Tight closure

In mathematics, in the area of commutative algebra, tight closure is an operation defined on ideals in positive characteristic. It was introduced by Melvin Hochster and Craig Huneke (1988, 1990).

Let be a commutative noetherian ring containing a field of characteristic . Hence is a prime number.

Let be an ideal of . The tight closure of , denoted by , is another ideal of containing . The ideal is defined as follows.

if and only if there exists a , where is not contained in any minimal prime ideal of , such that for all . If is reduced, then one can instead consider all .

Here is used to denote the ideal of generated by the 'th powers of elements of , called the th Frobenius power of .

An ideal is called tightly closed if . A ring in which all ideals are tightly closed is called weakly -regular (for Frobenius regular). A previous major open question in tight closure is whether the operation of tight closure commutes with localization, and so there is the additional notion of -regular, which says that all ideals of the ring are still tightly closed in localizations of the ring.

Brenner & Monsky (2010) found a counterexample to the localization property of tight closure. However, there is still an open question of whether every weakly -regular ring is -regular. That is, if every ideal in a ring is tightly closed, is it true that every ideal in every localization of that ring is also tightly closed?


  • Brenner, Holger; Monsky, Paul (2010), "Tight closure does not commute with localization", Annals of Mathematics, Second Series, 171 (1): 571–588, arXiv:0710.2913, doi:10.4007/annals.2010.171.571, ISSN 0003-486X, MR 2630050
  • Hochster, Melvin; Huneke, Craig (1988), "Tightly closed ideals", American Mathematical Society. Bulletin. New Series, 18 (1): 45–48, doi:10.1090/S0273-0979-1988-15592-9, ISSN 0002-9904, MR 0919658
  • Hochster, Melvin; Huneke, Craig (1990), "Tight closure, invariant theory, and the Briançon–Skoda theorem", Journal of the American Mathematical Society, 3 (1): 31–116, doi:10.2307/1990984, ISSN 0894-0347, JSTOR 1990984, MR 1017784
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