[5]
2014Turkey starts designing and manufacturing its own national tank Altay, helicopter Atak and drone Anka for the first time.
30 MarchLocal elections held with the ruling AK Party displaying an overwhelming victory, especially in the motherland of Anatolia.
28 AugustThen Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan chosen as the first freely elected president of the nation.
201615 July Alleged attempted coup and subsequent crackdowns.[6]
2017 1 January Istanbul nightclub shooting - At least 39 people were killed and 69 people[7] were wounded in the Reina nightclub in Beşiktaş Istanbul.[8][9]
2018 19 January The Turkish Armed Forces launched its ''Olive Branch'' land and air operation in north-western Syria, capturing large areas which was under Kurdish control.[10]
2018 18 April 2018 Turkish general election - Recep Tayyip Erdogan announced that early elections will take place on 24 June.[11]
2018 12 June Presidents of Azerbaijan, Turkey, Georgia inaugurated Trans-Anatolian gas pipeline in the central city of Eskisehir, Turkey with the participation of Petro Poroshenko, and Aleksandar Vucic.[12][13]
2018 19 October The STAR refinery has been launched in Aliaga Izmir, Turkey.[14][15]
2019 9 October 2019 Turkish offensive into north-eastern Syria

See also

Cities in Turkey

References

  1. Foundation of Ottoman State, Halil İnalcık http://www.inalcik.com/images/pdfs/39409006FOUNDATiONOFOTTOMANSTATE.pdf
  2. "NEGOTIATING FRAMEWORK: Principles governing the negotiations" (PDF).
  3. Turkey’s war in Libya Archived 17 November 2015 at the Wayback Machine
  4. "NATO to police Libya no-fly zone". Al Jazeera. 24 March 2011.
  5. Özgür Altuncu (23 December 2013). "Başbakan Erdoğan Pakistan'da havai fişeklerle karşılandı" [Prime Minister Erdogan was greeted in Pakistan with fireworks]. Hürriyet Daily News (in Turkish). Retrieved 7 November 2014.
  6. "Civilian Actors in the Turkish Military Drama of July 2016" (PDF).
  7. "Istanbul nightclub attacked during New Year's party". The Independent. 31 December 2016. Retrieved 3 May 2018.
  8. "Tunisia's revolutionary youth disillusioned ahead of municipal elections". Arab News. 3 May 2018. Retrieved 3 May 2018.
  9. "Survivors remember horror in trial of Daesh massacre in Istanbul". DailySabah. Retrieved 3 May 2018.
  10. "Erdogan: Operation in Syria's Afrin has begun". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 3 May 2018.
  11. CNBC (18 April 2018). "Turkey's Erdogan declares early elections on June 24". CNBC. Retrieved 3 May 2018.
  12. "Reducing reliance on Russia, Turkey opens TANAP to carry Caspian gas to Europe". New Europe. 13 June 2018. Retrieved 19 August 2018.
  13. (www.dw.com), Deutsche Welle. "Turkey opens TANAP pipeline that will bring Azerbaijani gas to Europe | DW | 12.06.2018". DW.COM. Retrieved 19 August 2018.
  14. "Largest private sector investment STAR refinery set for grand opening next week". DailySabah. Retrieved 7 November 2018.
  15. "STAR Refinery officially opens in western Turkey". Retrieved 7 November 2018.

Bibliography

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