Timeline of Scottish history

This is a timeline of Scottish history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Scotland and its predecessor states. To read about the background to these events, see History of Scotland. See also the list of Scottish monarchs, list of British monarchs, list of First Ministers of Scotland, and list of years in Scotland.[1]

Centuries: 1st · 2nd · 3rd · 4th · 5th · 6th · 7th · 8th · 9th · 10th · 11th · 12th · 13th · 14th · 15th · 16th · 17th · 18th · 19th · 20th · 21st

1st century

97 Romans defeat Caledonians at the Battle of Mons Graupius.

2nd century

122Romans construct the Hadrian's Wall.
143Romans construct the Antonine Wall.
163Romans withdraw south to Trimontium and Hadrian's Wall.

3rd century

300The term Pict is first recorded in describing the federated tribes invaded by Constantius Chlorus.

4th century

397Traditional date at which Saint Ninian establishes a Christian mission at Whithorn.

5th century

470Votadini peoples form the kingdom of Gododdin in the region north of the River Tweed.

6th century

547Angles capture the Northumbrian fortress at Bamburgh and found the kingdom of Bernicia.
563Saint Columba founds a monastery at Iona and begins his mission to the northern Picts.
574Áedán mac Gabráin begins reign over the Gaelic kingdom of Dál Riata.
575Western Scotland is granted independence from the Irish Dalriada, after a convention at Drum Ceatt near Derry.
580Riderch I of Alt Clut rules region later known as the kingdom of Strathclyde.
584Bruide, son of Maelchon, dies.

7th century

604Æthelfrith unites Bernicia and Deira to form the kingdom of Northumbria.
638Northumbrians capture Edinburgh from Gododdin.
680Trumwine Bishop of Abercorn.
681Bruide mac Bili, King of Fortriu, campaigns against Orkney.
685Pictish King Bruide mac Bili defeats Ecgfrith of Northumbria at the Battle of Dun Nechtain, halting the northern expansion of Northumbria.
693Bruide mac Bili dies.
697Bruide mac Der-Ilei among the signatories of the Cáin Adomnáin.

8th century

717Nechtan mac Der-Ilei expels Ionan clergy from Pictland and adopts Roman usages with the aid of Bishop Curetán; masons sent by Abbot Ceolfrid of Monkwearmouth-Jarrow Priory help build stone churches at Restenneth, Rosemarkie and elsewhere in eastern Scotland.
724Drust and Nechtan mac Der-Ilei fight civil war (to 729).
732Death of Nechtan mac Der-Ilei; Óengus mac Fergusa becomes King of the Picts.
735Óengus mac Fergusa, King of the Picts, campaigns against Dál Riata, and seizes and burns the royal centre of Dunadd.
736Battle of Cnoc Coirpi between Fortriu and Dál Riata.
741Battle of Druimm Cathmail between Fortriu and Dál Riata; the "smiting of Dál Riata", in which Dál Riata is subdued by Óengus mac Fergusa.
747St Andrews founded by this time, death of Abbot Túathalán.
750Picts defeated by Britons at the Battle of Catohic.
756Óengus mac Fergusa allied with the English of Northumbria attacks the Britons; the English army is destroyed.
761Death of Óengus mac Fergusa.
763Battle takes place in Fortriu between Ciniod and Áed Find; result unknown.
778Death of Áed Find, King of Dál Riata.
794Annals of Ulster report the "wasting" of "all the islands of Britain by gentiles [Vikings]".

9th century

802Iona burned by Vikings.
806The monasteries under Iona are attacked by Vikings, killing 68 monks.
820Death of Caustantín mac Fergusa.
829Abbot Diarmait, abbot of Iona, goes to Alba with relics of St Columba.
831Diarmait of Iona goes to Ireland with relics of St Columba.
839Eóganan mac Óengusa and his brother Bran killed in battle with Vikings, end of dominance of Fortriu.
858Death of Kenneth mac Alpin, King of the Picts; "union of Picts and Scots" traditionally dated from his reign.
870Alt Clut—Dumbarton Rock — captured by the Norse-Gael or Viking leaders Amlaíb Conung and Ímar after a six-month of siege.
878Kenneth mac Alpin's son Áed killed; Giric becomes king.
889Death of Giric; Domnall mac Causantín, grandson of Kenneth, becomes king.
890The Strathclyde Britons are exiled to the Gwynedd in Wales.

10th century

900Causantín mac Áeda succeeds Domnall mac Causantín.
937Battle of Brunanburh English victory in 937 by the army of Æthelstan, King of England, and his brother Edmund over the combined armies of Olaf III Guthfrithson, the Norse-Gael King of Dublin, Constantine II, King of Scots, and Owen I, King of Strathclyde.
940Saint Catroe of Metz leaves Scotland.
943Causantín mac Áeda abdicates to become a culdee at St Andrews.
952Death of Causantín mac Áeda.
954Indulf captures Edinburgh from Northumbria.

11th century

1058After defeating Mac Bethad and Lulach, Máel Coluim III is proclaimed king.
1012Battle of Cruden Bay

12th century

1124David I becomes king and introduces the feudal system of landholding to much of Scotland.
1128David I founds Holyrood Abbey at Edinburgh.
1136Glasgow Cathedral (St Kentigern's, begun 1123) consecrated in the presence of David I.
1153Somerled sacks Glasgow and its vicinity.
1156Somerled defeats the Norse King of Mann and the Isles, establishing his own semi-independent rule as ri Innse Gall-King of the Hebrides.
1164Somerled is defeated by Malcolm IV in the Battle of Renfrew.
1174William I signs the Treaty of Falaise in which he swears allegiance to Henry II of England.

13th century

1234Galloway's independent existence ends with the death of Alan, Lord of Galloway.
1237Southern border of Scotland established in the Treaty of York.
1263Scots defeat Norwegians in the Battle of Largs.
1266Norway cedes the Hebrides and Isle of Man to Scotland in the Treaty of Perth.
1292Edward I of England intervenes in Scottish affairs and grants the Scottish throne to John Balliol.
1297Andrew de Moravia and William Wallace lead the Scots to victory over England at Stirling Bridge.

14th century

1305William Wallace is executed in London.
1314Robert the Bruce defeats the English at Bannockburn.
1320Nobles assert Scottish independence in the Declaration of Arbroath.
1328Treaty of Northampton. England recognises Scottish independence.
1329Death of Robert the Bruce. His 5-year-old son, David II succeeds him.
1371Robert II becomes first Stewart king.

15th century

1402English defeat Scots in the Battle of Nesbit Moor and the Battle of Humbleton Hill.
1413Foundation of the University of St Andrews.
1451Establishment of the University of Glasgow.
1468Denmark cedes Orkney and Shetland from Norway to Scotland.
1493Lordship of the Isles abolished. In 1540 the title was reserved to the crown.
1495Creation of the University of Aberdeen (King's College).
1496Education Act of 1496 makes education compulsory for barons and wealthy landowners.

16th century

1513James IV and thousands of Scots are killed at Flodden.
1532Creation of the College of Justice and the Court of Session.
1542Death of James V.
1559John Knox returns to Scotland from Geneva to promote Calvinism.
1560Parliament legislates Protestant Reformation of the Church of Scotland.
1561Mary, Queen of Scots returns from France.
1568Mary, Queen of Scots flees to England following the defeat of her army at the Battle of Langside.
1579James VI takes over government from his regent, James Douglas.
1582Establishment of the University of Edinburgh by Royal Charter.
1587Mary is beheaded by the order of Queen Elizabeth I of England.
1589James VI marries Anne of Denmark in Oslo.
1592James VI enacts the "Golden Act" recognising the power of Presbyterianism within the Scottish church.

17th century

1603The Union of the Crowns: James VI of Scotland becomes James I of England.
1614John Napier invents logarithms and publishes a book promoting their use in mathematics.
1618James VI forces episcopacy on the Church of Scotland through the Five Articles of Perth.
1633Education Act of 1633 ordains a school in every parish (partially successful).
1638Scottish Covenanters rebel against Charles I.
1639The First Bishops' War.
1640The Second Bishops' War.
1642The First English Civil War started.
1643The Solemn League and Covenant promises Scots army to aid English parliamentarians against the king.
1646The First English Civil War ended.
1648The Second English Civil War started.
1649The Second English Civil War ended.
1649The Third English Civil War started.
1650Southern Scotland occupied by the English Commonwealth's New Model Army following Scottish defeats at the Battle of Dunbar 1650 and the Battle of Hamilton during the Third English Civil War
16513 SeptemberBattle of Worcester was a victory for New Model Army over the last major Royalist field army. Most of the Royalist officers and men who fought at Worcester were Scottish. For the next ten years, apart from some mopping up operations and a few insurrections, (all of which were easily suppressed) there was not further military resistance to rule from London.
1651The Third English Civil War ended.
16545 MayOliver Cromwell issued several a proclamation at the Mercat Cross in Edinburgh. Oliver Cromwell was the Protector of England Ireland and Scotland, that Scotland was united with the Commonwealth of England (Tender of Union) and there was a general pardon with some exceptions for the people of Scotland for any actions taken during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms (Cromwell's Act of Grace).
166014 MayThe monarchy is restored in Scotland and Scotland resumes its status as a separate kingdom.
1661MayFour men were executed for high treason for their actions against the Crown during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. Archibald Campbell, 8th Earl of Argyll, James Guthrie, William Govan were all executed in May 1661 (the fourth Archibald Johnston, Lord Warriston fled abroad but returned to Scotland and was executed on 22 July 1663).
16616 SeptemberThe restoration of the Episcopacy was proclaimed by the Privy Council of Scotland.
1662During the parliamentary session the Church of Scotland was restored as the national Church and all office-holders were required to renounced the Covenant.
16629 SeptemberThe Scottish parliament passed the Act of indemnity and oblivion. It was a general pardon for most types of crime that may have been committed by Scots, between 1 January 1637 and before 1 September 1660, during what the Act called "the late troubles" (the Wars of the Three Kingdoms and the Interregnum).
1679James, Duke of Monmouth defeats Covenanters at the Battle of Bothwell Brig.
1689Jacobite rising of 1689 Highlanders defeat army of William III at Killiecrankie, but are halted at Battle of Dunkeld.
The Claim of Right and the re-establishment of Presbyterianism.
1692The Massacre of Glencoe.
1695The Bank of Scotland is created by an Act of the Parliament.
1696Education Act of 1696 ordains a school in every parish (successful; act governs education until the 1872 act).

18th century

1707The Union of the Parliaments: the Acts of Union are passed by both the Scottish and English parliaments.
1715Jacobite rising of 1715.
1745Jacobite rising of 1745.
1746The Battle of Culloden ends the last Jacobite rising.
1748David Hume publishes An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding.
1754Joseph Black discovers "fixed air" (carbon dioxide).
1768The Encyclopædia Britannica First Edition commences publication.
1769James Watt patents idea for separate condensing chamber in the steam engine.
1775Passage of the Colliers and Salters (Scotland) Act 1775 commences the removal of life bondage of coal and salt workers.[2]
1776Adam Smith publishes The Wealth of Nations.

19th century

1802John Playfair publishes summary of James Hutton's theories of geology.
1805The Glasgow Herald newspaper first published.
1817The Scotsman newspaper first published.
1820The "Radical War".
1822Visit of King George IV to Scotland organized by Sir Walter Scott.
1832The Reform Act enlarges the franchise.
1843The Disruption in the Church of Scotland (over the issue of patronage).
1846Beginning of the ten-year Highland Potato Famine.
1847The United Presbyterian Church of Scotland is established.
1864James Clerk Maxwell presents equations describing electromagnetic fields.
1874Patronage abolished in the Church of Scotland.
1878Collapse of the City of Glasgow Bank.
1879William Ewart Gladstone conducts the Midlothian campaign as part of a political comeback.
The Tay Bridge disaster.
1885Creation of the Scottish Office and the post of Secretary for Scotland, later Secretary of State for Scotland.
1890Opening of the Forth Railway Bridge.
1896Opening of the Glasgow Subway.

20th century

1929The Church of Scotland and the United Free Church of Scotland unite.
1934Scottish National Party founded.
1938The Empire Exhibition, Scotland is held at Bellahouston Park, Glasgow.
1941The Clydebank Blitz (13–15 March).
1943Creation of the North of Scotland Hydro-Electric Board to bring electricity to all parts of the Highlands and Islands.
1945First Scottish Nationalist MP is elected.
1947Nationalisation of the railways – the Scottish Region of British Railways is created.
The first Edinburgh International Festival is held.
1950The Stone of Destiny is removed from Westminster Abbey.
1957Scottish Television starts broadcasting.
1968The General Assembly of the Church of Scotland permits the ordination of women as ministers.
1975Local government reorganisation (replacing Counties and Burghs for administrative purposes with Regions and Districts).
1978Launch of BBC Radio Scotland.
1979Referendum to create a Scottish Assembly wins a majority but fails to win 40% of electorate. Act is therefore repealed without being put into effect.
1988Terrorists blow up Pan Am Flight 103 over Lockerbie with the loss of 270 lives, including 11 residents of the town.
1995Local government reorganisation (replacing the Regions and Districts with single-tier councils).
1996The Stone of Destiny is permanently returned to Scotland, to be housed in Edinburgh Castle.
1997Newly elected Labour UK Government under the leadership of Scots-born Prime Minister Tony Blair legislates for a referendum on a devolved Scottish Parliament which is passed by a large majority.
1999A Scottish Parliament sits for the first time in 272 years. Donald Dewar of the Scottish Labour Party elected as First Minister and forms Scottish Executive in coalition with the Scottish Liberal Democrats.

21st century

20049 OctoberOpening of the new Scottish Parliament Building.
2007The Scottish National Party become the largest party in the Scottish Parliament and forms a minority government.
2011The Scottish National Party under Alex Salmond gain an overall majority of the Scottish Parliament.
2013The Church of Scotland's ruling General Assembly votes to allow actively gay men and women to become ministers.
201418 SeptemberScotland has a referendum on national independence. Result is to remain part of the UK, by 55% to 45%.
2015 The Scottish National Party wins 50% of the popular vote in the UK General Election, securing 56 out of the 59 seats in Scotland.

See also


  1. David Ross, Chronology of Scottish History (2002) has details for every year.
  2. Mantoux, Paul (1964). The Industrial Revolution in the Eighteenth Century. Jonathan Cape. p. 74. ISBN 9781136585593.
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