The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe

The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe is a fantasy novel for children by C. S. Lewis, published by Geoffrey Bles in 1950. It is the first published and best known of seven novels in The Chronicles of Narnia (1950–1956). Among all the author's books, it is also the most widely held in libraries.[2] Although it was originally the first of The Chronicles of Narnia, it is volume two in recent editions that are sequenced by the stories' chronology. Like the other Chronicles, it was illustrated by Pauline Baynes, and her work has been retained in many later editions.[1][3]

The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe
First edition dustjacket
AuthorC. S. Lewis
IllustratorPauline Baynes
Cover artistPauline Baynes
CountryUnited Kingdom
SeriesThe Chronicles of Narnia
GenreChildren's fantasy novel, Christian literature
PublisherGeoffrey Bles
Publication date
16 October 1950
Media typePrint (hardcover and paperback), e-book
LC ClassPZ8.L48 Li[1]
Followed byPrince Caspian 

Most of the novel is set in Narnia, a land of talking animals and mythical creatures that is ruled by the evil White Witch. In the frame story, four English children are relocated to a large, old country house following a wartime evacuation. The youngest, Lucy, visits Narnia three times via the magic of a wardrobe in a spare room. Lucy's three siblings are with her on her third visit to Narnia. In Narnia, the siblings seem fit to fulfill an old prophecy and find themselves adventuring to save Narnia and their own lives. The lion Aslan gives his life to save one of the children; he later rises from the dead, vanquishes the White Witch, and crowns the children Kings and Queens of Narnia.

Lewis wrote the book for (and dedicated it to) his goddaughter, Lucy Barfield. She was the daughter of Owen Barfield, Lewis's friend, teacher, adviser, and trustee.[4] In 2003, The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe was ranked ninth on the BBC’s The Big Read poll.[5] Time magazine included the novel in its list of the 100 Best Young-Adult Books of All Time.[6]

Plot summary

Peter, Susan, Edmund, and Lucy Pevensie are evacuated from London during the Blitz and sent to live with an old professor (identified in a later book as Digory Kirke) in the English countryside. While exploring the professor's house, Lucy enters a wardrobe that leads her into a snowy wooded area with a lighted lamppost growing from the ground. Lucy meets Tumnus, a faun who befriends her and informs her that she is in the land of Narnia. Tumnus intends to send Lucy to the White Witch, a ruler who keeps Narnia frozen in a perpetual winter and who requires that any human found in Narnia be sent to her. Tumnus repents, however, and escorts Lucy back to the lamppost; once there, she returns to her own world by re-entering the wardrobe and finds that only a few seconds have passed there during her absence. None of her siblings believe her story about Narnia; upon inspection, the back of the wardrobe appears solid and leads nowhere.

Lucy enters the wardrobe again, and it again leads her into Narnia. This time, Edmund follows Lucy and also enters Narnia. Upon arriving in Narnia, Edmund encounters the White Witch. When the Witch learns that Edmund is human and has siblings, she plies him with sweet Turkish Delight. The Witch promises to reward Edmund with more Turkish Delight if he brings his brother and sisters to her house. Upon returning to his own world, Edmund turns against Lucy and denies that he has been to Narnia. Peter and Susan chew him out and go to see the professor, who tells them that Lucy might not have been lying and he knows for a fact that she isn't crazy.

Soon afterwards, all four children enter Narnia together while hiding in the wardrobe from the housekeeper, Mrs. Macready, who was giving a tour of the house. Lucy leads the group to Tumnus's home, only to find that it has been ransacked and that the faun has been arrested. The children are befriended by Mr. Beaver, a talking animal who takes them to his home. He informs the Pevensies that because of the Witch, it is always winter and never Christmas in Narnia. He and his wife tell the children about a prophecy that the Witch's tyranny will end when "two Sons of Adam and two Daughters of Eve" sit on the four thrones of Cair Paravel, and that Narnia's true ruler – the great lion Aslan – is returning from a long absence.

Edmund slips away to the Witch's castle. In the courtyard, he is surprised by the many statues of Narnians the Witch has turned to stone. The Witch greets him coldly, as he has come alone and with news that Aslan – her enemy – is returning. She takes Edmund prisoner and leaves her house to find and capture the other Pevensie children. Meanwhile, the Beavers – correctly surmising that Edmund has betrayed them – take the other children to meet Aslan at the Stone Table. As they travel, they find that the Witch's winter is giving way to spring. They are greeted by Father Christmas, who had been kept out of Narnia by the Witch's magic. The group arrive at their destination as winter ends and are greeted by Aslan. The Witch's enforcer, the wolf Maugrim, approaches the camp and attacks Susan, but is killed by Peter. Aslan sends a rescue party for Edmund; it arrives just in time to save him from the Witch, who had decided to kill him. The Witch parleys with Aslan, invoking the "Deep Magic from the Dawn of Time" which gives her the right to kill Edmund for his treason. Aslan denies her claim, but secretly trades his life for Edmund's.

That evening, Susan and Lucy accompany Aslan to the Stone Table. They watch from a distance as the Witch puts Aslan to death. After the Witch and her followers depart to prepare for battle against Aslan's followers, Susan and Lucy remain with Aslan's body. In the morning, the girls find the Stone Table broken and Aslan restored to life. Aslan explains that the "Deeper Magic from before the Dawn of Time" has the power to reverse death if a willing victim takes the place of a traitor. Aslan takes the girls to the Witch's house and revives the Narnians that the Witch had turned to stone, including Tumnus and a giant named Rumblebuffin. They join the Narnian forces battling the Witch's army. The Narnian army prevails, and Aslan kills the Witch. The Pevensie children are then crowned kings and queens of Narnia at Cair Paravel.

After a long and happy reign, the adult Pevensies go on a hunt for the White Stag who is said to grant the wishes of those who catch it. The four arrive at the lamppost and, having forgotten about it, unintentionally return through the wardrobe when they were looking for new adventures. When they return to England, they are children again, with no time having passed since their departure. They tell the story to the professor, who believes them and reassures the children that they will return to Narnia one day when they least expect it.

Main characters

  • Lucy is the youngest of four siblings. In some respects, she is the primary protagonist of the story. She is the first to discover the land of Narnia, which she enters inadvertently when she steps into a wardrobe while exploring the Professor's house. When Lucy tells her three siblings about Narnia, they do not believe her: Peter and Susan think she is just playing a game, while Edmund persistently ridicules her. In Narnia, she is crowned Queen Lucy the Valiant.
  • Edmund is the second-youngest of four siblings. He has a bad relationship with his brother and sisters. Edmund is known to be a liar, and often harasses Lucy. Lured by the White Witch's promise of power and an unlimited supply of magical treats, Edmund betrays his siblings. He later repents and helps defeat the White Witch. He is eventually crowned King Edmund the Just.
  • Susan is the second-oldest sibling. She does not believe in Narnia until she actually goes there. She and Lucy accompany Aslan on the journey to the Stone Table, where he allows the Witch to take his life in place of Edmund's. Tending to Aslan's carcass, she removes a muzzle from him to restore his dignity and oversees a horde of mice who gnaw away his bonds. She then shares the joy of his resurrection and the endeavor to bring reinforcements to a critical battle. Susan is crowned Queen Susan the Gentle.
  • Peter is the eldest sibling. He judiciously settles disputes between his younger brother and sisters, often rebuking Edmund for his attitude. Peter also disbelieves Lucy's stories about Narnia until he sees it for himself. He is hailed as a hero for the slaying of Maugrim and for his command in the battle to overthrow the White Witch. He is crowned High King of Narnia and dubbed King Peter the Magnificent.
  • Aslan, a lion, is the rightful King of Narnia and other magic countries. He sacrifices himself to save Edmund, but is resurrected in time to aid the denizens of Narnia and the Pevensie children against the White Witch and her minions. As the "son of the Emperor beyond the sea" (an allusion to God the Father), Aslan is the all-powerful creator of Narnia. Lewis revealed that he wrote Aslan as a portrait, although not an allegorical portrait, of Christ.[7]
  • The White Witch is the land's self-proclaimed queen and the primary antagonist of the story. Her spell on Narnia has made winter persist for a hundred years with no end in sight. When provoked, she turns creatures to stone with her wand. She fears the fulfillment of a prophecy that "two sons of Adam and two daughters of Eve" (meaning two male humans and two female humans) will supplant her. She is usually referred to as "the White Witch", or just "the Witch". Her actual name, "Jadis," appears once in the notice left on Tumnus's door after his arrest. Lewis later wrote a prequel to include her back story and account for her presence in the Narnian world.
  • The Professor is a kindly old gentleman who takes the children in when they are evacuated from London. He is the first to believe that Lucy did indeed visit a land called Narnia. He tries to convince the others logically that she did not make it up. After the children return from Narnia, he assures them that they will return one day. The book hints that he knows more of Narnia than he lets on (hints expanded upon in later books of the series).
  • Tumnus, a faun, is the first individual Lucy (who calls him "Mr. Tumnus") meets in Narnia. Tumnus befriends Lucy, despite the White Witch's standing order to turn in any human he finds. He initially plans to obey the order but, after getting to like Lucy, he cannot bear to alert the Witch's forces. He instead escorts her back towards the safety of her own country. His good deed is later given away to the Witch by Edmund. The witch orders Tumnus arrested and turns him to stone, but he is later restored to life by Aslan.
  • Mr. and Mrs. Beaver, two beavers, are friends of Tumnus. They play host to Peter, Susan, and Lucy and lead them to Aslan.


Lewis described the origin of The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe in an essay titled "It All Began with a Picture":[8]

The Lion all began with a picture of a Faun carrying an umbrella and parcels in a snowy wood. This picture had been in my mind since I was about sixteen. Then one day, when I was about forty, I said to myself: 'Let's try to make a story about it.'

Shortly before the Second World War many children were evacuated from London to the English countryside to escape bomber attacks on London by Nazi Germany. On 2 September 1939 three school girls, Margaret, Mary and Katherine,[9][10] came to live at The Kilns in Risinghurst, Lewis's home three miles east of Oxford city centre. Lewis later suggested that the experience gave him a new appreciation of children and in late September[11] he began a children's story on an odd sheet that has survived as part of another manuscript:

This book is about four children whose names were Ann, Martin, Rose and Peter. But it is most about Peter who was the youngest. They all had to go away from London suddenly because of Air Raids, and because Father, who was in the Army, had gone off to the War and Mother was doing some kind of war work. They were sent to stay with a kind of relation of Mother's who was a very old professor who lived all by himself in the country.[12]

How much more of the story Lewis then wrote is uncertain. Roger Lancelyn Green thinks that he might even have completed it. In September 1947 Lewis wrote in a letter about stories for children: "I have tried one myself but it was, by the unanimous verdict of my friends, so bad that I destroyed it."[13]

The plot element of entering a new world through the back of a wardrobe had certainly entered Lewis's mind by 1946, when he used it to describe his first encounter with really good poetry:

I did not in the least feel that I was getting in more quantity or better quality a pleasure I had already known. It was more as if a cupboard which one had hitherto valued as a place for hanging coats proved one day, when you opened the door, to lead to the garden of the Hesperides ...[14]

In August 1948, during a visit by an American writer, Chad Walsh, Lewis talked vaguely about completing a children's book he had begun "in the tradition of E. Nesbit".[15] After this conversation not much happened until the beginning of the next year. Then everything changed. In his essay "It All Began With a Picture" Lewis continues: "At first I had very little idea how the story would go. But then suddenly Aslan came bounding into it. I think I had been having a good many dreams of lions about that time. Apart from that, I don't know where the Lion came from or why he came. But once he was there, he pulled the whole story together, and soon he pulled the six other Narnian stories in after him."[16]

The major ideas of the book echo lines Lewis had written fourteen years earlier in his alliterative poem The Planets:

... Of wrath ended
And woes mended, of winter passed
And guilt forgiven, and good fortune
JOVE is master; and of jocund revel,
Laughter of ladies. The lion-hearted
... are Jove's children.[17]

This resonance is a central component of the case, promoted chiefly by Oxford University scholar Michael Ward, for the seven Chronicles having been modelled upon the seven classical astrological planets, The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe upon Jupiter.[18]

On 10 March 1949 Roger Lancelyn Green dined with Lewis at Magdalen College. After the meal Lewis read two chapters from his new children's story to Green. Lewis asked Green's opinion of the tale and Green said that he thought it was good. The manuscript of The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe was complete by the end of March 1949. Lucy Barfield received it by the end of May.[19] When on 16 October 1950 Geoffrey Bles in London published the first edition, three new "chronicles", Prince Caspian, The Voyage of the Dawn Treader and The Horse and His Boy, had also been completed.


Lewis's publisher, Geoffrey Bles, allowed him to choose the illustrator for the novel and the Narnia series. Lewis chose Pauline Baynes, possibly based on J. R. R. Tolkien's recommendation. In December 1949, Bles showed Lewis the first drawings for the novel, and Lewis sent Baynes a note congratulating her, particularly on the level of detail. Lewis’s appreciation of the illustrations is evident in a letter he wrote to Baynes after The Last Battle won the Carnegie Medal for best children’s book of 1956: "is it not rather 'our' medal? I’m sure the illustrations were taken into account as well as the text".[20]

The British edition of the novel had 43 illustrations; American editions generally had fewer. The popular United States paperback edition published by Collier between 1970 and 1994, which sold many millions, had only 17 illustrations, many of them severely cropped from the originals, giving many readers in that country a very different experience when reading the novel. All the illustrations were restored for the 1994 worldwide HarperCollins edition, although these illustrations lacked the clarity of early printings.[21]


Lewis very much enjoyed writing The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe and embarked on the sequel Prince Caspian soon after finishing the first novel. He completed the sequel by end of 1949, less than a year after finishing the initial book. The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe had few readers during 1949 and was not published until late in 1950, so his initial enthusiasm did not stem from favourable reception by the public.[22]

While Lewis is known today on the strength of the Narnia stories as a highly successful children’s writer, the initial critical response was muted. At the time it was fashionable for children's stories to be realistic; fantasy and fairy tales were seen as indulgent, appropriate only for very young readers and potentially harmful to older children, even hindering their ability to relate to everyday life. Some reviewers considered the tale overtly moralistic or the Christian elements over-stated — attempts to indoctrinate children. Others were concerned that the many violent incidents might frighten children.[23]

Lewis's publisher, Geoffrey Bles, feared that the Narnia tales would not sell, and might damage Lewis’ reputation and affect sales of his other books. Nevertheless, the novel and its successors were highly popular with young readers, and Lewis's publisher was soon eager to release further Narnia stories.[24]

In the United States a 2004 study found that The Lion was a common read-aloud book for seventh-graders in schools in San Diego County, California.[25] In 2005 it was included on TIME's unranked list of the 100 best English-language novels published since 1923.[26] Based on a 2007 online poll, the U.S. National Education Association named it one of "Teachers' Top 100 Books for Children".[27] In 2012 it was ranked number five among all-time children's novels in a survey published by School Library Journal, a monthly with primarily U.S. audience.[28]

A 2012 survey by the University of Worcester determined that it was the second most common book that UK adults had read as children, after Alice's Adventures in Wonderland. (Adults, perhaps limited to parents, ranked Alice and The Lion fifth and sixth as books the next generation should read, or their children should read during their lifetimes.)[29]

TIME magazine included the novel in its "All-TIME 100 Novels" (best English-language novels from 1923 to 2005).[26] In 2003, the novel was listed at number 9 on the BBC's survey The Big Read.[30] It has also been published in 47 foreign languages.[31]

Reading order

"I think I agree with your [chronological] order for reading the books more than with your mother's. The series was not planned beforehand as she thinks. When I wrote The Lion I did not know I was going to write any more. Then I wrote P. Caspian as a sequel and still didn't think there would be any more, and when I had done The Voyage I felt quite sure it would be the last, but I found I was wrong. So perhaps it does not matter very much in which order anyone read them. I’m not even sure that all the others were written in the same order in which they were published."

C. S. Lewis's reply to a letter from Laurence Krieg, an American fan who was having an argument with his mother about the reading order.[32]

The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe was originally published as the first book in the Narnia Chronicles. Most reprintings of the novels until the 1980s also reflected the order of original publication. In 1980 HarperCollins published the series ordered by the chronology of the events in the novels. This meant The Magician's Nephew was numbered as the first in the series. HarperCollins, which had previously published editions of the novels outside the United States, also acquired the rights to publish the novels in that country in 1994 and used this sequence in the uniform worldwide edition published in that year.[33]

Laurence Krieg, a young fan, wrote to Lewis, asking him to adjudicate between his views of the correct sequence of reading the novels – according to the sequence of events, with The Magician's Nephew being placed first – and that of his mother, who thought the order of publication (with The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe being placed first) was more appropriate. Lewis wrote back, appearing to support the younger Krieg's views, although he did point out that the views of the author may not be the best guidance, and that perhaps it would not matter what order they were read in.[34]

However publication order reflects Lewis's strategy for drawing readers into the world of Narnia. In the book he wrote first, Lucy Pevensie's discovery of the wardrobe that opens onto a forest and a mysterious lamp post creates a sense of suspense about an unknown land she is discovering for the first time. This would be anticlimactic if the reader has already been introduced to Narnia in The Magician's Nephew and already knows the origins of Narnia, the wardrobe, and the lamp post. Indeed, the narrative of The Magician's Nephew appears to assume that the reader has already read The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe and is now being shown its beginnings.[35]

Paul Ford cites several scholars who have weighed in against the decision of HarperCollins to present the books in the order of their internal chronology,[36] and continues, "most scholars disagree with this decision and find it the least faithful to Lewis's deepest intentions".[37]


Lewis wrote that "The Narnian books are not as much allegory as supposal. Suppose there were a Narnian world and it, like ours, needed redemption. What kind of incarnation and Passion might Christ be supposed to undergo there?"[38]

The main story is an allegory of Christ's crucifixion:[39][40] Aslan sacrifices himself for Edmund, a traitor who may deserve death, in the same way that Christians believe Jesus sacrificed himself for sinners. Aslan is killed on the Stone Table, symbolizing Mosaic Law, which breaks when he is resurrected, symbolizing the replacement of the strict justice of Old Testament law with redeeming grace and forgiveness granted on the basis of substitutionary atonement, according to Christian theology.[41]

The character of the Professor is based on W.T. Kirkpatrick, who tutored a 16-year-old Lewis. "Kirk," as he was sometimes called, taught the young Lewis much about thinking and communicating clearly, skills that would be invaluable to him later.[42]

Narnia is caught in endless winter that has lasted a century when the children first enter. Norse tradition mythologizes a "great winter", known as the Fimbulwinter, said to precede Ragnarök. The trapping of Edmund by the White Witch is reminiscent of the seduction and imprisonment of Kai by the Snow Queen in Hans Christian Andersen's novella of that name.[43]

There are several parallels between the White Witch and the immortal white queen, Ayesha, of H. Rider Haggard's She, a novel greatly admired by Lewis.[44]

Edith Nesbit's short story The Aunt and Amabel includes the motif of a girl entering a wardrobe to gain access to a magical place.[45]

The freeing of Aslan's body from the Stone Table is reminiscent of a scene from Edgar Allan Poe's story "The Pit and the Pendulum," in which a prisoner is freed when rats gnaw through his bonds.[46] In a later book, Prince Caspian, we learn that as reward for their actions, mice gained the same intelligence and speech as other Narnian animals.[47]

Religious themes

One of the most significant themes seen in C. S. Lewis's The Lion, The Witch, and The Wardrobe is the theme of Christianity. Various aspects of characters and events in the novel reflect biblical ideas from Christianity. The lion Aslan is one of the largest examples, as his death is very similar to that of Jesus Christ. While many readers made this connection, Lewis denied that the themes of Christianity were intentional, saying that his writing began by picturing images of characters, and the rest just came about through the writing process.[48] While Lewis denied intentionally making the story a strictly Christian theological novel, he did admit that it could help young children accept Christianity into their lives when they were older.[49]

After the children enter the world of Narnia through the wardrobe, Edmund finds himself in trouble under service of the White Witch, as she tempts him with Turkish Delights. When Edmund is threatened with death, Aslan offers to sacrifice himself instead. Aslan is shaved of his fur, and stabbed on an altar of stone. This is similar to how Jesus was publicly beaten, humiliated, and crucified. After his sacrifice, Aslan is later reborn, and continues to help the children save Narnia.[49] While this sequence of events is comparable to the death of Jesus, it is not identical to it. There are a few differences, such as the fact that Aslan did not allow himself to be killed to save the entirety of Narnia, but only to save Edmund. Aslan is also only dead for one night, while Jesus returned on the third day.[48] Despite these differences, the image of Aslan and the event of his death and rebirth reflect those of the biblical account of Jesus’s death and resurrection, adding to the theme of Christianity throughout the novel.[48]

Differences between editions

Due to labor union rules,[50] the text of The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe was reset for the publication of the first American edition of by Macmillan US in 1950.[1] Lewis took that opportunity to make the following changes to the original British edition published by Geoffrey Bles[3] earlier that same year:

  • In chapter one of the American edition, the animals that Edmund and Susan express interest in are snakes and foxes rather than the foxes and rabbits of the British edition.[50][51]
  • In chapter six of the American edition, the name of the White Witch's chief of police is changed to "Fenris Ulf" from "Maugrim" in the British.[52][53][54]
  • In chapter thirteen of the American edition, "the trunk of the World Ash Tree" takes the place of "the fire-stones of the Secret Hill".[55]

When HarperCollins took over publication of the series in 1994, they began using the original British edition for all subsequent English editions worldwide.[56] The current US edition published by Scholastic has 36,135 words.[57]



The story has been adapted three times for television. The first adaptation was a ten-part serial produced by ABC Weekend Television for ITV and broadcast in 1967. In 1979, an animated TV-movie,[58] directed by Peanuts director Bill Meléndez, was broadcast and won the first Emmy Award for Outstanding Animated Program. A third television adaptation was produced in 1988 by the BBC using a combination of live actors, animatronic puppets and animation. The 1988 adaptation was the first of a series of four Narnia adaptations over three seasons. The programme was nominated for an Emmy Award and won a BAFTA.


Stage adaptations include a 1984 version staged at London's Westminster Theatre, produced by Vanessa Ford Productions. The play, adapted by Glyn Robbins, was directed by Richard Williams and designed by Marty Flood.[59] Jules Tasca, Ted Drachman, and Thomas Tierney collaborated on a musical adaptation published in 1986.[60]

In 1997, Trumpets Inc., a Filipino Christian theatre and musical production company, produced a musical rendition that Douglas Gresham, Lewis's stepson (and co-producer of the Walden Media film adaptations), has openly declared that he feels is the closest to Lewis's intention.[61][62][63] It starred among others popular young Filipino singer Sam Concepcion as Edmund Pevensie.[64]

In 1998, the Royal Shakespeare Company did an adaptation by Adrian Mitchell, for which the acting edition has been published.[65] The Stratford Festival in Canada mounted a new production of Mitchell's work in June 2016.[66][67]

In 2003, there was an Australian commercial stage production which toured the country by Malcolm C. Cooke Productions, using both life-size puppets and human actors. It was directed by notable film director Nadia Tass, and starred Amanda Muggleton, Dennis Olsen, Meaghan Davies and Yolande Brown.[68][69]

In 2011, a two-actor stage adaptation by Le Clanché du Rand opened Off-Broadway in New York City at St. Luke's Theatre. The production was directed by Julia Beardsley O'Brien and starred Erin Layton and Andrew Fortman.[70] As of 2014, the production is currently running with a replacement cast of Abigail Taylor-Sansom and Rockford Sansom.[71]

In 2012 Michael Fentiman with Rupert Goold co-directed The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe at a Threesixty 'tented production' in Kensington Gardens, London. It received a Guardian three star review.[72]


Multiple audio editions have been released, both straightforward readings and dramatizations.

In 1981, Michael Hordern read abridged versions of the classic tale (and the others in the series). In 2000, an unabridged audio book was released, narrated by Michael York. (All the books were released in audio form, read by different actors.)

In 1988, BBC Radio 4 mounted a full dramatization. In 1998, Focus on the Family Radio Theatre also adapted this story. Both the original BBC version and the Focus on the Family version have been broadcast on BBC radio. Both are the first in a series of adaptations of all seven of the Narnia books. The BBC series uses the title Tales of Narnia, while the Focus on the Family version uses the more familiar Chronicles moniker. The Focus on the Family version is also longer, with a full orchestra score, narration, a larger cast of actors, and introductions by Douglas Gresham, C. S. Lewis' stepson.


In 2005, the story was adapted for a theatrical film, co-produced by Walt Disney and Walden Media. It has so far been followed by two more films: The Chronicles of Narnia: Prince Caspian and The Chronicles of Narnia: The Voyage of the Dawn Treader. The latter was co-produced by Twentieth-Century Fox and Walden Media.



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  35. Schakel, pp. 19–21.
  36. Ford, pp. xxiii–xxiv.
  37. Ford, p. 24.
  38. James E. Higgins. "A Letter from C. S. Lewis". The Horn Book Magazine. October 1966. Archived 2012-05-24. Retrieved 2015-10-17.
  39. Lindskoog, Kathryn. Journey into Narnia. Pasadena, CA: Hope Publ House. ISBN 9780932727893. pp. 44–46.
  40. Gormley, Beatrice. C. S. Lewis: The Man Behind Narnia. Eerdmans. ISBN 9780802853011. p. 122. (Second edition of C. S. Lewis: Christian and Storyteller. Eerdmans. 1997. ISBN 9780802851215.)
  41. Lewis, C. S. (2007). The Collected Letters of C.S. Lewis, Volume 3: Narnia, Cambridge, and Joy, 1950 - 1963. Zondervan. p. 497. ISBN 978-0060819224.
  42. Lindsley, Art. "C. S. Lewis: His Life and Works". C. S. Lewis Institute. Retrieved 10 November 2016.
  43. "No sex in Narnia? How Hans Christian Andersen's "Snow Queen" problematizes C. S. Lewis's The Chronicles of Narnia". Free Online Library ( Retrieved 21 December 2010.
  44. Wilson, Tracy V (7 December 2005). "Howstuffworks "The World of Narnia"". Retrieved 21 December 2010.
  45. "What C. S. Lewis Took From E. Nesbit". Project Muse. Retrieved 1 December 2014.
  46. Project Gutenberg.
  47. Prince Caspian, Chapter 15.
  48. "Full Text Finder". doi:10.1353/sli.2013.0010. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  49. Russell, James (27 September 2009). "Narnia as a Site of National Struggle: Marketing, Christianity, and National Purpose in The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe". Cinema Journal. 48 (4): 59–76. doi:10.1353/cj.0.0145. ISSN 1527-2087.
  50. Brown, Devin (2013). Inside Narnia: A Guide to Exploring The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe. Abingdon Press. ISBN 978-0801065996.
  51. Schakel, Peter (2005). The Way Into Narnia: A Reader's Guide. Wm. B. Eerdmans. ISBN 978-0802829849. p. 122.
  52. Bell, James; Dunlop, Cheryl (2007). The Complete Idiot's Guide to the World of Narnia. Alpha. ISBN 978-1592576173.
  53. Hardy, Elizabeth (2013). Milton, Spenser and The Chronicles of Narnia: Literary Sources for the C.S. Abingdon Press. ISBN 9781426785559. pp. 138, 173.
  54. Ford, p. 213.
  55. Ford, p. 459.
  56. Ford, p. 33.
  57. "Scholastic Catalog - Book Information". Retrieved 23 June 2014.
  58. The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe on IMDb
  59. Hooper, Walter (1998). C. S. Lewis: A Complete Guide to His Life & Works. HarperCollins. pp. 787, 960.
  60. WorldCat libraries have catalogued the related works in different ways including "The lion, the witch, and the wardrobe: a musical based on C.S. Lewis' classic story" (book, 1986, OCLC 14694962); "The lion, the witch, and the wardrobe: a musical based on C.S. Lewis' classic story" (musical score, 1986, OCLC 16713815); "Narnia: a dramatic adaptation of C.S. Lewis's The lion, the witch, and the wardrobe" (video, 1986, OCLC 32772305); "Narnia: based on C.S. Lewis' [classic story] The lion, the witch, and the wardrobe" (1987, OCLC 792898134).
     Google Books uses the title "Narnia – Full Musical" and hosts selections, perhaps from the play by Tasca alone, without lyrics or music. "Narnia – Full Musical" at Google Books ( Retrieved 2014-06-16.
  61. "Trumpets The Lion The Witch and the Wardrobe". 29 December 2005. Archived from the original on 16 March 2012. Retrieved 11 December 2010. Evidently "the Bachelor Girl" was a former member of the Trumpets cast.
  62. David, B.J. [2002]. "Narnia Revisited". From a Filipino school newspaper, probably in translation, posted 12 September 2002 to a discussion forum at Pinoy Exchange ( Retrieved 2015-10-29.
      "Stephen Gresham, stepson of C.S. Lewis" saw the second staging by invitation and returned with his wife to see it again. "[T]his approval from the family and estate of the well-loved author is enough evidence that the Trumpets adaptations is at par with other version."
  63. See also blog reprint of local paper article at . Article in English. Blog in Filipino.
  64. Garcia, Rose (29 March 2007). "Is Sam Concepcion the next Christian Bautista?". PEP (Philippine Entertainment Portal). Retrieved 11 December 2010.
  65. Mitchell, Adrian (4 December 1998). The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe: The Royal Shakespeare Company's Stage Adaptation. An Acting Edition. Oberon Books Ltd. ISBN 978-1840020496.
  68. Murphy, Jim (2 January 2003). "Mythical, magical puppetry". The Age ( Retrieved 11 December 2012.
  69. Yench, Belinda. "Welcome to the lion's den". The Blurb [Australian arts and entertainment] ( Archived from the original on 8 September 2007. Retrieved 11 December 2010.. This review mistakenly identifies C. S. Lewis as the author of Alice in Wonderland.
  70. Charles Quittner. "The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe Is Cute and Compact". Retrieved 20 September 2014.
  71. Graeber, Laurel (4 September 2014). "Spare Times for Children for Sept. 5-11". The New York Times. Retrieved 20 September 2014.
  72. Billington, Michael; "The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe – review", The Guardian, 31 May 2012. Retrieved 9 December 2018


  • Ford, Paul F. (2005). Companion to Narnia: Revised Edition. San Francisco: HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-079127-8.
  • Hooper, Walter, ed. (1982). On Stories and Other Essays on Literature. By C. S. Lewis. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. ISBN 0-15-668788-7.
  • Schakel, Peter J. (2002). Imagination and the arts in C. S. Lewis: journeying to Narnia and other worlds. University of Missouri Press. ISBN 978-0-8262-1407-2.
  • Veith, Gene (2008). The Soul of Prince Caspian: Exploring Spiritual Truth in the Land of Narnia. David C. Cook. ISBN 978-0-7814-4528-3.

Further reading

  • Sammons, Martha C. (1979). A Guide Through Narnia. Wheaton, Illinois: Harold Shaw Publishers. ISBN 978-0-87788-325-8.
  • Downing, David C. (2005). Into the Wardrobe: C. S. Lewis and the Narnia Chronicles. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. ISBN 978-0-7879-7890-7.
  • Ryken, Leland; and Mead; Marjorie Lamp (2005). A Reader's Guide Through the Wardrobe: Exploring C. S. Lewis's Classic Story. London: InterVarsity Press. ISBN 978-0-8308-3289-7.

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