Thomas Mann

Paul Thomas Mann (UK: /ˈmæn/ MAN, US: /ˈmɑːn/ MAHN;[1] German: [ˈpaʊ̯l ˈtoːmas ˈman]; 6 June 1875 – 12 August 1955) was a German novelist, short story writer, social critic, philanthropist, essayist, and the 1929 Nobel Prize in Literature laureate. His highly symbolic and ironic epic novels and novellas are noted for their insight into the psychology of the artist and the intellectual. His analysis and critique of the European and German soul used modernized versions of German and Biblical stories, as well as the ideas of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Friedrich Nietzsche and Arthur Schopenhauer.

Thomas Mann
Mann in 1929
BornPaul Thomas Mann
(1875-06-06)6 June 1875
Free City of Lübeck, German Empire
Died12 August 1955(1955-08-12) (aged 80)
Zürich, Switzerland
Resting placeKilchberg, Switzerland
OccupationNovelist, short story writer, essayist
GenreNovel, novella
Notable worksBuddenbrooks, The Magic Mountain, Death in Venice, Joseph and His Brothers, Doctor Faustus
Notable awards
SpouseKatia Pringsheim
ChildrenErika, Klaus, Golo, Monika, Elisabeth, Michael
RelativesThomas Johann Heinrich Mann (father)
Júlia da Silva Bruhns (mother)
Heinrich Mann (brother)


Mann was a member of the Hanseatic Mann family and portrayed his family and class in his first novel, Buddenbrooks. His older brother was the radical writer Heinrich Mann and three of Mann's six children, Erika Mann, Klaus Mann and Golo Mann, also became significant German writers. When Adolf Hitler came to power in 1933, Mann fled to Switzerland. When World War II broke out in 1939, he moved to the United States, then returned to Switzerland in 1952. Mann is one of the best-known exponents of the so-called Exilliteratur, German literature written in exile by those who opposed the Hitler regime.

Mann's work influenced many later authors, including Heinrich Böll, Joseph Heller, Yukio Mishima, and Orhan Pamuk.[2][3]


Paul Thomas Mann was born to a bourgeois family in Lübeck, the second son of Thomas Johann Heinrich Mann (a senator and a grain merchant) and his wife Júlia da Silva Bruhns, a Brazilian woman of German and Portuguese ancestry, who emigrated to Germany with her family when she was seven years old. His mother was Roman Catholic but Mann was baptised into his father's Lutheran religion. Mann's father died in 1891, and after that his trading firm was liquidated. The family subsequently moved to Munich. Mann first studied science at a Lübeck gymnasium (secondary school), then attended the Ludwig Maximillians University of Munich as well as the Technical University of Munich, where, in preparation for a journalism career, he studied history, economics, art history and literature.[4]

Mann lived in Munich from 1891 until 1933 , with the exception of a year spent in Palestrina, Italy, with his elder brother, the novelist Heinrich. Thomas worked at the South German Fire Insurance Company in 1894–95. His career as a writer began when he wrote for the magazine Simplicissimus. Mann's first short story, "Little Mr Friedemann" (Der Kleine Herr Friedemann), was published in 1898.

In 1905, Mann married Katia Pringsheim, who came from a wealthy, secular Jewish industrialist family. She later joined the Lutheran church. The couple had six children.[5]

Pre-war and Second World War period

Children of Thomas Mann and Katia Pringsheim
Erika9 November 190527 August 1969
Klaus18 November 190621 May 1949
Golo29 March 19097 April 1994
Monika7 June 191017 March 1992
Elisabeth24 April 19188 February 2002
Michael21 April 19191 January 1977

In 1912, he and his wife moved to a sanatorium in Davos, Switzerland, which was to inspire his 1924 novel The Magic Mountain. He was also appalled by the risk of international confrontation between Germany and France, following the Agadir Crisis in Morocco, and later by the outbreak of the First World War.

In 1929, Mann had a cottage built in the fishing village of Nidden, Memel Territory (now Nida, Lithuania) on the Curonian Spit, where there was a German art colony and where he spent the summers of 1930–1932 working on Joseph and His Brothers. Today the cottage is a cultural center dedicated to him, with a small memorial exhibition.

In 1933, while travelling in the South of France, Mann heard from his eldest children Klaus and Erika in Munich, that it would not be safe for him to return to Germany. The family (except these two children) emigrated to Küsnacht, near Zürich, Switzerland, but received Czechoslovak citizenship and a passport in 1936. In 1939, following the German occupation of Czechoslovakia, he emigrated to the United States. He moved to Princeton, New Jersey where he lived on 65 Stockton Road and began to teach at Princeton University.[6] In 1942, the Mann family moved to 1550 San Remo Drive in the Pacific Palisades neighborhood of Los Angeles, California. The Manns were prominent members of the German expatriate community of Los Angeles, and would frequently meet other emigres at the house of Salka and Bertold Viertel in Santa Monica, and at the Villa Aurora, the home of fellow German exile Lion Feuchtwanger.[7][8] On 23 June 1944 Thomas Mann was naturalized as a citizen of the United States. The Manns lived in Los Angeles until 1952.[9]

Anti-Nazi broadcasts

The outbreak of World War II on 1 September 1939, prompted Mann to offer anti-Nazi speeches (in German) to the German people via the BBC. In October 1940 he began monthly broadcasts, recorded in the U.S. and flown to London, where the BBC broadcast them to Germany on the longwave band. In these eight-minute addresses, Mann condemned Hitler and his "paladins" as crude philistines completely out of touch with European culture. In one noted speech he said, "The war is horrible, but it has the advantage of keeping Hitler from making speeches about culture."[10]

Mann was one of the few publicly active opponents of Nazism among German expatriates in the U.S. While some Germans claimed after the war that in his speeches he had endorsed the notion of collective guilt, others felt he had been highly critical also of the politically unstable Weimar Republic that preceded the Third Reich.

Last years

With the start of the Cold War he was increasingly frustrated by rising McCarthyism. As a 'suspected communist', he was required to testify to the House Un-American Activities Committee, where he was termed "one of the world's foremost apologists for Stalin and company."[11] He was listed by HUAC as being "affiliated with various peace organizations or Communist fronts." Being in his own words a non-communist rather than an anti-communist, Mann openly opposed the allegations: "As an American citizen of German birth I finally testify that I am painfully familiar with certain political trends. Spiritual intolerance, political inquisitions, and declining legal security, and all this in the name of an alleged 'state of emergency.' ... That is how it started in Germany." As Mann joined protests against the jailing of the Hollywood Ten and the firing of schoolteachers suspected of being Communists, he found "the media had been closed to him".[12] Finally he was forced to quit his position as Consultant in Germanic Literature at the Library of Congress[13] and in 1952 he returned to Europe, to live in Kilchberg, near Zürich, Switzerland. He never again lived in Germany, though he regularly traveled there. His most important German visit was in 1949, at the 200th birthday of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, attending celebrations in Frankfurt am Main and Weimar, as a statement that German culture extended beyond the new political borders. In 1955, he died of atherosclerosis in a hospital in Zürich and was buried in Kilchberg.[14] Many institutions are named in his honour, for instance the Thomas Mann Gymnasium of Budapest.


Blanche Knopf of Alfred A. Knopf publishing house was introduced to Mann by H. L. Mencken while on a book-buying trip to Europe.[15] Knopf became Mann's American publisher, and Blanche hired scholar Helen Tracy Lowe-Porter to translate Mann's books in 1924.[16] Lowe-Porter subsequently translated Mann's complete works.[15] Blanche Knopf continued to look after Mann. After Buddenbrooks proved successful in its first year, they sent him an unexpected bonus. Later in the 1930s, Blanche helped arrange for Mann and his family to emigrate to America.[15]

Mann was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1929, after he had been nominated by Anders Österling, member of the Swedish Academy, principally in recognition of his popular achievement with the epic Buddenbrooks (1901), The Magic Mountain (Der Zauberberg, 1924) and his numerous short stories.[17] (Due to the personal taste of an influential committee member, only Buddenbrooks was cited at any great length.)[18] Based on Mann's own family, Buddenbrooks relates the decline of a merchant family in Lübeck over the course of four generations. The Magic Mountain (Der Zauberberg, 1924) follows an engineering student who, planning to visit his tubercular cousin at a Swiss sanatorium for only three weeks, finds his departure from the sanatorium delayed. During that time, he confronts medicine and the way it looks at the body and encounters a variety of characters, who play out ideological conflicts and discontents of contemporary European civilization. The tetralogy Joseph and His Brothers is an epic novel written over a period of sixteen years, and is one of the largest and most significant works in Mann's oeuvre. Later, other novels included Lotte in Weimar (1939), in which Mann returned to the world of Goethe's novel The Sorrows of Young Werther (1774); Doctor Faustus (1947), the story of composer Adrian Leverkühn and the corruption of German culture in the years before and during World War II; and Confessions of Felix Krull (Bekenntnisse des Hochstaplers Felix Krull, 1954), which was unfinished at Mann's death.

Throughout his Dostoevsky essay, he finds parallels between the Russian and the sufferings of Friedrich Nietzsche. Speaking of Nietzsche, he says: "his personal feelings initiate him into those of the criminal ... in general all creative originality, all artist nature in the broadest sense of the word, does the same. It was the French painter and sculptor Degas who said that an artist must approach his work in the spirit of the criminal about to commit a crime."[19] Nietzsche's influence on Mann runs deep in his work, especially in Nietzsche's views on decay and the proposed fundamental connection between sickness and creativity. Mann held that disease is not to be regarded as wholly negative. In his essay on Dostoevsky we find: "but after all and above all it depends on who is diseased, who mad, who epileptic or paralytic: an average dull-witted man, in whose illness any intellectual or cultural aspect is non-existent; or a Nietzsche or Dostoyevsky. In their case something comes out in illness that is more important and conductive to life and growth than any medical guaranteed health or sanity... in other words: certain conquests made by the soul and the mind are impossible without disease, madness, crime of the spirit."[20]


Mann's diaries reveal his struggles with his homosexuality, which found reflection in his works, most prominently through the obsession of the elderly Aschenbach for the 14-year-old Polish boy Tadzio in the novella Death in Venice (Der Tod in Venedig, 1912).[21]

Anthony Heilbut's biography Thomas Mann: Eros and Literature (1997) uncovered the centrality of Mann's sexuality to his oeuvre. Gilbert Adair's work The Real Tadzio (2001) describes how, in the summer of 1911, Mann had stayed at the Grand Hôtel des Bains on the Lido of Venice with his wife and brother, when he became enraptured by the angelic figure of Władysław (Władzio) Moes, a 10-year-old Polish boy (see also "The real Tadzio" on the Death in Venice page). Mann's diary records his attraction to his own 13-year-old son, "Eissi" – Klaus Mann: "Klaus to whom recently I feel very drawn" (22 June). In the background conversations about man-to-man eroticism take place; a long letter is written to Carl Maria Weber on this topic, while the diary reveals: "In love with Klaus during these days" (5 June). "Eissi, who enchants me right now" (11 July). "Delight over Eissi, who in his bath is terribly handsome. Find it very natural that I am in love with my son ... Eissi lay reading in bed with his brown torso naked, which disconcerted me" (25 July). "I heard noise in the boys' room and surprised Eissi completely naked in front of Golo's bed acting foolish. Strong impression of his premasculine, gleaming body. Disquiet" (17 October 1920).[22]

Handling the struggle between the Dionysiac and the Apollonian, Death in Venice has been made into a film and an opera. Blamed sarcastically by Mann's old enemy, Alfred Kerr, for having made pederasty acceptable to the cultivated middle classes, it has been pivotal in introducing the discourse of same-sex desire into general culture.[23] Mann was a friend of the violinist and painter Paul Ehrenberg, for whom he had feelings as a young man (at least until around 1903 when there is evidence that those feelings had cooled). The attraction that he felt for Ehrenberg, which is corroborated by notebook entries, caused Mann difficulty and discomfort and may have been an obstacle to his marrying an English woman, Mary Smith, whom he met in 1901.[24] In 1950, Mann met the 19 year old waiter Franz Westermeier, confiding to his diary "Once again this, once again love".[25] In 1975, when Mann's diaries were published, creating a national sensation in Germany, the retired Westermeier was tracked down in the United States: he was flattered to learn he had been the object of Mann's obsession, but also shocked at its depth.[26]

Although Mann had always denied his novels had autobiographical components, the unsealing of his diaries revealing how consumed his life had been with unrequited and sublimated passion resulted in a reappraisal of his work.[26][27] Klaus Mann had dealt openly from the beginning with his own homosexuality in his literary work, critically referring to his father's "sublimation" in his diary, whereas the daughter Erika Mann and the younger son Golo Mann came out only late in their lives.

Cultural references

The Magic Mountain

Several literary and other works make reference to Mann's book The Magic Mountain, including:

  • Frederic Tuten's novel Tintin in the New World, features many characters (such as Clavdia Chauchat, Mynheer Peeperkorn and others) from The Magic Mountain interacting with Tintin in Peru.
  • Alice Munro's short story "Amundsen" in which a character makes a reference to The Magic Mountain during a conversation on tuberculosis.
  • Andrew Crumey's novel Mobius Dick (2004), which imagines an alternative universe where an author named Behring has written novels resembling Mann's. These include a version of The Magic Mountain with Erwin Schrödinger in place of Castorp.
  • Haruki Murakami's novel Norwegian Wood, in which the main character is criticized for reading The Magic Mountain while visiting a friend in a sanatorium.
  • The song "Magic Mountain" by the band Blonde Redhead
  • The painting Magic Mountain (after Thomas Mann) by Christiaan Tonnis (1987). "The Magic Mountain" is also a chapter in Tonnis's 2006 book Krankheit als Symbol (Illness as a Symbol).
  • The 1941 film 49th Parallel, in which the character Philip Armstrong Scott unknowingly praises Mann's work to an escaped World War II Nazi U-boat commander, who later responds by burning Scott's copy of The Magic Mountain.
  • Ken Kesey's novel, Sometimes a Great Notion (1964), character Indian Jenny purchases a Thomas Mann novel and tries to find out "... just where was this mountain full of magic..." (p. 578).
  • Renata Adler's novel, Speedboat, in which a minister’s wife says to a courteous, bearded boy, “How I envy you, ... reading The Magic Mountain for the first time.”
  • Hayao Miyazaki's 2013 film The Wind Rises, in which an unnamed German man at a mountain resort invokes the novel as cover for furtively condemning the rapidly arming Hitler and Hirohito regimes. After he flees to escape the Japanese secret police, the protagonist, who fears his own mail is being read, refers to him as the novel's Mr. Castorp. The film is partly based on another Japanese novel, set like The Magic Mountain in a tuberculosis sanatorium.
  • Father John Misty's 2017 album Pure Comedy contains a song titled, "So I'm Growing Old on Magic Mountain " in which a man, near death, reflects on the passing of time and the disappearance of his Dionysian youth in homage to the themes in Mann's novel.[28]

Death in Venice

Several literary and other works make reference to Death in Venice, including:


Political views

During World War I, Mann supported Kaiser Wilhelm II's conservatism, attacked liberalism and supported the war effort, calling the Great War "a purification, a liberation, an enormous hope". Yet in Von Deutscher Republik (1923) as a semi-official spokesman for parliamentary democracy, Mann called upon German intellectuals to support the new Weimar Republic. He also gave a lecture at the Beethovensaal in Berlin on 13 October 1922, which appeared in Die neue Rundschau in November 1922 in which he developed his eccentric defence of the Republic, based on extensive close readings of Novalis and Walt Whitman. Thereafter, his political views gradually shifted toward liberal left and democratic principles.[32][33]

He initially gave his support to the left-liberal German Democratic Party before shifting further left and urging unity behind the Social Democrats.[34][35]

In 1930, Mann gave a public address in Berlin titled "An Appeal to Reason" in which he strongly denounced Nazism and encouraged resistance by the working class. This was followed by numerous essays and lectures in which he attacked the Nazis. At the same time, he expressed increasing sympathy for socialist ideas. When the Nazis came to power in 1933, Mann and his wife were on holiday in Switzerland. Due to his strident denunciations of Nazi policies, his son Klaus advised him not to return. In contrast to those of his brother Heinrich and his son Klaus, Mann's books were not among those burnt publicly by Hitler's regime in May 1933, possibly since he had been the Nobel laureate in literature for 1929. In 1936, the Nazi government officially revoked his German citizenship.

During the war, Mann made a series of anti-Nazi radio-speeches, published as Listen, Germany!. They were recorded on tape in the United States and then sent to Great Britain, where the BBC transmitted them, hoping to reach German listeners.

Views on Russian communism and Nazi-fascism

Mann expressed his belief in the collection of letters written in exile, Listen, Germany! (Deutsche Hörer!), that equating Russian communism with Nazi-fascism on the basis that both are totalitarian systems was either superficial or insincere in showing a preference for fascism.[36] He clarified this view during a German press interview in July 1949, declaring that he was not a communist, but that communism at least had some relation to ideals of humanity and of a better future. He said that the transition of the communist revolution into an autocratic regime was a tragedy while Nazism was only "devilish nihilism".[37][38]

Literary works


1905: Fiorenza

Prose sketch

1893: "Vision"

Short stories

  • 1894: "Gefallen"
  • 1896: "The Will to Happiness"
  • 1896: "Disillusionment" ("Enttäuschung")
  • 1897: "Death" ("Der Tod")
  • 1897: "The Clown" ("Der Bajazzo")
  • 1897: "The Dilettante"
  • 1898: "Tobias Mindernickel"
  • 1899: "The Wardrobe" ("Der Kleiderschrank")
  • 1900: "Luischen" ("Little Lizzy") - written in 1897
  • 1900: "The Road to the Churchyard" ("Der Weg zum Friedhof")
  • 1903: "The Hungry"
  • 1903: "The Child Prodigy" ("Das Wunderkind")
  • 1904: "A Gleam"
  • 1904: "At the Prophet's"
  • 1905: "A Weary Hour"
  • 1907: "Railway Accident"
  • 1908: "Anecdote" ("Anekdote")
  • 1911: "The Fight between Jappe and the Do Escobar"

Short story collections

  • 1897: Little Herr Friedemann (Der kleine Herr Friedemann)
  • 1936: Stories of Three Decades (23 stories written from 1896 to 1929)



The Blood of the Walsungs

  1. The Blood of the Walsungs (Wӓlsungenblut) (1905)[39]
  2. The Blood of the Walsungs (2nd edition - 1921)

Felix Krull

  1. Felix Krull (Bekenntnisse des Hochstaplers Felix Krull) (written in 1911, published in 1922)
  2. Confessions of Felix Krull, (Bekenntnisse des Hochstaplers Felix Krull. Der Memoiren erster Teil; expanded from 1911 short story), unfinished (1954)

Joseph and His Brothers (Joseph und seine Brüder) (1933–43)

  1. The Stories of Jacob (Die Geschichten Jaakobs) (1933)
  2. Young Joseph (Der junge Joseph) (1934)
  3. Joseph in Egypt (Joseph in Ägypten) (1936)
  4. Joseph the Provider (Joseph, der Ernährer) (1943)



  • 1915: "Frederick and the Great Coalition" ("Friedrich und die große Koalition")
  • 1918: "Reflections of an Unpolitical Man" ("Betrachtungen eines Unpolitischen")
  • 1922: "The German Republic" ("Von deutscher Republik")
  • 1930: "A Sketch of My Life" ("Lebensabriß") - autobiographical
  • 1950: "Michelangelo according to his poems" ("Michelangelo in seinen Dichtungen")[40]
  • 1947: Essays of Three Decades, translated from the German by H. T. Lowe-Porter. [1st American ed.], New York, A. A. Knopf, 1947. Reprinted as Vintage book, K55, New York, Vintage Books, 1957.


See also


  1. Lindsey, Geoff (1990). "Quantity and quality in British and American vowel systems". In Ramsaran, Susan (ed.). Studies in the Pronunciation of English: A Commemorative Volume in Honour of A.C. Gimson. Routledge. pp. 106–118. ISBN 978-0-415-07180-2.
  2. Waagenar, Dick, and Iwamoto, Yoshio (1975). "Yukio Mishima: Dialectics of Mind and Body". Contemporary Literature, Vol. 16, No. 1 (Winter, 1975), pp. 41–60
  3. "Orhan Pamuk: By the Book". The New York Times. 11 November 2012.
  4. "Thomas Mann Autobiography". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 25 January 2008.
  5. Kurzke, Hermann (2002). Thomas Mann: Life as a work of art: A biography. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-07069-8. Translation by Leslie Willson of Thomas Mann: Das Leben als Kunstwerk (München C. H. Bick'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, 1999).
  6. Source: Alexander Leitch, 1978
  7. Jewish Women's Archive: Salka Viertel | Jewish Women's Archive, accessdate: 19 November 2016
  8. "Intellectuals call on German government to rescue Thomas Mann's California villa". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 17 November 2016.
  9. Bahr, Ehrhard (2 May 2007). Weimar on the Pacific: German Exile Culture in Los Angeles and the Crisis of Modernism. University of California Press. p. 170. ISBN 978-0-520-25128-1.
  10. Deutsche Hörer 25 (recte: 55) Radiosendungen nach Deutschland. Insel Verlag, Leipzig 1970.
  11. "Marking writer Thomas Mann's life". UPI.
  12. Meyers, Jeffrey (Fall 2012). "Thomas Mann in America". Michigan Quarterly Review. 51. hdl:2027/spo.act2080.0051.419.
  13. "Thomas Mann Biography". Cliffs Notes.
  14. Wilson, Scott. Resting Places: The Burial Sites of More Than 14,000 Famous Persons, 3d ed.: 2 (Kindle Location 29777). McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers. Kindle Edition.
  15. Claridge, Laura (2016). The lady with the Borzoi : Blanche Knopf, literary tastemaker extraordinaire (First ed.). New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. pp. 70–71. ISBN 978-0-374-11425-1. OCLC 908176194.
  16. Horton, David (2013), Thomas Mann in English. A Study in Literary Translation, London, New Delhi, New York, Sydney: Bloomsbury. ISBN 978-1-4411-6798-9
  17. "Nomination Database".
  18. Nobel Prize website. Retrieved 11 November 2007
  19. Mann, Thomas (1950). Warner Angell, Joseph (ed.). The Thomas Mann reader. New York: Knopf. p. 440. Retrieved 15 May 2009.
  20. Mann, Thomas (1950). Warner Angell, Joseph (ed.). The Thomas Mann reader. New York: Knopf. p. 443. Retrieved 15 May 2009.
  21. Mann, Thomas (1983). Diaries 1918–1939. A. Deutsch. p. 471. ISBN 978-0-233-97513-9., quoted in e.g. Kurzke, Hermann; Wilson, Leslie (2002). Thomas Mann. Life as a Work of Art. A Biography. Princeton University Press. p. 752. ISBN 978-0-691-07069-8. For a discussion of the relationship between his homosexuality and his writing, also see Heilbut, Anthony (1997). Thomas Mann: Eros and Literature. Humanity Press/Prometheus. p. 647. ISBN 978-0-333-67447-5.
  22. Kurzke, Herrmann (2002). Thomas Mann: Life as a Work of Art : a Biography. Princeton University Press. pp. 346–347. ISBN 978-0-691-07069-8.
  23. Robertson, Ritchie (ed.) 2002. The Cambridge Companion to Thomas Mann. Cambridge University Press. p. 5.
  24. Mundt 2004, p. 6.
  25. Mundt, Hannelore (2004), Understanding Thomas Mann, The University of South Carolina Press, ISBN 9781570035371.
  26. Paul, James (6 August 2005) "A man's Mann". Financial Times (UK).
  27. "Norbert Heuler – Houseboys". Schwules Museum.
  28. "Father John Misty – So I'm Growing Old on Magic Mountain".
  29. Awards: The multi-faceted playwright Archived 30 December 2001 at the Wayback Machine Frontline (magazine), Vol. 16, No. 03, 30 January – 12 February 1999.
  30. Peters, Tim (24 December 2014). "Time Out of Joint In Richard McGuire's Here". Harper's.
  31. Eco, Umberto (30 September 1994). "La bustina di Minerva". L'espresso. Archived from the original on 20 August 2011. Retrieved 29 August 2011.
  32. See a recent translation of this lecture by Lawrence Rainey in Modernism/Modernity, 14.1 (January 2007), pp. 99–145.
  33. Herwig, Holger H. (2014). The First World War: Germany and Austria-Hungary 1914–1918. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 35. ISBN 9781472510815.
  34. Jones, Larry Eugene (2017). German Liberalism and the Dissolution of the Weimar Party System, 1918–1933. UNC Press Books. p. 212.
  35. Vaget, Hans Rudolf (2017). "Thomas Mann: Enlightenment and Social Democracy". Publications of the English Goethe Society. 86 (3): 193–204. doi:10.1080/09593683.2017.1368931.
  36. Mann, Thomas (24 October 1942). Deutsche Hörer [Listen, Germany!] (in German).
  37. "Soviet ideology rated over Nazi". Toledo Blade. 25 July 1949. Retrieved 17 December 2016.
  38. Kennedy, Howard (26 July 1949). "Author Thomas Mann distinguishes between Nazism, pure communism". Stars and Stripes. Retrieved 17 December 2016.
  39. "1905 – Thomas Mann, Blood of the Walsungs". Duke University. Archived from the original on 29 November 2014. Retrieved 18 November 2014.
  40. The original text is available here

Further reading

  • Martin Mauthner – German Writers in French Exile 1933–1940 (London, 2007).
  • David Horton – Thomas Mann in English: A Study in Literary Translation (London, New Delhi, New York, Sydney, 2013)

Electronic editions

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