The Right Honourable

The Right Honourable (The Rt Hon. or Rt Hon.) is an honorific style traditionally applied to certain persons and collective bodies in the United Kingdom, the British Empire, and the Commonwealth of Nations. The term is predominantly used today as a style associated with the holding of certain senior public offices in the United Kingdom, Canada, and New Zealand.

"Right" in this context is an adverb meaning "thoroughly" or "very".

Major current title

United Kingdom

The prefix is customarily abbreviated to "The" in many situations, but never for Privy Counsellors.[1] The following persons are entitled to the style in a personal capacity:

The following persons are entitled to the style ex officio. The style is added to the name of the office, not the name of the person:

All other lord mayors are "The Right Worshipful"; other lords provost do not use an honorific. By the 1920s, a number of city mayors, including the Lord Mayor of Leeds,[9] were unofficially using the prefix "The Right Honourable", and the matter was consequently raised in Parliament. The Lord Mayor of Bristol at present still uses the prefix "Right Honourable", without official sanction.[10][11] The Chairman of the London County Council (LCC) was granted the style in 1935 as part of the celebrations of the silver jubilee of King George V.[12] The chairman of the Greater London Council, the body that replaced the LCC in 1965, was similarly granted the prefix,[13] but that body, and by extension the office of its chairman, was likewise abolished in 1986.

Privy counsellors are appointed for life by the monarch, on the advice of the prime minister. All members of the British Cabinet (technically a committee of the Privy Council) are appointed to the Privy Council, as are certain other senior ministers in the government, senior members of the Shadow Cabinet, and leaders of the major political parties. The Privy Council thus includes all current and former members of the Cabinet of the United Kingdom, excepting those who have resigned from the Privy Council. The first ministers of Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland are also so appointed, as is the leader of the largest opposition party in the Scottish Parliament.

In order to differentiate peers who are privy counsellors from those who are not, the suffix "PC" should be added after the name (according to Debrett's Peerage[14][15][16]). This is not however considered correct by Who's Who.[17]

In the House of Commons, members are not permitted to address each other directly or name other members, but must instead address the Speaker and refer to each other indirectly by their job. A non-Privy Council member is thus "my hon. Friend (the member for constituency)" if in the same party as the person speaking, and "the hon. Member/Gentleman/Lady (the member for constituency)" otherwise. ("Honourable" is abbreviated as "hon." in Hansard.) "Honourable" becomes "right honourable" for those members entitled to this style, in particular privy counsellors. Members with government or opposition jobs may be referred to as such, for example "my right hon. Friend, the Chancellor of the Exchequer", "the right hon. Lady, the Leader of the Opposition", "his right hon. Friend, the Secretary of State for Department", "the Secretary of State" (where this is unambiguous, such as while asking questions of a minister), or "the Prime Minister". Other honorifics are used in addition for those members in relevant professions:

  • "(right) honourable and reverend" for clergy[18]
  • "(right) honourable and gallant" for military officers[19]
  • "(right) honourable and learned" for barristers[20][21]

Provided they are Commonwealth citizens, foreign judges appointed to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council are entitled to the honorific as well, although the appellation may be ignored in the judge's home country.

Collective entities

In the United Kingdom, "The Right Honourable" is added as a prefix to the name of various collective entities such as:

  • The Right Honourable the Lords Spiritual and Temporal (of the United Kingdom, etc.) in Parliament Assembled (the House of Lords)
  • The Right Honourable the Knights, Citizens and Burgesses (of the House of Commons/Commons House) in Parliament Assembled[22] (the House of Commons) (archaic, now simply The Honourable the Commons of the United Kingdom, etc.)[23]
  • The Right Honourable the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty (the former Board of Admiralty)
  • The Right Honourable the Lords of the Committee of the Privy Council appointed for the consideration of all matters relating to Trade and Foreign Plantations (the Board of Trade)

See also the collective use of "the Most Honourable", as in "The Lords of Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council" (the Privy Council).


In Canada, occupants of the most senior public offices are styled as "The Right Honourable" (Le très honorable in French). Formerly, this was by virtue of their appointment to the Privy Council of the United Kingdom. However, Canadian appointments to the British Privy Council were ended by the government of Lester Pearson. Currently, individuals who hold, or have held, one of the following offices are awarded the style of Right Honourable for life:

The title is not to be confused with "His/Her Excellency", used by governors-general during their term of office, or "The Honourable", used only while in office by premiers, and provincial cabinet ministers, and for life by senators, and federal cabinet ministers.

The style may also be granted for life by the Governor-General to eminent Canadians who have not held any of the offices that would otherwise entitle them to the style. This has been done on two occasions: once to mark the 125th anniversary of Canadian Confederation in 1992, and again upon the retirement of longtime politician Herb Gray in 2002.

The following individuals have been granted the title as an honorific:

  • Paul Martin Sr. (1992) — cabinet minister (Minister of External Affairs), Member of Parliament, senator and diplomat
  • Martial Asselin (1992) — federal cabinet minister, Member of Parliament, senator (Speaker of the Senate) and Lieutenant Governor of Quebec
  • Ellen Fairclough (1992) — federal cabinet minister and Member of Parliament; first woman in Canadian politics ever appointed to cabinet
  • Jean-Luc Pépin (1992) — federal cabinet minister and Member of Parliament; chair of Anti-Inflation Board and co-chair of unity taskforce
  • Alvin Hamilton (1992) — federal cabinet minister and Member of Parliament
  • Don Mazankowski (1992) — deputy prime minister, federal cabinet minister and Member of Parliament
  • Jack Pickersgill (1992) — federal cabinet minister, Member of Parliament, and senior civil servant (Assistant Private Secretary and special assistant to the prime minister, Clerk of the Privy Council; chair of the Canadian Transport Commission)
  • Robert Stanfield (1992) — federal Opposition Leader and Member of Parliament, provincial MLA and Premier of Nova Scotia
  • Herb Gray (2002) — deputy prime minister, federal cabinet minister, and Member of Parliament; the longest-serving MP in Canadian history
Living Canadians holding the title The Right Honourable
Person Birthplace Reason Born Granted
Justin Trudeau Ottawa, ON Prime Minister 1971 2015
Stephen Harper Toronto, ON Former Prime Minister 1959 2006
Paul Martin Windsor, ON Former Prime Minister 1938 2003
Jean Chrétien Shawinigan, QC Former Prime Minister 1934 1993
Kim Campbell Port Alberni, BC Former Prime Minister 1947 1993
Brian Mulroney Baie-Comeau, QC Former Prime Minister 1939 1984
John Turner United Kingdom Former Prime Minister 1929 1984
Joe Clark High River, AB Former Prime Minister 1939 1979
Julie Payette Montreal, QC Governor-General 1963 2017
David Johnston Sudbury, ON Former Governor-General 1941 2010
Michaëlle Jean Haiti Former Governor-General 1957 2005
Adrienne Clarkson Hong Kong Former Governor-General 1939 1999
Ed Schreyer Beausejour, MB Former Governor-General 1935 1979
Richard Wagner Montreal, QC Chief Justice 1957 2017
Beverley McLachlin Pincher Creek, AB Former Chief Justice 1943 2000
Don Mazankowski Viking, AB Honorific 1935 1992

Over the years, a number of prominent Canadians became members of the Privy Council of the United Kingdom and thus were entitled to use the style of Right Honourable, either because of their services in Britain (e.g. serving as envoys to London) or as members of the Imperial War Cabinet, or due to their prominence in the Canadian Cabinet. This included all but three of Canada's early prime ministers (Alexander Mackenzie, John Abbott, and Mackenzie Bowell) who governed before the title was used domestically.

New Zealand

In New Zealand, the prime minister and some other senior cabinet ministers were customarily appointed to the Privy Council of the United Kingdom and thus styled The Right Honourable.[24]

In her resignation honours, the former prime minister Helen Clark did not recommend the appointment of any new privy councillors, and at present Winston Peters is the sole privy councillor in the New Zealand parliament. Privy councillors recently retired from parliament include Clark, the former Speaker of the House Jonathan Hunt, and the former prime minister Jenny Shipley.[25] In 2009 it was announced that the new prime minister John Key had decided not to make any further recommendations to the Crown for appointments to the Privy Council.[26]

In August 2010, the Queen of New Zealand announced that, with immediate effect, individuals who hold, and those persons who after the date of the signing of these rules are appointed to, the following offices are awarded the style The Right Honourable for life:[24]

This change was made because the practice of appointing New Zealanders to the Privy Council of the United Kingdom had ceased. However, the change had little immediate effect, as all but two of the holders or living former holders of the offices granted the style had already been appointed to the Privy Council.[27][28]

The living New Zealanders holding the style "The Right Honourable" as a result of membership of the Privy Council are:

The living New Zealanders holding the style "The Right Honourable" for life as a result of the 2010 changes are:

NameTitleDate Appointed
Sir Anand Satyanand Former Governor-General 2 August 2010
Sir John Key Former Prime Minister
Sir Lockwood Smith Former Speaker of the House of Representatives
Sir Jerry Mateparae Former Governor-General 31 August 2011
David Carter Former Speaker of the House of Representatives 1 February 2013
Dame Patsy Reddy Governor-General 28 September 2016
Sir Bill English Former Prime Minister 12 December 2016
Jacinda Ardern Prime Minister 26 October 2017
Trevor Mallard Speaker of the House of Representatives 7 November 2017
Dame Helen Winklemann Chief Justice 14 March 2019

Minor or historic title


Australians appointed to the UK Privy Council are entitled to be called The Right Honourable. Some premiers of the Australian colonies in the 19th century were appointed members of HM Privy Council and were thus entitled to be called The Right Honourable. After federation in 1901, the Governor-General, the Chief Justice of the High Court of Australia, the Prime Minister and some other senior ministers held the title. Alfred Deakin declined appointment to the Privy Council and was the only prime minister without the title until Gough Whitlam in 1972. The practice was resumed by Malcolm Fraser in 1975, but Bob Hawke declined the appointment in 1983. The last Governor-General to be entitled to the style was Sir Ninian Stephen. The last active politician to be entitled to the style was Ian Sinclair, who retired in 1998. Appointment to the Australian equivalent of the Privy Council, the Federal Executive Council, does not entitle a person to the style.

Australians can continue to achieve the distinction of "The Right Honourable" for their work in or in connection with the UK. For example, in 2001, Sir Robert May was elevated to the UK peerage as Baron May of Oxford, which carries with it the style The Right Honourable.

Australians holding certain hereditary peerages in the grades of Baron, Viscount and Earl also use the Right Honourable title.

The Lord Mayors of Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane,[29] Perth, Adelaide and Hobart are styled the Rt Hon. The style (which has no connection with the Privy Council) attaches to the title of Lord Mayor, not to their names, and is relinquished upon leaving office.

Living Australians holding the title The Right Honourable Reason Formerly
Doug Anthony, AC, CH Member of the Privy Council Former Deputy Prime Minister of Australia
Ian Sinclair, AC Member of the Privy Council Former Speaker of the Australian House of Representatives
Sir William Heseltine, GCB, GCVO, AC Member of the Privy Council Former Private Secretary to the Sovereign
Robert May, Baron May of Oxford, OM, AC Life peer Former Chief Scientific Adviser to the UK Government
Trixie Gardner, Baroness Gardner of Parkes, AM, JP Life peer Former Councillor on the Westminster City Council
Malcolm Murray, 12th Earl of Dunmore Earl of Dunmore Former Member of the House of Lords
Robert Fiennes-Clinton, 19th Earl of Lincoln Earl of Lincoln
Simon Abney-Hastings, 15th Earl of Loudoun Earl of Loudoun
George Dawson-Damer, 7th Earl of Portarlington Earl of Portarlington
Keith Rous, 6th Earl of Stradbroke Earl of Stradbroke
Francis Grosvenor, 8th Earl of Wilton Earl of Wilton
Nicholas St John, 9th Viscount Bolingbroke, 10th Viscount St John Viscount Bolingbroke
Charles Cavendish, 7th Baron Chesham Baron Chesham
James Lindsay, 3rd Baron Lindsay of Birker Baron Lindsay of Birker
David Campbell, 7th Baron Stratheden and Campbell Baron Stratheden


Members of the Privy Council of Ireland were entitled to be addressed as The Right Honourable, even after the Privy Council ceased to have any functions or to meet on the creation of the Irish Free State in December 1922. Nevertheless, the Lord Mayor of Dublin, like some of his counterparts in Great Britain, retained the use of the honorific style as a result of its having been conferred separately by legislation; in 2001 it was removed, as a consequence of local government law reform.


The second prime minister Raila Amolo Odinga (2008 2013) has been referred to as Rt. Honourable Raila Odinga.

Sri Lanka

In Sri Lanka (formerly known as Ceylon) the British practice was followed with Ceylonese members of the Privy Council of the United Kingdom were styled The Right Honourable and were referred to as "Mahamanya" in Sinhalese. Ceylonese appointees to the privy council included D. S. Senanayake and Sir John Kotelawala.[30]

See also


  1. 'The Prefix "The"'. In Titles and Forms of Address, 21st ed., pp. 8–9. A & C Black, London, 2002.
  2. "The Honourable". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, inc. 10 August 2017. ... earls, viscounts, and barons are 'right honourable', ...
  3. Earl Ferrers, Minister of State at the Home Office (21 July 1989). "Use of 'Right Honourable'". Hansard. House of Lords debates. 510. Parliament of the United Kingdom. col. 1116—8WA. The style is also taken by Privy Counsellors, Peers below the rank of Marquess (which includes ladies who are Peers in their own right), the Lord Mayors of London and York and the Lord Provost of Edinburgh by ancient prescriptive usage.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  4. "Earl and Countess". Debrett's. Archived from the original on 27 September 2014.
  5. "Viscount and Viscountess". Debrett's. Archived from the original on 31 July 2014.
  6. "Baron". Debrett's. Archived from the original on 13 May 2014.
  7. "Privy Council members". Privy Council Office. Archived from the original on 6 December 2014. Retrieved 15 June 2015.
  8. "Right Honourable". TheyWorkForYou. Archived from the original on 6 September 2017.
  9. "Reception by the Right Hon. the LORD MAYOR OF LEEDS and LADY MAYORESS (Mr. and Mrs. HUGH LUPTON) to the B.N.O.C. on the occasion of their visit to the Theatre Royal, Leeds - 2LS Leeds, 6 November 1927". Radio Times. Archived from the original on 9 March 2016. Retrieved 9 March 2016.
  10. The Title of Lord Mayor – Use of the Prefix "Right Honourable", in The Times, 7 July 1932, p. 16
  11. "Lord Mayor of Bristol". Bristol City Council. Archived from the original on 21 March 2009. Retrieved 26 December 2008.
  12. "Royal Guests of L.C.C. The Queen At The County Hall, Honour For Chairman". The Times. 1 June 1935. p. 16.
  13. "No. 43613". The London Gazette. 30 March 1965. p. 3195.
  14. Kidd, Charles, Debrett's Peerage & Baronetage 2015 Edition, London, 2015, Forms of Addressing Persons of Title, pp.56-60, p.60
  15. Debrett's recommends the use of the post-nominal letters "PC" in a social style of address for a peer who is a Privy Counsellor."Privy Counsellors and Crown Appointments". Debrett’s. Archived from the original on 28 May 2016. Retrieved 15 June 2015.
  16. "Privy counsellors". Debretts. Archived from the original on 30 June 2015. Retrieved 24 May 2015.
  17. ' Privy Counsellors'. In Titles and Forms of Address, 21st ed., pp. 72–73. A & C Black, London, 2002.
  18. A use in the Commons in 1898 Archived 6 May 2014 at the Wayback Machine Hansard. HL Deb 2 May 1898 vol 57 c43 Retrieved 6 May 2014
  19. A use by either House of Parliament in 2005 Archived 22 December 2012 at the Wayback Machine Hansard. HL Deb 14 March 2005 vol 670 cc399-468GC Retrieved 30 March 2013
  20. "Mental Capacity Bill". Archived from the original on 26 December 2012.
  21. "Re-elected Bercow dragged to Speaker's chair". BBC News. Archived from the original on 27 November 2017. Retrieved 1 May 2018. This video is of the speech of Speaker John Bercow after his re-election as Speaker after the 2017 general election, referring to "the right honourable and learned gentleman, the member for Rushcliffe", i.e. Father of the House Kenneth Clarke, who is a barrister.
  22. "". Archived from the original on 1 November 2011. Retrieved 1 May 2018.
  23. "Public Petitions to the House of Commons". Archived from the original on 23 April 2010. Retrieved 1 May 2018.
  24. "The Right Honourable". Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet. Archived from the original on 8 April 2017. Retrieved 30 April 2017.
  25. "The Privy Council". Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet. Archived from the original on 14 June 2009. Retrieved 16 June 2009.
  26. "Honours Q and A" (PDF). 2009. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 June 2011. Retrieved 29 June 2009.
  27. "Use of the title 'The Right Honourable' in New Zealand, 2 August 2010". The Queen's Printer. 2 August 2010. Archived from the original on 5 August 2010. Retrieved 3 August 2010.
  28. This did not apply to former governor-generals Sir Paul Reeves, Dame Catherine Tizard and Dame Silvia Cartwright and former speakers Sir Kerry Burke, Sir Robin Gray, Sir Peter Tapsell, Sir Doug Kidd and Margaret Wilson
  29. Yamashita, Kate (12 March 2014). "Lord Mayor Graham Quirk". Archived from the original on 18 April 2017. Retrieved 17 April 2017.
  30. D.S. Senanayake – A nation’s father, undisputed leader of all time
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