Timeline of Roman history

This is a timeline of Roman history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in the Roman Kingdom and Republic and the Roman and Byzantine Empires. To read about the background of these events, see Ancient Rome and History of the Byzantine Empire.

Following tradition, this timeline marks the deposition of Romulus Augustulus and the Fall of Constantinople as the end of Rome in the west and east, respectively. See Third Rome for a discussion of claimants to the succession of Rome.

Millennia: 1st BC · 1st–2nd

Centuries: 7th BC · 6th BC · 5th BC · 4th BC · 3rd BC · 2nd BC · 1st BC · 1st · 2nd · 3rd · 4th · 5th · 6th · 7th · 8th · 9th · 10th · 11th · 12th · 13th · 14th · 15th

8th and 7th centuries BC

753 BC21 AprilRome was founded. According to Roman legend, Romulus was the founder and first King of Rome, establishing the Roman Kingdom.
715 BCNuma Pompilius became the second King of Rome.
673 BCTullus Hostilius became the third King of Rome.
667 BCByzantium was founded by Megarian colonists.
642 BCTullus Hostilius died.
The Curiate Assembly, one of the legislative assemblies of the Roman Kingdom, elected Ancus Marcius King of Rome.
617 BCAncus Marcius died.
616 BCThe Curiate Assembly elected Lucius Tarquinius Priscus King of Rome.

6th century BC

575 BCThe Senate accepted the regent Servius Tullius as king of Rome.
535 BCServius Tullius was murdered by his daughter Tullia Minor and her husband Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, who declared himself King of Rome on the steps of the Curia Hostilia.
509 BCThe patrician Lucretia was raped by Lucius Tarquinius Superbus's son Sextus Tarquinius.
Overthrow of the Roman monarchy: Following Lucretia's suicide, Lucius Junius Brutus called the Curiate Assembly, one of the legislative assemblies of the Roman Kingdom. The latter agreed to the overthrow and expulsion of Lucius Tarquinius Superbus and to a provisional constitution under which two consuls acted as a joint executive and a Curiate Assembly held legislative power, and swore never again to let a king rule Rome. It further elected Lucius Junius Brutus and Lucius Tarquinius Collatinus, Lucretia's husband, as consuls.
Battle of Silva Arsia: Tarquinian and Veientine forces loyal to Lucius Tarquinius Superbus were defeated in the Silva Arsia by a Roman army. Lucius Junius Brutus was killed. Publius Valerius Publicola, returning to Rome with the spoils of war, was awarded the first Roman Triumph on March 1.
The consul Publius Valerius Publicola promulgated a number of liberal reforms, including opening the office of consul to all Roman citizens and placing the treasury under the administration of appointed quaestors.
13 SeptemberThe Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus was ceremonially dedicated to the Capitoline Triad.
508 BCRoman–Etruscan Wars: A Clusian army failed to conquer Rome.
501 BCIn the face of a potential Sabine invasion, the Senate passed a senatus consultum authorizing the consuls to appoint a dictator, a magistrate who held absolute power during a national emergency. The dictator would in turn appoint the Magister equitum, the commander of the cavalry. The consuls Titus Lartius and Postumus Cominius Auruncus selected the former as dictator.

5th century BC

496 BCBattle of Lake Regillus: Latin League invasion near modern Frascati which sought to reinstall Lucius Tarquinius Superbus.
494 BCFirst secessio plebis:

Lucius Sicinius Vellutus, the plebs abandoned Rome for the nearby Monte Sacro.

471 BCAfter a law allowing organization of the plebs tribe, the Plebeian Council was reorganized by tribes rather than curiae.
459 BCUnder popular pressure, the Senate increased the tribunes of the plebs from two to ten.
458 BCDuring the first dictatorship of Cincinnatus, the Aequians staged an offensive, breaking a truce. Cincinnatus defeated the Aquians at the Battle of Mount Algidus and after a triumph, returned to his farm after sixteen days.[1]
449 BCResolutions of the Plebeian Council were given the full force of law subject to Senate veto.
The second of two decemviri, specially-elected ten man commissions, issued the last of the Twelve Tables, the fundamental laws of the Republic.
447 BCThe Tribal Assembly was established, and granted the right to elect quaestors.
445 BCLex Canuleia: Marriage between patricians and plebeians was legalized.
443 BCThe offices of the Tribuni militum consulari potestate were established. A collegium of three patrician or plebeian tribunes, one each from specific Roman tribes (the Titienses, the Ramnenses, and the Luceres), would hold the power of the consuls from year to year, subject to the Senate.
The office of the censor, a patrician magistrate responsible for conducting the census in years without a consul, was established.
439 BCCincinnatus was called upon to accept a second dictatorship by the patricians to prevent Spurius Maelius from seizing power; the patricians suspected Spurius of using wheat to purchase the support of the plebeians, to set himself up as a king. Gaius Servilius Ahala was appointed magister equitum in order to stop Maelius; following an attack by Maelius, Ahala slew him. Cincinnatus again resigned his dictatorship and returned to his farm after 21 days.[2]
435 BCFidenae, an important trade post on the Tiber, was captured from the Veii.[3]
408 BCThe Tribuni militum consulari potestate held office.

4th century BC

396 BCBattle of Veii: Roman forces led by the dictator Marcus Furius Camillus conquered Veii.
Roman soldiers first earned a salary ("salary" from Latin for "salt").
394 BCThe consuls held office.
391 BCThe Tribuni militum consulari potestate held office.
390 BC18 JulyBattle of the Allia: The Senones routed a Roman force at the confluence of the rivers Allia and Tiber.
The Senones sacked Rome.
367 BCThe consuls held office.
366 BCLucius Sextius was elected the first plebeian consul.
The office of Praetor, which took the judiciary responsibilities of the consul and could be held only by a patrician, was established.
351 BCThe first plebeian dictator was elected.
The first plebeian censor was elected.
343 BCSamnite Wars: Rome marched against the Samnites, probably after an appeal from the Campanians.
Battle of Mount Gaurus: A Samnite force was routed by a Roman army near Mount Barbaro.
342 BCThe Leges Genuciae were passed, banning a person from holding two offices at the same time, or during any ten-year period; charging interest on loans was also banned.
341 BCSamnite Wars: The Senate agreed a peace, following an appeal by the Samnite to a previous treaty of friendship.
340 BCLatin War: The Latin League invaded Samnium.
339 BCA law was passed which required the election of at least one plebeian censor every five years.
338 BCLatin War: Rome defeated the Latin League armies.
337 BCThe first plebeian Praetor was elected.
328 BCSamnite Wars: Rome declared war on the Samnites after their failure to prevent their subjects raiding Fregellae.
321 BCBattle of the Caudine Forks: After being trapped in a mountain pass near Caudium without a water supply, Roman forces were allowed to retreat by a Samnite army.
315 BCBattle of Lautulae: A decisive Samnite victory near Terracina split Roman territory in two.
311 BCSamnite Wars: The Etruscans laid siege to Sutri.
310 BCBattle of Lake Vadimo (310 BC): Rome inflicted a substantial military defeat on the Etruscans at Lake Vadimo.
308 BCSamnite Wars: The Umbri, Picentes and Marsi joined the Samnites against Rome.
306 BCThe Hernici declared their independence from Rome.
305 BCBattle of Bovianum: A Roman force destroyed the majority of the Samnite army.
304 BCRome conquered the Aequi.
Samnite Wars: The treaty of friendship between the Romans and Samnites was restored.

3rd century BC

300 BCThe Lex Ogulnia was passed, allowing plebeians to become priests.
298 BCSamnite Wars: Rome declared war on the Samnites after an appeal by the Lucani.
Samnite Wars: Rome captured the Samnite cities of Bojano and Castel di Sangro.
297 BCBattle of Tifernum: A Roman army defeated a numerically superior Samnite force at Città di Castello.
295 BCBattle of Sentinum: A Roman army decisively defeated a numerically superior force of Samnites, Etruscans, Umbri and Senones in coalition at Sentinum. The consul Publius Decius Mus (consul 312 BC) was killed.
294 BCSamnite Wars: Roman and Samnite forces battled at Lucera.
293 BCBattle of Aquilonia: A Roman army destroyed the majority of Samnite forces, probably in modern Agnone.
A census counted about 270,000 residents of Rome.
291 BCSamnite Wars: Rome conquered and colonized the Samnite city of Venosa.
290 BCSamnite Wars: The last effective Samnite resistance was eliminated.
287 BCConflict of the Orders: A secessio plebis took place.
Conflict of the Orders: The Lex Hortensia was passed, made resolutions of the Plebeian Council (plebiscites) binding on all Romans, they formally only applied to plebeians.[4]
283 BCBattle of Lake Vadimo (283 BC): A Roman army defeated a combined force of Etruscans, Boii and Senones near Lake Vadimo.
281 BCTaranto appealed to Epirus for aid against Rome.
280 BCPyrrhic War: An Epirote army of some 25,000 landed at Taranto.
JulyBattle of Heraclea: A Greek coalition force led by the Epirote king Pyrrhus of Epirus defeated a Roman army after their deployment of war elephants at Heraclea Lucania.
279 BCBattle of Asculum: A Greek force led by the Epirote king Pyrrhus defeated a Roman army at modern Ascoli Satriano, despite suffering heavy losses.
275 BCBattle of Beneventum (275 BC): Roman and Epirote armies met in a bloody battle at Benevento.
272 BCPyrrhic War: Pyrrhus withdrew with his army to Epirus.
Pyrrhic War: Taranto surrendered to Rome.
267 BCThe number of quaestors was raised from four to ten.
264 BCBattle of Messana: A Roman force defeated a Carthaginian and Siracusani garrison at Messina.
242 BCThe office of the praetor qui inter peregrinos ius dicit, a Praetor with jurisdiction over foreigners, was created.
241 BCFirst Punic War: Sicily was organized as the province of Sicilia.
238 BCMercenary War: Carthage surrendered its claims on Sardinia and Corsica to Rome.
229 BCIllyrian Wars: Rome invaded the territory of the Ardiaei.
228 BCIllyrian Wars: The Ardiaei surrendered some territory, including strategically significant ports, to Rome, ending the war.
225 BCBattle of Telamon: A Roman army decisively defeated a Gallic invasion near modern Talamone. The consul Gaius Atilius Regulus was killed.
219 BCIllyrian Wars: Rome invaded Hvar.
218 BCSecond Punic War: A Carthaginian army departed Cartagena.
Illyrian Wars: Demetrius of Pharos fled to Macedonia.
216 BC2 AugustBattle of Cannae: The Carthaginian general Hannibal decisively defeated a numerically superior Roman force at Cannae.
214 BCFirst Macedonian War: A Macedonian fleet captured Oricum.
Siege of Syracuse (214–212 BC): Rome laid siege to Syracuse.
212 BCSiege of Syracuse (214–212 BC): Roman forces breached the inner citadel of Syracuse and slaughtered its inhabitants.
205 BCFirst Macedonian War: Rome and Macedonia signed the Treaty of Phoenice, according to which Macedonia renounced its alliance with Carthage in exchange for Roman recognition of its gains in Illyria.
204 BCSecond Punic War: The consul Scipio Africanus landed an invasion fleet at Utica.
202 BC19 OctoberBattle of Zama: A Roman army decisively defeated Carthage, probably near modern Sakiet Sidi Youssef.
201 BCSecond Punic War: Carthage accepted Roman conditions for peace, including disarmament, a war indemnity of ten thousand talents, and the cession of Iberia, ending the war.

2nd century BC

200 BCSecond Macedonian War: A Roman fleet arrived in Illyria to relieve a Macedonian siege of Abydos.
197 BCThe provinces of Hispania Ulterior and Hispania Citerior were organized.
The number of quaestors was increased to twelve.
The number of Praetors was increased to six.
196 BCSecond Macedonian War: Macedonia surrendered its conquests in Greece and agreed to pay a war indemnity, ending the war.
192 BCRoman–Seleucid War: The Seleucid Empire invaded Greece.
188 BCRoman–Seleucid War: The Seleucid Empire signed the Treaty of Apamea, under which it surrendered all territory west of the Taurus Mountains to the Roman clients Rhodes and Pergamon and agreed to disarm its navy and pay a war indemnity of fifteen thousand talents of silver to Rome.
180 BCThe Lex Villia annalis, which established minimum ages for high office and required a minimum of two years in private life between offices, was passed.
172 BCThird Macedonian War: Rome declared war on Macedonia.
167 BCThird Macedonian War: The Macedonian king Perseus of Macedon was captured. Macedonia was divided into four districts subject to Rome.
155 BCLusitanian War: The Lusitanians of Hispania Ulterior rebelled against Rome.
150 BCFourth Macedonian War: An Andriscus rebelled against Rome, claiming to be Perseus's son and the rightful king of Macedonia.
149 BCThird Punic War: Rome declared war on Carthage.
The Lex Calpurnia was passed, establishing a Praetor-led court to hear appeals against extortionate taxes levied by governors in the provinces.
148 BCFourth Macedonian War: Andriscus was surrendered to Rome to be executed.
146 BCThird Punic War: Roman forces breached the city of Carthage, burned it, and enslaved its surviving inhabitants.
Achaean War: Roman forces decisively defeated the armies of the Achaean League at Corinth.
The province of Macedonia was organized.
The province of Africa was organized on captured Carthaginian territory.
139 BCLusitanian War: The Lusitanian leader Viriatus was assassinated by his three ambassadors to Rome Audax, Ditalcus and Minurus.
Lex Gabinia tabellaria: required a secret ballot in elections of all magistrates.
133 BCThe Tribune of the Plebs Tiberius Gracchus was beaten to death by a mob of senators led by the Pontifex Maximus Publius Cornelius Scipio Nasica Serapio (consul 138 BC).
121 BCThe province of Gallia Narbonensis was organized.
The first Senatus consultum ultimum was passed, granting the consul Lucius Opimius emergency powers to defeat the partisans of Gaius Gracchus.
112 BCJugurthine War: Rome declared war on Numidia.
107 BCGaius Marius was elected consul.
Marius instituted the Marian reforms of the military, among them the establishment of a standing army and the recruitment of non-property owners.
106 BCMarius was reelected consul.
Jugurthine War: The Numidian king Jugurtha was imprisoned in the Mamertine Prison.
105 BC6 OctoberBattle of Arausio: A coalition of the Cimbri and Teutons inflicted a serious defeat on the Roman army at modern Orange. Some hundred thousand Roman soldiers were killed.
104 BCMarius was elected consul for the first of three years in a row.
102 BCBattle of Aquae Sextiae: Rome decisively defeated the forces of the Teutons and Ambrones and killed some ninety thousand soldiers and civilians.
101 BCBattle of Vercellae: An invasion of Italy by the Cimbri was decisively defeated by a numerically inferior Roman force. Some hundred thousand Cimbri soldiers and civilians were killed along with their king Boiorix.

1st century BC

100 BCMarius was elected consul.
10 DecemberAssassins hired by Marius's political allies Lucius Appuleius Saturninus and Gaius Servilius Glaucia beat to death Gaius Memmius, a candidate for the consulship.
91 BCSocial War (91–88 BC): The Roman clients in Italy the Marsi, the Paeligni, the Vestini, the Marrucini, the Picentes, the Frentani, the Hirpini, the Iapyges, Pompeii, Venosa, Lucania and Samnium rebelled against Rome.
88 BCSulla's first civil war: The consul Sulla led an army of his partisans across the pomerium into Rome.
Social War (91–88 BC): The war ended.
87 BCFirst Mithridatic War: Roman forces landed at Epirus.
85 BCFirst Mithridatic War: A peace was agreed between Rome and Pontus under which the latter returned to its prewar borders.
83 BCSulla's second civil war: Sulla landed with an army at Brindisi.
Second Mithridatic War: The Roman general Lucius Licinius Murena invaded Pontus.
82 BCSulla's second civil war: Sulla was declared dictator.
81 BCSecond Mithridatic War: Murena withdrew from Pontus.
Sulla resigns dictatorship after enacting numerous reforms in the same year.
80 BC Final consulship of Sulla, he leaves Rome once the year is over.
Sertorian War: Quintus Sertorius landed on the Iberian Peninsula in support of a Lusitanian rebellion.
73 BCThird Mithridatic War: Pontus invaded Bithynia.
Third Servile War: Some seventy gladiators, slaves of Lentulus Batiatus in Capua, made a violent escape.
72 BCSertorian War: Marcus Perpenna Vento, by now the leader of the Romans in revolt in Iberia, was executed by the general Pompey.
71 BCThird Servile War: The slaves in rebellion were decisively defeated by Roman forces near Petelia. Their leader Spartacus was killed.
66 BCThe last of the Cilician pirates were wiped out by Pompey.
63 BCThird Mithridatic War: Defeated, the Pontic king Mithridates VI of Pontus ordered his friend and bodyguard to kill him.
Siege of Jerusalem (63 BC): Pompey conquered Jerusalem and entered the Holy of Holies of the Second Temple.
Cicero was elected consul.
Second Catilinarian conspiracy: A conspiracy led by the senator Catiline to overthrow the Republic was exposed before the Senate. The five conspirators present were summarily executed in the Mamertine Prison.
60 BCPompey joined a political alliance, the so-called First Triumvirate, with the consul Julius Caesar and the censor Marcus Licinius Crassus.
59 BC Consulship of Julius Caesar.
58 BCGallic Wars: Roman forces barred the westward migration of the Helvetii across the Rhône.
53 BC6 MayBattle of Carrhae: A Parthian army decisively defeated a numerically superior Roman invasion force near Harran. Crassus was killed.
50 BCGallic Wars: The last Gaulish rebels were defeated.
49 BC10 JanuaryCaesar's Civil War: Julius Caesar illegally crossed the Rubicon into Italy with his army.
48 BC4 JanuaryCaesar's Civil War: Caesar landed at Durrës in pursuit of Pompey and his partisans the optimates.
46 BCNovemberCaesar left Africa for Iberia in pursuit of Pompey's sons Gnaeus Pompeius and Sextus Pompey.
44 BC15 MarchAssassination of Julius Caesar: Caesar was assassinated in the Theatre of Pompey by a conspiracy of senators.
43 BC27 NovemberThe Lex Titia was passed, granting the Second Triumvirate of Octavius (later known as Augustus), Mark Antony and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus the power to make and annul laws and appoint magistrates.
42 BCLiberators' civil war: Augustus and Antony led some thirty legions to northern Greece in pursuit of Caesar's assassins Marcus Junius Brutus the Younger and Gaius Cassius Longinus.
23 OctoberLiberators' civil war: Brutus committed suicide after being defeated in battle.
33 BCAntony's Parthian War: A campaign led by Antony against the Parthian Empire ended in failure.
The Second Triumvirate expired.
31 BC2 SeptemberBattle of Actium: Forces loyal to Augustus defeated Antony and his lover Cleopatra, queen of Egypt, in a naval battle near Actium.
30 BC1 AugustFinal War of the Roman Republic: Antony's forces defected to Augustus. He committed suicide.
30 AugustCleopatra committed suicide, probably in Roman custody and by snakebite.
The province of Egypt was organized. Augustus took the title pharaoh.
29 BCMoesia was annexed to Rome.
Cantabrian Wars: Rome deployed some eighty thousand soldiers against the Cantabri in Iberia.
27 BC16 JanuaryThe Senate granted Augustus the titles augustus, majestic, and princeps, first.
25 BCAugustus indicated his nephew Marcus Claudius Marcellus (Julio-Claudian dynasty) as his chosen successor by marrying him to his only daughter Julia the Elder.
The Roman client Amyntas of Galatia died. Augustus organized his territory as the province of Galatia.
24 BCAugustus' campaigns against the Cantabrians in Hispania Tarraconensis, the Cantabrian Wars, ended.
23 BCCoinage reform of Augustus: Augustus centralized the minting of and reformed the composition and value of the Roman currency.
Marcellus died.
21 BCAugustus married Julia to his general Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa.
19 BCCantabrian Wars: The last major combat operations ended. The Cantabri and Astures were pacified.
17 BCAugustus adopted the sons of Agrippa and Julia, his grandsons Gaius Caesar and Lucius Caesar, as his own sons.
16 BCRaetia and Noricum were conquered and annexed to Rome.
12 BCGermanic Wars: Roman forces crossed the Rhine into Germania.
Agrippa died of fever.
11 BCAugustus married Julia to his general and stepson Tiberius.
9 BCThe Roman general Nero Claudius Drusus died from injuries sustained falling from a horse.
Pannonia was annexed and incorporated into Illyricum.
6 BCAugustus offered Tiberius tribunician power and imperium over the eastern half of the Empire. Tiberius refused, announcing his retirement to Rhodes.
2 BCAugustus was acclaimed Pater Patriae, father of the country, by the Senate.[5]
Augustus convicted Julia of adultery and treason, annulled her marriage to Tiberius, and exiled her with her mother Scribonia to Ventotene.

Centuries: 1st · 2nd · 3rd · 4th · 5th · 6th · 7th · 8th · 9th · 10th · 11th · 12th · 13th · 14th · 15th

1st century

AD 220 AugustLucius Caesar died of a sudden illness.
Augustus allowed Tiberius to return to Rome as a private citizen.
AD 421 FebruaryGaius Caesar died in Lycia from wounds suffered in battle.
Augustus adopted Tiberius as his son and granted him tribunician power.
AD 6Augustus deposed Herod Archelaus, ethnarch in Samaria, Judea and Idumea, and organized the province of Judea on his territories.
Bellum Batonianum: The Daesitiates, an Illyrian people, rose up against Roman authority in Illyricum.
AD 9Bellum Batonianum: The Daesitiate chieftain Bato (Daesitiate chieftain) surrendered to Roman forces.
SeptemberBattle of the Teutoburg Forest: A coalition of Germanic forces ambushed and destroyed three Roman legions in the Teutoburg Forest. Publius Quinctilius Varus, the commander of Roman forces in Germania, committed suicide.
AD 10Tiberius assumed command of Roman forces in Germania.
Illyricum was divided into the provinces of Pannonia and Dalmatia.
AD 13Tiberius was granted power equal to Augustus as co-princeps.
AD 1419 AugustAugustus died.
Germanicus, son of Nero Claudius Drusus and adoptive son of Tiberius, was appointed commander of Roman forces in Germania.
Germanicus and Tiberius's natural son Drusus Julius Caesar were sent to suppress mutinies in Germania and Pannonia, respectively.
AD 15Lucius Seius Strabo was appointed governor of Egypt. His son Sejanus remained as the sole prefect of the Praetorian Guard.
AD 16Battle of the Weser River: A Roman army led by Germanicus decisively defeated a Germanic force on the Weser.
AD 17Archelaus of Cappadocia, king in Cappadocia and a Roman client, died. Tiberius annexed his territory, organizing it as the province of Cappadocia.
Antiochus III of Commagene, king of Commagene and a Roman client, died. Tiberius annexed his territory to the province of Syria.
AD 18Tiberius granted Germanicus imperium over the eastern half of the Empire.
AD 1910 OctoberGermanicus died in Antioch, possibly after being poisoned on Tiberius's orders.
AD 22Tiberius granted Drusus Julius Caesar tribunician power, marking him as his choice as successor.
AD 2314 SeptemberDrusus Julius Caesar died, possibly after being poisoned by Sejanus or his wife Livilla.
AD 26Tiberius retired to Capri, leaving Sejanus in control of Rome through his office.
AD 28The Frisii hanged their Roman tax collectors and expelled the governor.
AD 29Livia, Augustus's widow and Tiberius's mother, died.
AD 3118 OctoberSejanus was executed on Tiberius's orders.
Tiberius invited Germanicus's son Caligula to join him on Capri.
AD 3716 MarchTiberius died. His will left his offices jointly to Caligula and Drusus Julius Caesar's son, his grandson Tiberius Gemellus.
AD 38Tiberius Gemellus was murdered on Caligula's orders.
AD 40Ptolemy of Mauretania, king of Mauretania and a Roman client, was murdered on Caligula's orders during a state visit to Rome. His slave Aedemon rose in revolt against Roman rule.
AD 41The general Gaius Suetonius Paulinus was appointed to suppress the rebellion in Mauretania.
24 JanuaryCaligula was assassinated by the centurion Cassius Chaerea.
The Praetorian Guard acclaimed Nero Claudius Drusus's son Claudius princeps.
Claudius restored the Judean monarchy under king Herod Agrippa.
AD 42The territory of the former Mauretania was organized into the provinces of Mauretania Caesariensis and Mauretania Tingitana.
AD 43Roman conquest of Britain: The senator Aulus Plautius led four legions into Great Britain in support of king Verica of the Atrebates.
Claudius annexed Lycia into the Empire as a province.
AD 46The Odrysian king Rhoemetalces III, a Roman client, was killed by anti-Roman insurgents.
Odrysia was incorporated into the Empire as the province of Thracia.
AD 48Claudius's wife Messalina was executed for conspiracy.
Claudius appointed Herod Agrippa's son Herod Agrippa II king of Judea.
AD 49Claudius married his niece, Germanicus's daughter Agrippina the Younger.
AD 50Claudius adopted Agrippina's son Nero as his own son.
AD 5413 OctoberClaudius died after being poisoned by Agrippina. Nero succeeded him as princeps.
AD 5511 FebruaryClaudius's young natural son Britannicus died, probably by poison.
AD 58Roman–Parthian War of 58–63: Roman forces attacked Armenia in support of their preferred king Tigranes VI of Armenia against the Parthian candidate Tiridates I of Armenia.
AD 5923 MarchAgrippina died, probably murdered by her son Nero.
AD 60Boudica, a queen of the Iceni, was appointed to lead a revolt of the Iceni and the Trinovantes against Rome.
AD 61Battle of Watling Street: Some eighty thousand soldiers and civilians among the Iceni and Trinovantes were killed, probably in the modern West Midlands, ending Boudica's revolt.
AD 63Roman–Parthian War of 58–63: The Roman and Parthian Empires agreed that Tiridates and his descendants would remain kings of Armenia as Roman clients, ending the war.
AD 6418 JulyGreat Fire of Rome: A fire began which would cause massive property damage and loss of life over six days in Rome.
Nero began construction of his large and extravagant villa the Domus Aurea.
AD 6519 AprilPisonian conspiracy: Nero was informed of a broad conspiracy to assassinate him and appoint the senator Gaius Calpurnius Piso leader of Rome.
AD 66First Jewish–Roman War: The Jewish population of Judea revolted against Roman rule.
AD 689 JuneNero, then in hiding in the villa of the freedman Phaon (freedman), was notified that the Senate had declared him an enemy of the state and ordered him brought to the Forum to be publicly beaten to death. He ordered his secretary Epaphroditos to kill him.
The Senate accepted Galba, governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, as ruler of Rome.
Zealot Temple Siege: The forces of Ananus ben Ananus, the Jewish former High Priest of Israel, laid siege to the Zealots in the Second Temple.
AD 6915 JanuaryThe Praetorian Guard assassinated Galba and acclaimed Otho ruler of Rome.
16 AprilFollowing his defeat by Vitellius, the commander of the Roman army on the lower Rhine, near modern Calvatone, and to prevent further civil war, Otho committed suicide.
Revolt of the Batavi: Gaius Julius Civilis, commander of the Batavi auxiliaries in the Rhine legions, turned against Rome.
DecemberThe Senate recognized Vespasian, the commander of Roman forces in Egypt and Judea, as ruler of Rome.
22 DecemberVitellius was executed in Rome by troops loyal to Vespasian.
AD 70Revolt of the Batavi: Following a series of battlefield reversals, Civilis accepted peace terms from the Roman general Quintus Petillius Cerialis.
SeptemberSiege of Jerusalem (70 CE): The Roman general Titus breached the walls of Jerusalem, sacked the city and destroyed the Second Temple.
AD 71Roman conquest of Britain: Roman forces entered modern Scotland.
AD 7316 AprilSiege of Masada: Roman forces breached the walls of Masada, a mountain fortress held by the Jewish extremist sect the Sicarii.
AD 77Gnaeus Julius Agricola was appointed consul and governor of Britain.
AD 7923 JuneVespasian died. He was succeeded by his son Titus.
24 AugustEruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79: Mount Vesuvius erupted, destroying the cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum.
AD 80Rome was partially destroyed by fire.
MarchThe Colosseum was completed.
AD 8113 SeptemberTitus died of fever. He was succeeded by his younger brother Domitian.
AD 85Agricola was recalled to Rome.
AD 86Domitian's Dacian War: The Dacian king Decebalus invaded Moesia.
AD 88Domitian's Dacian War: Decebalus agreed to return all Roman prisoners of war and accept his status as a Roman client in exchange for an annual subsidy of eight million sestertii, ending the war.
AD 891 JanuaryLucius Antonius Saturninus, governor of Germania Superior, revolted against Domitian's rule.
Saturninus was executed.
AD 9618 SeptemberDomitian was assassinated by members of the royal household.
Nerva was declared ruler of Rome by the Senate.
AD 97Nerva adopted the general and former consul Trajan as his son.
AD 9827 JanuaryNerva died. Trajan succeeded him.

2nd century

101First Dacian War: Rome invaded Dacia.
SeptemberSecond Battle of Tapae: Dacian forces retreated from contact with the Romans at Tapae.
102First Dacian War: The Dacian king Decebalus reaffirmed his loyalty to Rome, ending the war.
105Second Dacian War: Trajan responded to the resumption of raids on Roman settlements in Moesia by invading Dacia.
106Battle of Sarmisegetusa: Roman forces breached the Dacian capital Sarmizegetusa Regia. The Dacian king Decebalus escaped to the east.
The Nabatean king Rabbel II Soter died.
22 MarchNabatea was annexed to the Roman empire as the province of Arabia Petraea.
Second Dacian War: The Dacian king Decebalus committed suicide in his fortification at Ranisstorum to avoid capture.
107The province of Dacia was organized.
112Trajan's Forum was inaugurated.
113Roman–Parthian Wars: Trajan launched an expedition against Parthia.
Trajan's Column was erected in Trajan's Forum to commemorate the victory over Dacia.
114Trajan deposed the Armenian king Parthamasiris of Armenia, a Roman client, and organized the province of Armenia on his territory.
115Kitos War: The Jews in Cyrene rose up against Roman authority.
116The provinces of Mesopotamia and Assyria were organized on territory conquered from Parthia.
Trajan captured the Parthian capital Ctesiphon and deposed its shah Osroes I in favor of his son Parthamaspates of Parthia.
117Kitos War: Roman forces captured the rebel stronghold of Lod and executed many of its inhabitants.
8 AugustTrajan died.
10 AugustThe Senate accepted the general Hadrian as ruler of Rome, following the appearance of documents indicating he had been adopted by Trajan.
Osroes I deposed his son Parthamaspates of Parthia and replaced him as shah of Parthia.
118Hadrian withdrew from the territories of Armenia, Assyria and Mesopotamia, allowing the return of their respective client monarchies.
119A rebellion took place in Britain.
122The construction of Hadrian's Wall at the northern border of Britain began.
123Hadrian arrived in Mauretania to suppress a local revolt.
124Hadrian travelled to Greece.
126Hadrian returned to Rome.
The rebuilt Pantheon was dedicated to Agrippa, its original builder.
132Bar Kokhba revolt: Simon bar Kokhba, believed by his followers to be the Messiah, launched a revolt against Roman authority in Judea.
135Bar Kokhba revolt: The revolt ended at a cost of tens of thousands of Roman soldiers and some six hundred thousand Jewish rebels and civilians, including bar Kokhba, killed. Judea and Syria were combined into the single province of Syria Palaestina.
136Hadrian adopted Lucius Aelius as his son and successor.
1381 JanuaryLucius Aelius died.
25 FebruaryHadrian adopted Antoninus Pius as his son and successor and granted him tribunician power and imperium, on the condition that he in turn adopt Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus as his sons.
10 JulyHadrian died, probably from failure.
11 JulyAntoninus succeeded Hadrian.
141Roman conquest of Britain: Roman forces invaded modern Scotland under the command of the British governor Quintus Lollius Urbicus.
142The construction of the Antonine Wall at the northern border of Britain began.
1617 MarchAntoninus died. He was succeeded by Marcus and Lucius Verus.
Roman–Parthian War of 161–166: The Parthian Empire deposed the Armenian king Sohaemus of Armenia, a Roman client, and installed Bakur.
165Antonine Plague: A pandemic, probably of smallpox or measles, began which would kill some five million people throughout the Roman Empire.
166Roman–Parthian War of 161–166: Roman forces sacked the Parthian capital Ctesiphon.
169Lucius Verus died of disease, leaving Marcus the sole ruler of Rome.
Marcomannic Wars: A coalition of Germanic tribes led by the Marcomanni invaded the Roman Empire across the Danube.
175Marcomannic Wars: Rome and the Iazyges signed a treaty under which the latter agreed to return Roman prisoners of war and supply troops to the Auxilia, ending the war.
177Marcus named his natural son Commodus co-ruler with himself.
18017 MarchMarcus died.
Antonine Plague: The pandemic ended.
184The Antonine Wall was abandoned by Roman forces.
19231 DecemberCommodus was strangled to death.
1931 JanuaryThe Praetorian Guard acclaimed the consul Pertinax ruler of Rome at the Castra Praetoria.
28 MarchPertinax was assassinated by the Praetorian Guard.
The Praetorian Guard acclaimed the former consul Didius Julianus, who had provided the highest bid, ruler of Rome.
9 AprilPescennius Niger, the legatus Augusti pro praetore of Syria Palaestina, was proclaimed ruler of Rome by his legions.
14 AprilThe Legio XIV Gemina acclaimed its commander Septimius Severus ruler of Rome at Carnuntum.
MayThe Senate recognized Septimius Severus as ruler of Rome and sentenced Julianus to death.
194Battle of Issus (194): Niger's forces were decisively defeated by the armies of Septimius Severus at Issus.
196Clodius Albinus, the commander of Roman troops in Britain and Iberia, took the title Imperator Caesar Decimus Clodius Septimius Albinus Augustus.
19719 FebruaryBattle of Lugdunum: Septimius Severus and Albinus met in battle at Lugdunum.
Albinus committed suicide or was killed.
Roman–Parthian Wars: Septimius Severus sacked the Parthian capital Ctesiphon.
198Septimius Severus appointed his eldest natural son Caracalla co-ruler with himself.

3rd century

208Roman invasion of Caledonia 208–210: Septimius Severus invaded modern Scotland.
209Septimius Severus named his youngest natural son Publius Septimius Geta co-ruler with himself and Caracalla.
2114 FebruarySeptimius Severus died.
Roman invasion of Caledonia 208–210: Caracalla ended the campaign.
26 DecemberGeta was murdered in his mother's arms by members of the Praetorian Guard loyal to Caracalla.
2178 AprilCaracalla was assassinated by a member of his bodyguard.
The Praetorian Guard acclaimed their prefect Macrinus ruler of Rome.
2188 JuneMacrinus was captured and executed by an army loyal to Elagabalus, supposedly the illegitimate son of Caracalla.
22211 MarchElagabalus was assassinated by the Praetorian Guard, which installed his young cousin Severus Alexander as ruler of Rome.
230Roman–Persian Wars: The Sasanian shah Ardashir I invaded Mesopotamia and Syria.
232Roman–Persian Wars: Alexander repelled the Sasanian invasion.
23519 MarchAlexander was killed in a mutiny of the Legio XXII Primigenia at Mainz.
20 MarchThe army elected Maximinus Thrax, commander of the Legio IV Italica, ruler of Rome.
23822 MarchGordian I, governor of Africa, accepted the rule of Rome at the urging of rebels in his province. He appointed his son Gordian II to rule jointly with him.
2 AprilThe Senate accepted Gordian I and Gordian II as rulers of Rome.
Battle of Carthage (238): Forces loyal to Gordian I and Gordian II were defeated by the army of Capelianus, the governor of Numidia, who claimed fealty to Maximinus. Gordian II was killed. Gordian I committed suicide.
22 AprilThe Senate elected two senators, Pupienus and Balbinus, as joint rulers of the Empire.
Facing popular opposition to Pupienus and Balbinus, the Senate gave Gordian I's young grandson Gordian III the title Caesar.
MayMaximinus was murdered with his son during a mutiny of the Legio II Parthica at Aquileia.
29 JulyPupienus and Balbinus were tortured and murdered by the Praetorian Guard in their barracks.
243Battle of Resaena: Roman forces defeated the Sasanian Empire at Resaena.
244Battle of Misiche: The Sasanian Empire decisively defeated a Roman force at Misiche, near modern Fallujah. Gordian III was killed, probably by a fellow Roman. He was succeeded by Philip the Arab, the prefect of the Praetorian Guard, who was forced to cede Mesopotamia and Armenia to the Sasanian Empire.
249Philip was killed at Verona in battle with Decius, commander of Roman forces in Pannonia and Moesia.
251Decius appointed his natural son Herennius Etruscus co-ruler of Rome jointly with himself.
Battle of Abritus: Roman forces were dealt a bloody defeat by the Goths near modern Razgrad. Decius and Herennius were killed.
The armies of the Danube region acclaimed their commander Trebonianus Gallus ruler of Rome.
The Senate recognized Decius's son Hostilian as ruler of Rome. Gallus adopted Hostilian as his son.
Plague of Cyprian: Hostilian died, probably of plague.
Gallus appointed his natural son Volusianus co-ruler jointly with himself.
253Battle of Barbalissos: A Sasanian force destroyed a Roman army at Barbalissos.
AugustGallus and Volusianus were killed in a mutiny at Terni. The army acclaimed Aemilianus, governor of Pannonia and Moesia, ruler of Rome.
Aemilianus was killed by his own soldiers in the face of the army of the general Valerian (emperor).
22 OctoberValerian gave his son Gallienus the title Caesar.
256The Sasanian Empire conquered and sacked Antioch.
257Valerian reconquered Antioch.
258The Goths invaded Asia Minor.
260Death of Dacian king Regalianus that became Roman emperor for a brief period.
260Valerian was taken prisoner by the Sasanian Empire during truce negotiations.
SeptemberThe general Postumus was declared ruler of Rome in the Gallic Empire.
264Valerian died in captivity.
267Odaenathus, the king of Palmyra and a Roman client, was assassinated. His widow Zenobia took power as regent for their son Vaballathus.
268Gallienus was murdered by his soldiers during a siege of Pontirolo Nuovo.
SeptemberThe general Claudius Gothicus was declared ruler of Rome by his soldiers.
269Postumus was killed by his soldiers, who in turn acclaimed one of their own, Marcus Aurelius Marius, emperor of the Gallic Empire.
Marius was murdered by Victorinus, formerly prefect of Postumus's Praetorian Guard, who replaced him as emperor of the Gallic Empire.
Zenobia conquered Egypt.
Battle of Naissus: Roman forces decisively defeated the Goths at modern Niš, stalling an invasion of the Balkans.
270JanuaryClaudius Gothicus died. He was succeeded by his brother Quintillus.
AprilQuintillus died at Aquileia.
SeptemberAurelian became ruler of Rome.
271Battle of Fano: A Roman force defeated the Juthungi on the Metauro.
Victorinus was murdered by an officer he had cuckolded.
Tetricus I, praeses of Gallia Aquitania was acclaimed emperor of the Gallic Empire. He appointed his natural son Tetricus II to rule jointly with him.
272Zenobia was arrested en route to refuge in the Sasanian Empire.
273Palmyra rebelled against Roman authority and was destroyed.
274Battle of Châlons (274): Aurelian defeated the forces of Tetricus I and Tetricus II at modern Châlons-en-Champagne.
275SeptemberAurelian was murdered by the Praetorian Guard.
25 SeptemberThe Senate elected Tacitus (emperor) ruler of Rome.
276JuneTacitus died.
Marcus Aurelius Probus, commander of Roman forces in the east and Tacitus's half-brother, was acclaimed ruler of Rome by his troops.
Florianus, prefect of the Praetorian Guard and commander of Roman forces in the west, was acclaimed ruler of Rome by his troops.
SeptemberFlorianus was assassinated near Tarsus by his troops following a defeat at the hands of Probus.
279Probus launched a campaign against the Vandals in Illyricum.
282The Praetorian Guard elected their prefect Carus ruler of Rome.
Probus was assassinated.
Carus gave his sons Carinus and Numerian the title Caesar.
283Carus died.
284Numerian died.
20 NovemberRoman forces in the east elected the consul Diocletian their ruler and proclaimed him augustus.
285JulyBattle of the Margus: Forces loyal to Diocletian defeated Carinus in battle on the Morava. Carinus was killed.
JulyDiocletian gave Maximian the title Caesar.
286Carausian Revolt: The naval commander Carausius declared himself emperor in Britain and northern Gaul.
2 AprilDiocletian proclaimed Maximian augustus of the west, ruling himself as augustus of the east.
293Diocletian established the Tetrarchy, appointing Constantius Chlorus to hold the office of Caesar under Maximian in the west and Galerius to hold the title under himself in the east.
Carausian Revolt: Constantius Chlorus conquered Carausius's Gallic territories.
Carausius was murdered by his finance minister Allectus, who replaced him as emperor in Britain.
296Carausian Revolt: Allectus was defeated in battle and killed at Calleva Atrebatum.

4th century

301Diocletian issued the Edict on Maximum Prices, reforming the currency and setting price ceilings on a number of goods.
30324 FebruaryDiocletianic Persecution: Diocletian issued his first edict against Christians, calling for the destruction of Christian holy books and places of worship and stripping Christians of their government positions and political rights.
3051 MayDiocletian and Maximian abdicated. Constantius and Galerius were elevated to augusti in the west and east. Galerius appointed Flavius Valerius Severus Caesar in the west and Maximinus II Caesar in the east.
30625 JulyConstantius died at Eboracum. By his dying wish, his troops acclaimed his son Constantine the Great augustus.
Galerius recognized Flavius Valerius Severus as augustus in the west and granted Constantine the Great the lesser title of Caesar, which he accepted.
Civil wars of the Tetrarchy: Rioters in Rome acclaimed Maximian's son Maxentius ruler of Rome. He took the title princeps invictus, undefeated prince.
Maxentius invited Maximian to reclaim the title augustus.
307Civil wars of the Tetrarchy: Flavius Valerius Severus surrendered to Maximian at Ravenna.
Civil wars of the Tetrarchy: Galerius laid siege to Rome. Many of his soldiers defected to Maxentius and he was forced to flee.
308Civil wars of the Tetrarchy: After a failed coup against his son Maxentius, Maximian was forced to flee to Constantine's court.
11 NovemberMaximian resigned as augustus. Galerius appointed Licinius augustus of the west and confirmed his recognition of Constantine the Great as Caesar of the west.
310JulyCivil wars of the Tetrarchy: Maximian was forced to commit suicide following a failed coup against Constantine the Great.
311MayGalerius died. Licinius and Maximinus agreed to divide the eastern Empire between themselves.
Civil wars of the Tetrarchy: Constantine the Great concluded an alliance with Licinius, offering his half-sister Flavia Julia Constantia to him in marriage.
Civil wars of the Tetrarchy: Maximinus entered a secret alliance with Maxentius.
3 DecemberDiocletian died, possibly from suicide.
31228 OctoberBattle of the Milvian Bridge: Constantine the Great had a vision of the cross appearing over the sun at the Ponte Milvio with the words "in this sign, conquer." His forces defeated and killed Maxentius.
313FebruaryConstantine the Great and Licinius issued the Edict of Milan, providing for restitution to Christians injured during the persecutions.
MarchLicinius married Constantia.
30 AprilBattle of Tzirallum: Licinius defeated a vastly numerically superior force loyal to Maximinus at modern Çorlu. Maximinus fled to Nicomedia.
AugustMaximinus died at Tarsus.
3148 OctoberBattle of Cibalae: Constantine the Great dealt a bloody defeat to Licinius's forces at modern Vinkovci.
317Battle of Mardia: After a bloody battle, probably at modern Harmanli, Licinius retreated from contact with Constantine the Great.
1 MarchLicinius recognized Constantine the Great as his superior, ceded all his territories outside of Thrace, and agreed to depose and execute Valerius Valens, whom he had raised to augustus.
3243 JulyBattle of Adrianople (324): Licinius suffered a bloody defeat at the hands of Constantine the Great on the Maritsa.
18 SeptemberBattle of Chrysopolis: Constantine the Great dealt a decisive defeat to the remnants of Licinius's army. Licinius surrendered.
32520 MayFirst Council of Nicaea: An ecumenical council called by Constantine the Great at Nicaea opened which would establish the Nicene Creed, asserting Jesus to be equal to and of the same substance as God the Father.
Licinius was executed.
326Constantine the Great ordered the death of his oldest son Crispus.
33011 MayConstantine the Great moved his capital to Byzantium and renamed the city Constantinople, city of Constantine.
332Constantine the Great campaigned against the Goths.
334Constantine the Great campaigned against the Sarmatians.
337Roman–Persian Wars: The Sasanian shah Shapur II invaded Armenia and Mesopotamia.
22 MayConstantine the Great died.
9 SeptemberConstantine the Great's three sons declared themselves augusti and divided their father's empire into three parts, with Constantine II (emperor) receiving Britain, Iberia, Gaul and Illyria, Constantius II Asia, Syria Palaestina and Egypt, and Constans Italy and Africa. The young Constans was placed under Constantine II's guardianship.
338Constantine II campaigned against the Alemanni.
Constantine II granted Illyria to his brother Constans.
340Constantine II invaded Italy. He was ambushed and slain at Aquileia by Constans, who inherited his territory.
341Constans and Constantius II issued a ban against pagan sacrifice.
344Siege of Singara: Sasanian forces failed to capture the Roman fortress of Singara.
35018 JanuaryMagnentius, commander of the Jovians and Herculians, was acclaimed ruler of Rome by his legions.
Constans was killed in Elne by followers of Magnentius.
3 JuneConstantius Chlorus's grandson Nepotianus entered Rome with a band of gladiators and there declared himself imperator.
30 JuneMarcellinus (magister officiorum), one of Magnentius's generals, entered Rome and executed Nepotianus.
35115 MarchConstantius II granted his cousin Constantius Gallus the title Caesar.
28 SeptemberBattle of Mursa Major: Constantius II defeated Magnentius in a bloody battle in the valley of the Drava.
353Battle of Mons Seleucus: Constantius II dealt Magnentius a decisive defeat at modern La Bâtie-Montsaléon. Magnentius committed suicide.
354Gallus was put to death.
3556 NovemberConstantius II declared Julian (emperor) Caesar and granted him command in Gaul.
357Battle of Strasbourg: Julian defeated a vastly superior Alemanni force near Argentoratum, solidifying Roman control west of the Rhine.
360FebruaryThe Petulantes, ordered east from Paris in preparation for a war with the Sasanian Empire, instead mutinied and proclaimed Julian augustus.
3613 NovemberConstantius II named Julian as his successor before dying of fever.
3635 MarchJulian's Persian War: Roman forces embarked from Antioch on a punitive expedition against the Sasanian Empire.
26 JuneBattle of Samarra: Sasanian forces harassed a Roman army in retreat at Samarra from a failed siege of their capital Ctesiphon. Julian was killed.
27 JuneJulian's army declared one of their generals, Jovian (emperor), augustus.
JulyJulian's Persian War: Jovian agreed to cede the five provinces east of the Tigris to the Sasanian Empire, ending the war.
36417 FebruaryJovian died.
26 FebruaryThe army acclaimed the general Valentinian I the Great augustus.
28 MarchValentinian the Great appointed his younger brother Valens augustus with rule over the eastern Empire, and continued as augustus in the west.
37517 NovemberValentinian the Great died of a stroke. His son Gratian, then junior augustus in the west, succeeded him as senior augustus.
22 NovemberThe army acclaimed Valentinian the Great's young son Valentinian II augustus of the west.
376Fleeing Hunnic aggression, the Goths, under the leadership of the Thervingi chieftain Fritigern, crossed the Danube and entered the eastern Empire as political refugees.
Gothic War (376–382): Following the deaths of several Roman soldiers during civil unrest in Thrace, the officer Lupicinus (Roman) arrested Fritigern and the Greuthungi chieftain Alatheus.
3789 AugustBattle of Adrianople: A combined Gothic-Alanic force decisively defeated the Roman army near Edirne. Valens was killed.
37919 JanuaryGratian named the general Theodosius I the Great augustus in the east.
38027 FebruaryTheodosius the Great issued the Edict of Thessalonica, making Christianity the state church of the Roman Empire.
3823 OctoberGothic War (376–382): The Goths were made foederati of Rome and granted land and autonomy in Thrace, ending the war.
38325 AugustGratian was delivered by mutineers to the Magister equitum Andragathius and executed.
39215 MayValentinian II was found hanged in his residence. He may have been murdered by his guardian, the Frankish general Arbogast (general).
22 AugustArbogast declared Eugenius augustus and ruler in the west.
39323 JanuaryTheodosius the Great appointed his younger son Honorius (emperor) augustus in the west.
3946 SeptemberBattle of the Frigidus: Forces loyal to Theodosius the Great defeated and killed Arbogast and Eugenius, probably near the Vipava.
39517 JanuaryTheodosius the Great died. His elder son Arcadius succeeded him as augustus in the eastern Byzantine Empire. The young Honorius became sole augustus in the Western Roman Empire under the regency of Magister militum Stilicho.
398Gildonic War: Gildo, comes of Africa, was killed following a failed rebellion against the Western Roman Empire.

5th century

402The capital of the Western Roman Empire was moved to Ravenna.
40631 DecemberCrossing of the Rhine: A coalition of foreign tribes including the Vandals, Alans and Suebi invaded the Western Roman Empire across the Rhine.
4081 MayArcadius died.
41024 AugustSack of Rome (410): Rome was sacked by the Visigoths under their king Alaric I.
End of Roman rule in Britain: The last Roman forces left Britain.
4218 FebruaryHonorius appointed his brother-in-law and Magister militum Constantius III co-ruler of the Western Roman Empire with himself.
2 SeptemberConstantius III died.
42315 AugustHonorius died.
The Western Roman patrician Castinus declared the primicerius Joannes augustus.
42423 OctoberThe Byzantine augustus Theodosius II the Younger, the Calligrapher named the young Valentinian III, his cousin and Constantius III's son, Caesar with rule over the west. His mother Galla Placidia was appointed regent.
425Joannes was executed in Aquileia.
447Battle of the Utus: The Huns under Attila defeated a Byzantine army in a bloody battle near the Vit.
45028 JulyTheodosius the Younger died in a riding accident.
452Attila abandoned his invasion of Italy following a meeting at the Mincio with the pope Pope Leo I.
45516 MarchValentinian III was assassinated on orders of the senator Petronius Maximus.
17 MarchThe Senate acclaimed Maximus augustus of the Western Roman Empire.
31 MayMaximus was killed by a mob as he attempted to flee Rome in the face of a Vandal advance.
2 JuneSack of Rome (455): The Vandals entered and began to sack Rome.
9 JulyThe Magister militum Avitus was pronounced augustus of the Western Roman Empire at Toulouse by the Visigothic king Theodoric II.
45617 OctoberAvitus was forced to flee Rome following a military coup by the general Ricimer and the domesticus Majorian.
457Avitus died.
27 JanuaryThe Byzantine augustus Marcian died.
28 FebruaryThe Byzantine augustus Leo I the Thracian appointed Majorian Magister militum in the west.
1 AprilThe army acclaimed Majorian augustus of the Western Roman Empire.
4617 AugustMajorian was killed after torture near the Staffora on Ricimer's orders.
19 NovemberThe Senate elected Libius Severus from among their number as augustus of the Western Roman Empire.
46515 AugustSeverus died.
46712 AprilLeo the Thracian elevated the comes Anthemius to Caesar with rule over the Western Roman Empire.
468Battle of Cap Bon (468): The Vandal Kingdom destroyed a combined Western Roman and Byzantine invasion fleet at Cap Bon.
47211 JulyAnthemius was killed in flight following Ricimer's conquest of Rome. Maximus's son Olybrius was acclaimed augustus of the Western Roman Empire.
18 AugustRicimer died.
Ricimer's nephew Gundobad succeeded him as Magister militum and took the title Patrician.
Olybrius died.
4733 MarchThe Germanic elements of the army elected the domesticus Glycerius augustus of the Western Roman Empire.
Gundobad relinquished his Western Roman titles to succeed his father as king of Burgundy.
474Leo the Thracian appointed Julius Nepos, his nephew and governor of Dalmatia, ruler of the Western Roman Empire in opposition to Glycerius.
18 JanuaryLeo the Thracian died. He was succeeded by his grandson Leo II (emperor).
9 FebruaryZeno (emperor) became co-augustus of the Byzantine Empire with his young son Leo II.
JulyNepos deposed Glycerius.
17 NovemberLeo II died, possibly after being poisoned by his mother Ariadne (empress).
475JanuaryZeno was forced to flee Constantinople for his homeland Isauria in the face of a popular revolt.
9 JanuaryBasiliscus, brother of Leo the Thracian's widow Verina, was acclaimed augustus of the Byzantine Empire by the Byzantine Senate.
Nepos appointed Orestes (father of Romulus Augustulus) Magister militum and commander-in-chief of the Western Roman military.
28 AugustOrestes took control of the Western Roman capital Ravenna, forcing Nepos to flee to Dalmatia.
31 OctoberOrestes declared his young son Romulus Augustulus augustus of the Western Roman Empire.
476AugustZeno recaptured Constantinople and accepted Basiliscus's surrender.
23 AugustGermanic foederati under the command of the general Odoacer renounced Western Roman authority and declared Odoacer their king.
28 AugustOdoacer captured and executed Orestes at Piacenza.
4 SeptemberOdoacer conquered the Western Roman capital Ravenna, forced Romulus to abdicate and declared himself king of Italy.
The Senate sent Zeno the imperial regalia of the Western Roman Empire.
48025 AprilNepos was murdered in his residence in Split.
4919 AprilZeno died.

6th century

5189 JulyAugustus Anastasius I Dicorus died.
5271 AprilAugustus Justin I appointed his older son Justinian I the Great co-augustus with himself.
1 AugustJustin I died.
5297 AprilThe Codex Justinianeus, which attempted to consolidate and reconcile contradictions in Roman law, was promulgated.
532Justinian the Great ordered the construction of the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople.
53321 JuneVandalic War: A Byzantine force under the general Belisarius departed for the Vandal Kingdom.
13 SeptemberBattle of Ad Decimum: A Byzantine army defeated a Vandal force near Carthage.
15 DecemberBattle of Tricamarum: The Byzantines defeated a Vandal army and forced their king Gelimer into flight.
534MarchVandalic War: Gelimer surrendered to Belisarius and accepted his offer of a peaceful retirement in Galatia, ending the war. The territory of the Vandal Kingdom was reorganized as the praetorian prefecture of Africa.
535Gothic War (535–554): Byzantine forces crossing from Africa invaded Sicily, then an Ostrogothic possession.
536DecemberGothic War (535–554): Byzantium took Rome with little Ostrogothic resistance.
53727 DecemberThe Hagia Sophia was completed.
552JulyBattle of Taginae: A Byzantine army dealt a decisive defeat to the Ostrogoths at Gualdo Tadino. The Ostrogoth king Totila was killed.
553Battle of Mons Lactarius: An Ostrogothic force was ambushed and destroyed at Monti Lattari on its way to relieve a Byzantine siege of Cumae. The Ostrogoth king Teia was killed.
565MarchBelisarius died.
14 NovemberJustinian the Great died.
568The Lombards invaded Italy.
573The general Narses died.
574Augustus Justin II began to suffer from fits of insanity.
5785 OctoberJustin II died.
58214 AugustAugustus Tiberius II Constantine died.

7th century

602Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628: The Sasanian Empire declared war on Byzantium.
6071 AugustAugustus Phocas dedicated the Column of Phocas in the Roman Forum.
626JuneSiege of Constantinople (626): Sasanian and Avar forces laid siege to Constantinople.
634AprilMuslim conquest of the Levant: A Rashidun army departed Medina for the Levant.
640JanuaryMuslim conquest of Egypt: A Rashidun force laid siege to Pelusium.
The legions of the East Roman army were reorganized into themes.
6418 NovemberSiege of Alexandria (641): Byzantine authorities in the Egyptian capital Alexandria surrendered to the besieging Rashidun army.
663Basileus Constans II visited Rome.
698Battle of Carthage (698): An Umayyad siege and blockade of Carthage forced the retreat of Byzantine forces. The city was conquered and destroyed.

8th century

717 Siege of Constantinople (717–718): The Umayyad Caliphate besieges the city of Constantinople.
718 15 August Siege of Constantinople (717–718): The Ummayad Caliphate lifts the siege of Constantinople due to Famine, Disease and an unusually hard winter.
730Basileus Leo III the Isaurian promulgated an edict forbidding the veneration of religious images, beginning the first Byzantine Iconoclasm.
78723 OctoberSecond Council of Nicaea: An ecumenical council in Nicaea ended which endorsed the veneration of images, ending the first Byzantine Iconoclasm.

9th century

813JuneA group of soldiers broke into the Church of the Holy Apostles and pleaded with the body of the iconoclast basileus Constantine V to restore the Empire, marking the beginning of the second Byzantine Iconoclasm.
843The Byzantine regent Theodora (wife of Theophilos) restored the veneration of religious images, ending the second Byzantine Iconoclasm.
86724 SeptemberBasileus Michael III was assassinated by his co-basileus Basil I, who became sole ruler of the Empire.

10th century

97610 JanuaryBasileus John I Tzimiskes died. His co-basileus and nephew Basil II became sole ruler of the Empire.

11th century

1002Byzantine conquest of Bulgaria: Byzantine forces invaded Bulgaria.
101429 JulyBattle of Kleidion: Basil dealt a decisive and bloody defeat to Bulgarian forces in the Belasica near Klyuch.
1018Byzantine conquest of Bulgaria: The Bulgarian boyars accepted the establishment of the theme of Bulgaria on the territory of the former Empire, with significant autonomy for themselves.
102515 DecemberBasil died.
105416 JulyEast–West Schism: The papal legate Humbert of Silva Candida laid on the altar of Hagia Sophia a document proclaiming the excommunication of Michael I Cerularius, the patriarch of Constantinople.
107115 AprilSiege of Bari: Italo-Norman forces captured Bari, capital of the katepanikion of Italy.
26 AugustBattle of Manzikert: The Byzantine Empire was decisively defeated by a Seljuk force near Malazgirt. The basileus Romanos IV Diogenes was captured.
10811 AprilNikephoros III Botaneiates was deposed and replaced as basileus by Alexios I Komnenos.
109129 AprilBattle of Levounion: The Byzantine army dealt a bloody defeat to a Pecheneg invasion force.
109719 JuneSiege of Nicaea: The Rum occupants of Nicaea surrendered to Byzantine and First Crusader forces.
1098Following the conquest of Antioch, the First Crusader leader Bohemond I of Antioch declared himself prince of Antioch.

12th century

111815 AugustReign of John II begins: Being considered the greatest Komnenoi emperor, he starts extensive damage control.
1122Battle of Beroia: A Byzantine army wiped out the Pechenegs at Stara Zagora.
1124War with Venice begins: Over the non-renewal of trading privileges by John II Komnenos.
1126The war with Venice ends in defeat: The Venetian fleet ravaged the coasts of Greece, forcing the emperor to back down.
1127Hungarians invade the Empire: Invaders go far south as Philippolis.
1129Invading Hungarins are repelled
1136John II launches his first serious campaign in the east.
1137John II conquers the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia.
1139John II vassalizes the Principality of Antioch.
1143Death of John II: his death marks the beginning of straight decline.
1146Sack of Philomelion: Under the orders from Manuel I, before relocating the Christian population.
11678 JulyBattle of Sirmium: Byzantium decisively defeated a Hungarian force at Sirmium.
117617 SeptemberBattle of Myriokephalon: A Byzantine invasion force was ambushed and forced to retreat through a mountain pass by Rum near Lake Beyşehir.
118024 SeptemberBasileus Manuel I Komnenos died.
118526 OctoberUprising of Asen and Peter: A tax revolt began in Paristrion which would result in the establishment of the Second Bulgarian Empire.

13th century

120413 AprilSiege of Constantinople (1204): Fourth Crusaders breached and sacked Constantinople, deposed the basileus Alexios V Doukas and established the Latin Empire under their leader Baldwin I, Latin Emperor as Latin Emperor. Theodore I Laskaris was acclaimed basileus but forced to flee with his court to establish the Empire of Nicaea at Nicaea.
AprilAlexios I of Trebizond, a grandson of the former basileus Andronikos I Komnenos, declared himself ruler of Trebizond.
1205Michael I Komnenos Doukas, a descendant of Alexios I Komnenos, established himself as despot of Epirus.
126125 JulyThe Nicaean ruler Michael VIII Palaiologos conquered Constantinople .
15 AugustMichael was crowned basileus in Constantinople along with his infant son Andronikos II Palaiologos.

14th century

1326Byzantine–Ottoman Wars: The Ottoman Empire conquered Bursa.
1331Byzantine–Ottoman Wars: The Ottoman Empire captured Nicaea.
134126 OctoberByzantine civil war of 1341–47: The regent John VI Kantakouzenos was declared basileus by his supporters in opposition to the young John V Palaiologos.
13478 FebruaryByzantine civil war of 1341–47: John VI concluded an arrangement under which he would rule as senior basileus alongside John V for ten years.

15th century

145329 MayFall of Constantinople: Ottoman forces entered Constantinople. Basileus Constantine XI Palaiologos was killed.

See also


  1. Forsythe, Gary (2015). A Companion to Livy. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons. pp. 313–329.
  2. Forsythe, Gary (2015). A Companion to Livy. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons. pp. 313–329.
  3. Grant, Michael (1993). The History of Rome. Faber & Faber. p. 42.
  4. "Oxford Reference - Answers with Authority". www.oxfordreference.com. Retrieved 2018-12-15.
  5. Eck, Werner; translated by Deborah Lucas Schneider; new material by Sarolta A. Takács. (2003) The Age of Augustus. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing (hardcover, ISBN 0-631-22957-4; paperback, ISBN 0-631-22958-2).
This article is issued from Wikipedia. The text is licensed under Creative Commons - Attribution - Sharealike. Additional terms may apply for the media files.