The Tiglian, also referred to as the Tegelen, is a temporal stage in the glacial history of Northern Europe. It is preceded by the Pre-Tiglian, Praetiglian or Pre-Tegelen stage. The stage was introduced by Zagwijn in 1957 based on geological formations in Tegelen in southern Netherlands. Originally, it was thought to be part of a sequence of glacials and interglacials, namely Pre-Tiglian (cold), Tiglian (warm), Eburonian (cold), Waalian (warm), Menapian (cold), and Bavelian (warm).[1]

The Pre-Tiglian and Tiglian are today regarded as corresponding to the Biber stage in the glacial history of the Alps and to the Gelasian (2.6-1.8 million years ago) in the global division of the Quaternary period. Deep sea core samples have identified approximately 40 marine isotope stages (MIS 103 – MIS 64) during the Gelasian.[2] Thus, there have probably been about 20 glacial cycles of varying intensity during Pre-Tiglian and Tiglian. The dominant trigger is believed to be the 41 000 year Milankovitch cycles of axial tilt.[3][4]

The Gelasian of Northern Europe has subsequently been subdivided as follows:[1]

  • Pre-Tiglian
  • Tiglian A
  • Tiglian B
  • Tiglian C3
  • Tiglian C4
  • Tiglian C5

See also


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