The Tribe (2014 film)

The Tribe (Ukrainian: Плем'я, Plemya) is a 2014 Ukrainian drama film written and directed by Myroslav Slaboshpytskiy. Starring Hryhoriy Fesenko, Yana Novikova and Roza Babiy, the film is set in a boarding school for deaf teenage students, where a novice scholar is drawn into an institutional system of organized crime, involving robbery and prostitution. He crosses a dangerous line when he falls for one of the girls to whom he's assigned to pimp. The film is entirely in Ukrainian Sign Language with no subtitles. It won the Nespresso Grand Prize, as well as the France 4 Visionary Award and the Gan Foundation Support for Distribution Award at the 2014 Cannes Film Festival's International Critics' Week section.[6][7][8]

The Tribe
Theatrical release poster
Directed byMyroslav Slaboshpytskiy
Produced by
  • Iya Myslytska
  • Valentyn Vasyanovych
Written byMyroslav Slaboshpytskiy
  • Grygoriy Fesenko
  • Yana Novikova
  • Roza Babiy
CinematographyValentyn Vasyanovych
Edited byValentyn Vasyanovych
Distributed by
  • Arthouse Traffic
  • (Ukraine)
Release date
Running time
130 minutes [1]
  • Ukraine
  • Netherlands
LanguageUkrainian Sign Language
Budget 14 mln.[2] ($ 1.5 mln.[3])
Box office $ 209K[4][5]

Harmata Film Production with the support of Hubert Bals Fund, Ukrainian State Film Agency, Rinat Akhmetov Foundation For Development of Ukraine co-financed the film.

The Tribe was widely admired and considered a contender for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film at the 87th Academy Awards.[9][10][11] There was some controversy over the voting process after The Guide was nominated by Ukraine.[10]


A teenage boy, Sergey, arrives at a boarding school for the deaf. There he tries to find his place in the hierarchy of the academic community, which operates like a Gang ruled by the King of the group. Their squad participates in acts of violence, robbery, sex and prostitution.[12] When one of the boys who helps in pimping two girls from the school gets crushed by a truck, Sergey takes his place. Soon however, he falls in love with one of the girls, Anya, whom he impregnates. Sergey finds a purse on a train which he steals, giving the money to Anya for a makeshift abortion. Much later, Sergey follows one of the teachers home, knocks him unconscious, and robs him, giving the substantial sum to Anya and then raping her. Anya gets an abortion, and they set apart over time. One of the gangmasters prepare to send the two girls to Italy, but Sergey ruins Anya's passport and is eventually beaten by King and his gang. Sergey later retaliates by crushing their heads with their nightstands in their sleep.


List of cast members:[13]

  • Hryhoriy Fesenko (as Sergey)
  • Yana Novikova (as Anya)
  • Roza Babiy (as Svetka)
  • Oleksandr Dsiadevych (as Gera)
  • Yaroslav Biletskiy
  • Ivan Tishko
  • Oleksandr Osadchyi (as King)
  • Oleksandr Sydelnykov
  • Oleksandr Panivan (as the Woodworking teacher)
  • Kyrylo Koshyk
  • Maryna Panivan
  • Tetiana Radchenko (as the principal of boarding school for the deaf)
  • Liudmyla Rudenko
  • Sasha Rusakov
  • Denys Hruba
  • Dania Bykobiy
  • Lenia Pisanenko


The Tribe premiered at the Cannes Film Festival on 21 May 2014 in Cannes, France, where it opened in the oldest parallel section of the festival, International Critics' Week, "blowing away" critics and audiences alike,[14][15] before screening at the Locarno International Film Festival as a special screening for the Jury on 12 August,[16] the Sarajevo Film Festival as the part of the Kinoscope section on 19 August,[17] opening the Toronto International Film Festival on 9 September as part of the Discovery section,[12] the London Film Festival on 15 October,[18] and the Denver International Film Festival on 15 November 2014.[19]

Theatrical run

Prior to The Tribe's Cannes International Critics' Week selection, Paris-based Alpha Violet, picked up the film.[20]

CEO of Alpha Violet Virginie Devesa, stated that it was an advantage having the piece before the film's Cannes selection, due to it allowing the company to work with the producers on the trailer and other promotional materials, with her stating,[20] "When we first watched the film, it was such as strong emotional ‘shock’ that we wanted to share these emotions and hoped for ‘The Tribe’ to be in Cannes." [20]

On 26 May 2014, Alpha Violet was announced as handling the international sales of The Tribe, as well as speaking to potential buyers of the piece at the Cannes Film Festival, to which sales interest were spurred on by its critical reception.[20] Jonathan Romney of The Guardian calling the piece "the great discovery of this year's festival." [21] Eric Kohn of IndieWIRE spoke of the film as "an unprecedented cinematic accomplishment." [22] Wendy Ide of The Times gave it five stars adding, "It takes a film like the Ukrainian drama ‘The Tribe’to neatly encapsulate the festival’s real raison d’etre: To discover and celebrate the most exciting, daring and outstanding films made around the world." [23] Karel Och of the Karlovy Vary International Film Festival described it as "the cinematic event of the year." [24] Devesa stated that territories such as the United States, United Kingdom and Hong Kong are being sewn up and currently under negotiation,[20] with her stating, "This is the first time I've had this experience as a sales agent. I hope I live it again. The film is so radical, original, that you might have expected these results, but you never know." [25] Later it was announced that UFO Distribution had acquired the rights to distribute the film within France,[20] Atsuko Murata's Mimosa Films were confirmed to have acquired the Japanese distribution rights to The Tribe,[20] Amstel Film picked up the distribution rights in the Netherlands [20] and film rights in Denmark were confirmed to have been acquired by Ost For Paradis.[20]

On 2 July 2014, Drafthouse Films acquired from Alpha Violet the distribution rights to The Tribe in the United States, with a planned 2015 theatrical release.[26] Upon the acquisition, CEO of Drafthouse Films Tim League spoke highly of the piece and showered it with praise stating that he was witnessing "something truly special".[26] Additionally he added, "Myroslav Slaboshpytskiy is a massive talent. I am confident that he will quickly become a world-renowned director, and I am excited and proud to be sharing his striking first feature with North America." [26] At the news of the acquisition director Slaboshpytskiy stated, "I am very glad that my film will be released in the United States. I have always believed in the universality of film’s language, and have always believed that dialogue and subtitles change the way different audiences perceive the film in different countries." [27] On 6 July 2014, it was confirmed that MCF MegaCom had bought the distribution right to ex-Yugoslavia territories,[25] Art Fest had obtained the film rights to Bulgaria,[25] and Film Europe Media Co had acquired the distribution rights to Czech Republic and Slovakia.[25] The announcement that Bio Paradis had also acquired the right in Iceland marked the first time Alpha Violet has ever sold to the Icelandic territory directly.[25] Alpha Violet was confirmed to be in negotiations for the United Kingdom, Scandinavian and Latin American territories to be collected.[25]

On 28 October 2014, Metrodome Group had announced that it had picked up the United Kingdom rights for Slaboshpytskiy’s film, with a planned 2015 release date.[28] Giles Edwards, Head of Acquisitions at Metrodome, commented upon the acquisition, "Audacious, uncompromising and formally breathtaking, Miroslav Shlaboshpytskiy’s shattering masterpiece takes the chilling saturnalia of the feral crime film and transposes it into an unnerving, singularly unforgettable landscape.",[28] himself concluding, "It heralds the arrival of the most astonishing new filmmaking talent in years." [28]

Home media

Drafthouse Films has announced for plans to release The Tribe in select theatres across North America in 2015, as well as additionally on a variety of VOD platforms and digital, DVD, and Blu-ray formats.[29] Additionally it was announced that the deal was negotiated by Alpha Violet's Virginie Devesa and Keiko Funato, and Drafthouse Films's James Emanuel Shapiro and Tim League.[27]

Top ten lists

The film appeared on several critics' lists of the ten best films of 2014.

Rank Critic Publication Remarks
1 Jonathan Romney Film Comment[30] "Poised, brutal, and entirely sui generis, this was one of those rare films in which a director follows a subject to its logical limits making us re-assess our watching and listening habits in the process."
7 James Quandt Artforum[31]
7 Drew McWeeny HitFix[32] "It is remarkable film craft above and beyond the use of sound, and features one of the year's most apocalyptic endings."
8 Jonathan Romney Sight & Sound[33] "Set in a school for deaf teenagers, it reimagines the language of sight and sound (or the absence of sound) in cinema to startlingly original effect; you watch and listen in a way that’s entirely fresh and unfamiliar."
10 Staff of Cine-Vue Cine-Vue[34] "Cinema never ceases to surprise and amaze, and Slaboshpitsky's début is a film that will leave you literally speechless."


The Tribe received widespread critical acclaim by critics, audiences and at festivals all over the world. Film review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes reports that 86% of critics gave the film a "Certified Fresh" rating, based on 92 reviews with an average score of 7.5/10, with the consensus "A bleak, haunting drama whose wordless dialogue speaks volumes, The Tribe is a bold, innovative take on silent films for a contemporary audience."[35] Metacritic, another review aggregator, assigned the film a weighted average score of 78 (out of 100) based on 27 reviews from mainstream critics, considered to be "generally favorable."[36]

Peter Bradshaw of The Guardian scored the piece four out of five stars, writing, "I can't stop thinking about it." while too praising Slaboshpytskiy's ability to "[draw] on Samuel Beckett or Peter Brook to create a universal language of anxiety." while concluding the sentiment, "What an intriguing film."[37] Leslie Felperin of The Hollywood Reporter praised the piece, stating, "The use of sign language, deafness and silence itself adds several heady new ingredients to the base material, alchemically creating something rich, strange and very original." He also admired the film's "silky smooth steadicam" cinematography of Vasyanovych. As well as comparing the language of gestures and body posture as "akin to watching a ballet like Coppélia or The Nutcracker".[13]

Justin Chang of Variety heralded the film and its director, Myroslav Slaboshpytskiy, by stating: "Actions, emotions and desperate impulses speak far louder than words in The Tribe, a formally audacious coup de cinema that marks a stunning writing-directing debut for Ukrainian filmmaker [Slaboshpytskiy]." Chang was most praiseworthy of Vasyanovych's cinematography, Stepanskiy's sound design as "vividly detailed" and described Odudenko's production designs as "harshly lit corridors and graffiti-strewn exteriors". He also admired Novikova's "fire and vulnerability" as Anya.[1]

Jonathan Romney of Film Comment granted the piece high acclaim, "[...] it was a thrill to discover something so bold, innovative, and downright wayward." Stating of the film, "[...] a magnificent example of long-take cinema". and calling it "an astonishing film". He continued by praising Slaboshpytskiy's risky endeavour, to which he "follows through with intrepidity and absolute rigor" as well as Vasyanovych’s "precise compositions". Romney further adds, "The Tribe, in short, was the most surprising, most inventive, and in many ways most disturbing film I’ve seen in Cannes this year." [38] He later named the film among the best movies of 2014.[33]

Eric Kohn of indieWIRE gave the film an "A-" rating, adding, "While the specifics remain uncertain, it's never particularly difficult to keep up with the movie's pace, since their actions speak plainly enough -- and sometimes add far more expressiveness than any verbal exchanges could provide." Praising Slaboshpytskiy and Vasyanovych's usage of the steadicam approach, "capturing the actors' exchanges in their full-bodied entirety"; and Slaboshpytskiy as "brilliantly [developing] a suspenseful core through the mysteries of their conversations". He admired Grigory Fesenko's "body movements" and "precise details" through gestures.[22]

Fred Topel wrote, in his review for CraveOnline, "The piece de resistance is a taboo subject that unfolds in an elaborate single take. It was so harrowing I would have applauded if it would not have been completely inappropriate for the subject matter to do so." Topel praised the cast as "made up of non actors but you wouldn’t suspect that" adding, "They are full of life and energy" [39]

Jessica Kiang of The Playlist gave the film an "A-" rating and wrote, "It might sound glib, but it's the literal truth: "The Tribe" left us speechless." [40]

Electric Sheep Magazine's Greg Klymkiw granted the film a maximum score of five stars, stating "A sad, shocking and undeniably harrowing dramatic reflection of Ukraine with the searing truthful lens of a stylistic documentary treatment (at times similar to that of Austrian auteur Ulrich Seidl)". He continues by commending that, "Visuals and actions are what drive the film and ultimately prove to be far more powerful than words ever could be."[41] Luke Y. Thompson of Topless Robot spoke most highly of the film, declaring, "Compelling, upsetting, brutal and brilliant, The Tribe is one of the best works of cinema of the year - a familiar template recreated in what, for most, will be an entirely new world." Too adding, "[...] this is a movie that will and should be used in cinema schools as a master class in how film is a visual medium." [42]


Award Date of ceremony Category Recipients and nominees Result
Art Film Fest [43] 29 June 2014 The City of Trencin Mayor's Award Myroslav Slaboshpytskiy Won
American Film Institute Festival [44] 13 November 2014 VIZIO Visionary Special Jury Award Myroslav Slaboshpytskiy Won
Cannes Film Festival[45] 22 May 2014 Nespresso Grand Prize Myroslav Slaboshpytskiy Won
France 4 Visionary Award Myroslav Slaboshpytskiy Won
Gan Foundation Support for Distribution Award Myroslav Slaboshpytskiy Won
Caméra d'Or Myroslav Slaboshpytskiy Nominated
Cork Film Festival [46] 27 October 2014 Spirit of the Festival Award Myroslav Slaboshpytskiy Won
Crested Butte Film Festival 28 September 2015 Outstanding debut performance in a feature film Yana Novikova Won
Denver Film Festival [19] 14 November 2014 Krzysztof Kieślowski Award for Best Foreign Feature Film Myroslav Slaboshpytskiy Won
European Film Academy [47] 13 December 2014 Prix FIPRESCI Myroslav Slaboshpytskiy Won
Fantastic Fest [48] 18 September 2014 Next Wave Award for Best Director Myroslav Slaboshpytskiy Won
Flanders International Film Festival Ghent [49] 13 October 2014 Explore Award Won
Kinoshok International Film Festival [50] 21 September 2014 Best Director Myroslav Slaboshpytskiy Won
Listapad Film Festival [51] 7 November 2014 Grand Prix Myroslav Slaboshpytskiy Won
Silver Award Myroslav Slaboshpytskiy Won
London Film Festival [52] 18 October 2014 Sutherland Award Myroslav Slaboshpytskiy Won
Young Jury Award Myroslav Slaboshpytskiy Won
Manaki Brothers Film Festival [53] 13 September 2014 Golden Camera 300 Valentyn Vasyanovych Won
Milano Film Festival [54] 4 September 2014 Best Feature Film Award Myroslav Slaboshpytskiy Won
Milwaukee International Film Festival [55] 29 September 2014 Herzfeld Competition Award Myroslav Slaboshpytskiy Won
Motovun Film Festival [56] 31 July 2014 Propeller Myroslav Slaboshpytskiy Won
National Board of Review Awards 2015 [57] 5 January 2016 Top 5 Foreign Language Films The Tribe Won
Online Film Critics Society [58] 15 December 2014 Best Non-U.S. Release (non-competitive category) The Tribe ('71, 10,000 km, Entre Nos, Han Gong-ju, Hard to Be a God, The Look of Silence, The Salt of the Earth, What We Do in the Shadows and Timbuktu) Won
Palić Film Festival [59] 19 July 2014 Grand Prix for Best Feature Myroslav Slaboshpytskiy Won
Philadelphia Film Festival [60] 16 October 2014 Archie Award for Best First Feature Myroslav Slaboshpytskiy Won
REC Tarragona International Film Festival [61] 3 December 2014 Opera Prima Award Myroslav Slaboshpytskiy Won
São Paulo International Film Festival [62] 16 October 2014 Best Screenplay Myroslav Slaboshpytskiy Won
Sitges Film Festival [63] 3 October 2014 Experimenta Award Myroslav Slaboshpytskiy Won
Tarkovsky International Film Festival [64] 11 June 2014 Grand Prix Myroslav Slaboshpytskiy Won
Tbilisi Film Festival [65] 1 December 2014 Golden Prometheus for Best Film Myroslav Slaboshpytskiy Won
Sergej Parajanov Prize for Outstanding Poetic Vision Myroslav Slaboshpytskiy Won
Thessaloniki International Film Festival [66] 9 November 2014 Best Director Myroslav Slaboshpytskiy Won
TOFIFEST International Film Festival [67] 18 October 2014 The Golden Angel Myroslav Slaboshpytskiy Won
Yerevan International Film Festival [68] 20 July 2014 Golden Apricot Myroslav Slaboshpytskiy Won
FIPRESCI Jury Prize Myroslav Slaboshpytskiy Won
Warsaw Film Festival [69] 10 October 2014 Competition 1-2 Award Myroslav Slaboshpytskiy Nominated

See also


  1. "Film Review: 'The Tribe'". Variety. Retrieved 26 June 2014.
  2. Мирослав Слабошпицький: «Не можу собі уявити художнього фільму про Революцію гідності» Високий Замок, 14 березня 2014 / Myroslav Slaboshpytskyi: "I can't imagine a feature film about Ukraine's Revolution of Dignity" Vysokyi Zamok, March 14, 2014 (in Ukrainian)
  3. "In Production". Ukraine Film Office. Archived from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 20 March 2013. (in English)
  4. The Tribe: box office (domestic) - BoxOfficeMojo, as of 2/22/2016
  5. The Tribe: box office (foreign) - BoxOfficeMojo, as of 2/22/2016
  6. "The Tribe". Semaine de la Critique. Archived from the original on 29 May 2014. Retrieved 24 May 2014.
  7. "'The Tribe' ('Plemya'): Cannes Review". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 24 May 2014.
  8. "Cannes: Directors' Fortnight 2014 Winners List". Deadline London. Retrieved 24 May 2014.
  9. "OSCARS: Ukraine Spurns Cannes Winner 'Tribe,' Follows 'Guide'". Variety. Retrieved 11 September 2014.
  10. "Oscars: Backlash Over Ukraine's Nomination for Best Foreign Language Category". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 11 September 2014.
  11. "AFI FEST 2014 presented by Audi ANNOUNCES JURY AND AUDIENCE AWARD-WINNING FILMS". American Film Institute. Retrieved 13 November 2014.
  12. "The Tribe". Toronto International Film Festival. Archived from the original on 30 August 2014. Retrieved 9 September 2014.
  13. "'The Tribe' ('Plemya'): Cannes Review". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 22 May 2014.
  14. "Poetics of (Sign) Language in Cannes Critic's Week 2014". International Federation of Film Critics. Retrieved 15 June 2014.
  15. "Cannes review: The Tribe". Film4. Retrieved 22 May 2014.
  16. "Jury Members' Movies". PardoLive. Retrieved 16 July 2014.
  17. "Kinoscope 2014". Sarajevo Film Festival. Retrieved 19 August 2014.
  18. "The Tribe". BFI London Film Festival. Retrieved 15 October 2014.
  19. "DENVER FILM SOCIETY Winners Announced 37th STARZ DENVER Film Fest". Horror News. Retrieved 25 November 2014.
  20. "CANNES: Ukraine's 'The Tribe' Kicks Off Strong Initial Sales for Alpha Violet". Variety. Retrieved 26 May 2014.
  21. "Cannes 2014 roundup: from Gosling's roasting to a genuine Leviathan". The Guardian. Retrieved 24 May 2014.
  22. "Cannes Review: Shocking Sign Language Drama and Critics Week Winner 'The Tribe' is an Unprecedented Cinematic Accomplishment". indieWIRE. Retrieved 22 May 2014.
  23. "Cannes review: The Tribe". The Times. Retrieved 23 May 2014.
  24. "Karlovy Vary Festival Brings Best of the East to the West". Variety. Retrieved 26 June 2014.
  25. "'The Tribe' Scores Spirited Sales (EXCLUSIVE)". Variety. Retrieved 6 July 2014.
  26. "Drafthouse Films Acquires Groundbreaking Cannes Award-Winner THE TRIBE". Drafthouse Films. Retrieved 2 July 2014.
  27. "Cannes Winner 'The Tribe' Gets North American Distribution Via Drafthouse". Drafthouse Films. Retrieved 2 July 2014.
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  29. "Drafthouse sparks to Cannes entry The Tribe". Movie Scope. Retrieved 12 August 2014.
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  31. "James Quandt: 10 Best Films of 2014". Year End Lists. Retrieved 6 December 2014.
  32. "From bone-crunching to mind-bending with Drew McWeeny's Top Ten of 2014". HitFix. Retrieved 11 December 2014.
  33. "The best films of 2014". Sight & Sound. Retrieved 3 December 2014.
  34. "Top 20 Films of 2014: Part Two (10-1)". Cine-Vue. Retrieved 10 February 2015.
  35. "The Tribe". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved 9 September 2014.
  36. "The Tribe". Metacritic. Retrieved 9 September 2014.
  37. "The Tribe review – deaf-school drama is shocking, violent and unique". The Guardian. Retrieved 17 October 2014.
  38. "Film of the Week: The Tribe". Film Comment. Retrieved 23 May 2014.
  39. "Fantastic Fest 2014 Review: 'The Tribe'". CraveOnline. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
  40. "Cannes Review: Bizarre, Unsettling, Brilliant Critics' Week Winner 'The Tribe'". The Playlist. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
  41. "The Tribe". Electric Sheep. Retrieved 23 September 2014.
  42. "Shape Shifters, Deaf Gangsters and More: 7 Upcoming Horror & Crime Films Reviewed From AFI Fest". Topless Robot. Retrieved 19 November 2014.
  43. "Way Out Wins at Art Film Fest". Film New Europe. Retrieved 4 July 2014.
  44. "AFI Fest 2014: 'Self Made' and 'The Tribe' win top jury prizes". LA Times. Retrieved 13 November 2014.
  45. "South Korea's 'Snowpiercer' Gets 7 Nominations at Asia Pacific Film Fest". The Hollywood Reporter. 3 December 2013. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
  46. "59TH CORK FILM FESTIVAL AWARD WINNERS ANNOUNCED". Cork Film Festival. Archived from the original on 11 April 2016. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
  47. "Five Debut Films Nominated for European Discovery 2014". European Film Academy. Retrieved 13 October 2014.
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  49. "'The Tribe' by Myroslav Slaboshpytskiy may receive the Explore Award!". Film Fest Gent. Retrieved 24 October 2014.
  50. "Grand Prix " Kinoshock " received Georgian film "Corn island"". News Rin. Retrieved 30 September 2014.
  51. "Grand Prix Golden Listapad goes to Ukrainian movie The Tribe". Retrieved 14 November 2014.
  52. "Leviathan wins Best Film Award at the BFI London Film Festival". BFI London Film Festival. Retrieved 21 July 2014.
  53. "THE "GOLDEN CAMERA 300" MAKES WINNER". Manaki Brothers Film Festival. Archived from the original on 20 August 2014. Retrieved 19 September 2014.
  54. "'Palmares". Milano Film Festival. Retrieved 5 September 2014.
  55. "'The Tribe' among Milwaukee Film Festival award winners". Milwaukee Journal Sentinel. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
  56. "'The Tribe' Wins Motovun Film Festival's Top Honor". Variety. Retrieved 4 August 2014.
  57. "National Board of Review Announced 2015 Award Winners". National Board of Review. Retrieved 1 December 2015.
  58. "2014 Awards (18th Annual)". Online Film Critics Society. Retrieved 11 June 2014.
  59. "The Tribe". Festival Scope. Retrieved 11 June 2014.
  60. ""The Duke of Burgundy" takes Philadelphia Film Festival's top prize". TechnologyTell. Retrieved 27 October 2014.
  61. "Los Hongos is the big winner at REC Tarragona". REC Tarragona. Retrieved 9 December 2014.
  62. "The Tribe". Mostra. Retrieved 8 October 2014.
  63. "The Tribe". Sitges Film Festival. Retrieved 8 October 2014.
  64. "The film "The Tribe" received the Grand Prix at the Festival "The Mirror"". Viva Ukraine. Retrieved 11 June 2014.
  65. "Tribe wins the Golden Prometheus Award at the Tbilisi Film Festival". Georgian Journal. Retrieved 11 December 2014.
  66. "Thessaloniki International Film Festival". Festival Scope. Retrieved 9 November 2014.
  67. "Ukrainian cinema triumphs at Tofifest 2014". Tofifest. Retrieved 26 October 2014.
  68. "Golden Apricot: 11th edition of int'l film festival ends in Yerevan". ArmeniaNow. Retrieved 21 July 2014.
  69. "No fireworks, but Warsaw invites 20 Ukrainian filmmakers". Cineuropa. Retrieved 9 October 2014.
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