The Day the Earth Stood Still

The Day the Earth Stood Still (a.k.a. Farewell to the Master and Journey to the World) is a 1951 American black-and-white science fiction film from 20th Century Fox, produced by Julian Blaustein and directed by Robert Wise. The film stars Michael Rennie, Patricia Neal, Billy Gray, Hugh Marlowe, and Sam Jaffe. The screenplay was written by Edmund H. North, based on the 1940 science fiction short story "Farewell to the Master" by Harry Bates, and the film score was composed by Bernard Herrmann.[4]

The Day the Earth Stood Still
Directed byRobert Wise
Produced byJulian Blaustein
Screenplay byEdmund H. North
Based on"Farewell to the Master"
by Harry Bates
Music byBernard Herrmann
CinematographyLeo Tover
Edited byWilliam H. Reynolds
Distributed by20th Century Fox
Release date
  • September 18, 1951 (1951-09-18)
Running time
92 minutes[1]
CountryUnited States
Box office$1.85 million (US theatrical rentals)[3]

The film's storyline involves a humanoid alien visitor named Klaatu that comes to Earth, accompanied by a powerful eight-foot tall robot, Gort, to deliver an important message that will affect the entire human race.

In 1995, the film was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry as "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant".[5][6]


When a flying saucer lands in Washington, D.C., the Army quickly surrounds it. A humanoid (Michael Rennie) emerges from the spacecraft and announces that he comes "in peace and with good will". When he unexpectedly removes and opens a small device, he is shot and wounded by a nervous soldier. A tall robot emerges from the saucer and quickly disintegrates the Army's weapons. The alien orders the robot, Gort, to desist. He explains that the now-broken device was a gift for the president of the United States that would have enabled him "to study life on the other planets".

The alien, Klaatu, is taken to Walter Reed Hospital. After surgery, he uses a salve to quickly heal his wound. Meanwhile, the Army is unable to enter the saucer; Gort stands outside, silent and unmoving.

Klaatu tells the President's secretary, Mr. Harley (Frank Conroy), that he has a message that must be delivered to all of the world's leaders simultaneously. Harley tells him that such a meeting in the current political climate is impossible. Klaatu suggests that he be allowed to go among humans to better understand their "unreasoning suspicions and attitudes". Harley rejects the proposal, and Klaatu remains under guard.

Klaatu escapes and lodges at a boarding house as "Mr. Carpenter", the name on the dry cleaner's tag on a suit he acquired. Among the residents are young widow Helen Benson (Patricia Neal) and her son Bobby (Billy Gray). The following morning, Klaatu listens to the boarders speculate about the alien's motivations.

While Helen and her boyfriend Tom Stevens (Hugh Marlowe) are not at home, Klaatu is a babysitter for Bobby. The boy takes Klaatu on a tour of the city, including a visit to his father's grave in Arlington National Cemetery; Klaatu learns that most of the deceased are former military servicemen killed in wars. They visit the Lincoln Memorial, and at the heavily guarded spaceship Klaatu asks Bobby who the greatest living person is; Bobby suggests Professor Barnhardt (Sam Jaffe). Bobby takes Klaatu to Barnhardt's home, but the professor is not home. Klaatu enters the professor's locked study from outside and adds a mathematical equation on a blackboard to assist Barnhardt in solving a celestial mechanics problem; he leaves his contact information with the suspicious housekeeper.

During the evening, a government agent accompanies Klaatu to Barnhardt. Klaatu explains that the people of other planets are concerned now that humanity has developed rockets and a rudimentary form of atomic power. Klaatu declares that if his message is ignored, "Earth will be eliminated". Barnhardt agrees to gather scientists from around the world at the saucer; he then suggests that Klaatu give a harmless demonstration of his power. Klaatu returns to his spaceship that night, unaware that Bobby has followed him. Bobby sees Gort render two soldiers unconscious and Klaatu enter the saucer.

Bobby tells Helen and Tom what he saw, but they do not believe him until Tom takes a diamond he found in Klaatu's room to a jeweler and learns it is "unlike any other on Earth". Klaatu finds Helen at her workplace, and they take an empty service elevator, which stops precisely at noon. He has neutralized all electricity everywhere for 30 minutes, except for such essential services as hospitals and airplanes in flight. Klaatu reveals his true identity to Helen, asks for her help, and explains his mission.

After Tom informs the authorities of his suspicions, Helen breaks up with him. She and Klaatu decide to visit Barnhardt's home. On the way there, he tells her that should anything happen to him, she must say to Gort, "Klaatu barada nikto". Their taxi is spotted and hemmed in. Klaatu makes a break for it and is shot dead. Helen quickly heads to the saucer. After killing two soldiers standing watch, Gort advances on her, and Helen utters Klaatu's words. Gort carries her into the spaceship and leaves to retrieve Klaatu's body. Back in the saucer, Gort revives Klaatu, and he explains to Helen that his revival is only temporary.

Klaatu addresses Barnhardt's assembled scientists, informing them that he represents an interplanetary organization that created a police force of invincible robots like Gort. "In matters of aggression, we have given them absolute power over us". Klaatu concludes, "Your choice is simple: join us and live in peace, or pursue your present course and face obliteration. We shall be waiting for your answer". Klaatu and Gort re-enter the saucer and depart.


Cast notes
Well-known broadcast journalists of their time, H.V. Kaltenborn, Elmer Davis, Drew Pearson, and Gabriel Heatter, appeared and/or were heard as themselves in cameo roles. Spencer Tracy and Claude Rains originally were considered for the part of Klaatu.[8][9]


In a 1995 interview, producer Julian Blaustein explained that Joseph Breen, the film censor installed by the Motion Picture Association of America at the Twentieth Century Fox studios, balked at the portrayal of Klaatu's resurrection and limitless power.[8] At the behest of the MPAA, a line was written into the script; when Helen asks Klaatu whether Gort has unlimited power over life and death, Klaatu explains that Gort has only revived him temporarily and "that power is reserved to the Almighty Spirit".[8][10] Of the elements that he added to Klaatu's character, screenwriter Edmund North said, "It was my private little joke. I never discussed this angle with Blaustein or Wise because I didn't want it expressed. I had originally hoped that the Christ comparison would be subliminal".[11]

That the question even came up in an interview is proof enough that such comparisons did not remain subliminal, but they are subtle enough so that it is not immediately obvious to all viewers that those elements were intended to compare Klaatu to Christ.[12] When Klaatu escapes from the hospital, he steals the clothing of a Maj. Carpenter, carpentry being the profession the Bible says Jesus learned from Joseph, his father. He presents himself as John Carpenter, the same initials as Jesus Christ (and borrowing a given name from one of his disciples, John). His previous actions are misunderstood, and he eventually is killed by military authority. At the end of the film, Klaatu, having risen from the dead, ascends into the (night) sky. Other parallels include: his coming to Earth with a message for all mankind; his befriending of a child; possessing wisdom and specialized scientific knowledge beyond any human being; and people being given a sign of his power. At the very start of the film, one of the radar technicians, upon observing the speed of Klaatu's spaceship, is heard to exclaim, "Holy Christmas"![13]



Producer Julian Blaustein originally set out to make a film under the working titles of Farewell to the Master and Journey to the World that illustrated the fear and suspicion that characterized the early Cold War and Atomic Age. He reviewed more than 200 science fiction short stories and novels in search of a storyline that could be used because this film genre was well suited for a metaphorical discussion of such grave issues. Studio head Darryl F. Zanuck gave the go-ahead for this project, and Blaustein hired Edmund North to write the screenplay based on elements from Harry Bates's 1940 short story "Farewell to the Master". The revised final screenplay was completed on February 21, 1951. Science fiction writer Raymond F. Jones worked as an uncredited adviser.[14]


The set was designed by Thomas Little and Claude Carpenter. They collaborated with the architect Frank Lloyd Wright for the design of the spacecraft. Paul Laffoley has suggested that the futuristic interior was inspired by Wright's Johnson Wax Headquarters, completed in 1936. Laffoley quotes Wright and his attempt in designing the exterior: "... to imitate an experimental substance that I have heard about which acts like living tissue. If cut, the rift would appear to heal like a wound, leaving a continuous surface with no scar".[15]


Principal outdoor photography for The Day the Earth Stood Still was shot on the 20th Century Fox sound stages and on its studio back lot (now located in Century City, California), with a second unit shooting background plates and other scenes in Washington D.C. and at Fort George G. Meade in Maryland. The shooting schedule was from April 9 to May 23, 1951. The primary actors never traveled to Washington for the making of the film. Director Robert Wise indicated in the DVD commentary that the United States Department of Defense refused participation in the film based on a reading of the script. The military equipment shown, however, came from the 3rd Armored Cavalry Regiment then stationed at Ft. Meade which supplied the vehicles, equipment and soldiers for the segments depicting Army operations.[16] One of the tanks in the film bears the "Brave Rifles" insignia of the 3rd Armored Cavalry Regiment.[17]

The robot Gort, who serves Klaatu, was played by Lock Martin, who worked as an usher at Grauman's Chinese Theatre and stood seven feet, seven inches tall. Not used to being in such a confining, heat-inducing costume, he worked carefully when wearing the two oversize, laced-up-the-front or back, foamed neoprene suits needed for creating the illusion on screen of a seamless metallic Gort. Wise decided that Martin's on-screen shooting time would be limited to half-hour intervals, so Martin, with his generally weak constitution, would face no more than minor discomfort. These segments, in turn, were then edited together into film's final print.[18]

In a commentary track on DVD, interviewed by fellow director Nicholas Meyer, Wise stated that he wanted the film to appear as realistic and believable as possible, in order to drive home the motion picture's core message against armed conflict in the real world. Also mentioned in the DVD's documentary interview was the original title for the film, "The Day the World Stops". Blaustein said his aim with the film was to promote a "strong United Nations".[19]

Herrmann's score

The music score was composed by Bernard Herrmann in August 1951, and was the first film score he composed after moving from New York to Hollywood. Herrmann chose unusual instrumentation for the film: violin, cello, and bass (all three electric), two theremin electronic instruments (played by Dr. Samuel Hoffman and Paul Shure), two Hammond organs, Fox studio's Wurlitzer organ, three vibraphones, two glockenspiels, marimba, tam-tam, two bass drums, three sets of timpani, two pianos, celesta, two harps, one horn, three trumpets, three trombones, and four tubas.[20] Herrmann's advances in film scoring included Unison organs, tubas, piano, and bass drum, staggered tritone movement, and glissando in theremins, as well as exploitation of the dissonance between D and E-flat and experimentation with unusual overdubbing and tape-reversal techniques. In using the theremin, Herrmann made an early foray into electronic music, one year before Karlheinz Stockhausen and three years before Edgard Varèse[21]

Music and soundtrack

The Day the Earth Stood Still
Film score by
RecordedAugust, 1951
GenreSoundtracks, Film score
Label20th Century Fox
ProducerNick Redman
Professional ratings
Review scores
AllMusic link

20th Century Fox later reused the Bernard Herrmann title theme in the original pilot episode of Irwin Allen's 1965 TV series Lost in Space; the music was also used extensively in Allen's Voyage to the Bottom of the Sea TV series in various episodes. Danny Elfman noted The Day the Earth Stood Still's score inspired his interest in film composing, and made him a fan of Herrmann.[22]


Critical response

Variety praised the documentary style of The Day the Earth Stood Still and its reviewer wrote that "the yarn is told interestingly enough and imbued with sufficient science-fiction lures and suspense so that only seldom does its moralistic wordiness get in the way ... Cast, although secondary to the story, works well".[19][23] Harrison's Reports wrote: "Very good! It is by far the best of the science-fiction pictures yet produced. It holds one's interest undiminished from start to finish and, although the theme is admittedly fantastic, one is made to feel as if he is seeing a real-life occurrence because of the expert handling of the subject matter and the extremely fine special effects work".[24] The Los Angeles Times praised the film's seriousness, though it also found "certain subversive elements".[19] Bosley Crowther of The New York Times wrote a dismissive review, however, calling the film "tepid entertainment" and describing Gort as "oddly unmenacing".[25]

The Day the Earth Stood Still was moderately successful when released, accruing US$1,850,000 in distributors' domestic (U.S. and Canada) rentals, making it the year's 52nd biggest earner.[26][lower-alpha 3]

The Day the Earth Stood Still earned more plaudits overseas: the Hollywood Foreign Press Association gave the filmmakers a special Golden Globe Award for "promoting international understanding". Bernard Herrmann's score also received a nomination at the Golden Globes.[27] The French magazine Cahiers du cinéma was impressed, its contributor Pierre Kast called it "almost literally stunning" and praised its "moral relativism".[19]


The Day the Earth Stood Still received recognition from the American Film Institute and was selected for preservation in the United States Library of Congress' National Film Registry. In 2001, it was ranked number 82 on 100 Years...100 Thrills, a list of America's most heart-pounding films.[28] It placed number 67 on a similar list 100 Years ... 100 Cheers, a list of America's most inspiring films.[29] In June 2008, the American Film Institute revealed its "10 Top 10" — the best ten films in ten "classic" American film genres — after polling more than 1,500 people from the creative community. The Day the Earth Stood Still was acknowledged as the fifth best film in the science fiction genre.[30] The film was also on the ballot for AFI's other lists including 100 Years ... 100 Movies,[31] the tenth anniversary list,[32] 100 Years...100 Heroes and Villains for Klaatu in the heroes category,[33] 100 Years ... 100 Movie Quotes for the famous line "Gort! Klaatu barada nikto"[34] and AFI's 100 Years of Film Scores.[35] In 2004, the film was selected by The New York Times as one of The Best 1000 Movies Ever Made.[36]

Lou Cannon and Colin Powell believed that the film inspired Ronald Reagan to discuss uniting against an alien invasion when meeting Mikhail Gorbachev in 1985. Two years later, Reagan told the United Nations, "I occasionally think how quickly our differences worldwide would vanish if we were facing an alien threat from outside this world".[19]

The Day the Earth Stood Still is now considered one of the best films released in 1951.[37][38] The Day the Earth Stood Still is ranked seventh in Arthur C. Clarke's list of the best science fiction films of all time, just above Stanley Kubrick's 2001: A Space Odyssey, which Clarke himself co-wrote.[39] The 1951 film holds a 94% "Certified Fresh" rating at the review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes based on 54 reviews, with an average rating of 8.1/10.[40] Tony Magistrale describes the film as one of the best examples of early techno-horror.[41]

Klaatu barada nikto

Since the release of the film, the phrase "Klaatu barada nikto" has appeared repeatedly in fiction and in popular culture. The Robot Hall of Fame described it as "one of the most famous commands in science fiction",[42] while Frederick S. Clarke of Cinefantastique called it "the most famous phrase ever spoken by an extraterrestrial".[43]

Patricia Neal had a problem speaking the phrase, though she was proud of the film overall. "I do think it's the best science fiction film ever made, although I admit that I sometimes had a difficult time keeping a straight face. Michael would patiently watch me bite my lips to avoid giggling and ask, with true British reserve, 'Is that the way you intend to play it?'"[44]

Edmund H. North, who wrote The Day the Earth Stood Still, also created the alien language used in the film, including the iconic phrase "Klaatu barada nikto". The official spelling for the phrase comes directly from the script (as shown in the adjacent image) and provides insight as to its proper pronunciation. No translation was given in the film. Philosophy professor Aeon J. Skoble speculates the famous phrase is a "safe-word" that is part of a fail-safe feature used during diplomatic missions such as the one Klaatu and Gort make to Earth. With the use of the safe-word, Gort's deadly force can be deactivated in the event the robot is mistakenly triggered into a defensive posture. Skoble observes that the theme has evolved into a "staple of science fiction that the machines charged with protecting us from ourselves will misuse or abuse their power".[45]

Fantastic Films explored the meaning of "Klaatu barada nikto" in a 1978 article titled "The Language of Klaatu". The article, written by Tauna Le Marbe, who is listed as is "alien linguistics editor", attempts to translate all the alien words Klaatu used throughout the film.[46] In the article, the literal translation for Klaatu barada nikto was "Stop Barbarism (I have) death, bind" and the free translation was "I die, repair me, do not retaliate".[46]

The documentary Decoding "Klaatu Barada Nikto": Science Fiction as Metaphor examined the phrase "Klaatu barada nikto" with some of the people involved in the production of The Day the Earth Stood Still. Robert Wise, the director of the film, conveyed an account of Edmund North telling him, "Well, it's just something I kind of cooked up. I thought it sounded good".[47] Billy Gray, who played Bobby Benson in the film, said he believed the message was coming from Klaatu and that "Barada Nikto must mean ... save Earth".[48]

Florence Blaustein, widow of the producer Julian Blaustein, said North had to pass a street called Baroda every day going to work and indicated "I think that's how that was born."[49] The film historian Steven Jay Rubin recalled an interview he had with North when he asked the question, "What is the direct translation of Klaatu Barada Nikto, and Edmund North said to me 'There's hope for Earth, if the scientists can be reached'."[50]


The film was dramatized as a radio play on January 4, 1954 for the Lux Radio Theater; Michael Rennie reprised his lead role as Klaatu with actress Jean Peters as Helen Benson.[51] This production was later re-broadcast on the Hollywood Radio Theater, the re-titled Lux Radio Theater, which aired on the Armed Forces Radio Service.[52]

The film was remade in 2008. The director was Scott Derrickson and it stars Keanu Reeves as Klaatu.

See also



  1. Patricia Neal, who played Helen Benson, was only 12 years older than Billy Gray, who played her son.
  2. Actor Sam Jaffe, who played Professor Barnhardt, had an engineering degree and taught mathematics before turning to acting.[7]
  3. "Rentals" refers to the distributor/studio's share of the box office gross, which, according to Gebert, is roughly half of the money generated by ticket sales.[26]


  1. "The Day the Earth Stood Still (U)". British Board of Film Classification. September 20, 1951. Retrieved September 21, 2016.
  2. Solomon 1989, p. 246.
  3. "The Top Box Office Hits of 1951." Variety, January 2, 1952.
  4. Gianos 1998 p. 23.
  5. "Films Selected to The National Film Registry, Library of Congress 1989-2009." Retrieved: June 19, 2010.
  6. "'The Day the Earth Stood Still': Award Wins and Nominations." Retrieved: February 1, 2015.
  7. Flint, Peter B. "Sam Jaffe, a character actor on stage and film, dies at 93." The New York Times, March 25, 1984.
  8. "Making the Earth Stand Still LaserDisc (Fox Video; 20th Century Fox Home Entertainment): Julian Blaustein, Robert Wise, Patricia Neal, Billy Gray." IMDb, 1995. Retrieved: 1 February 2015.
  9. "Cult Movies Showcase 'The Day the Earth Stood Still'." Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved: February 1, 2015.
  10. Shermer 2001, pp. 74–75.
  11. Matthews 2007, p. 54.
  12. Holloway and Beck 2005, p. 135.
  13. Haspel, Paul. "Future Shock on the National Mall". Journal of Popular Film & Television, Vol. 34, Issue 2, Summer 2006, pp. 62–71. ISSN 0195-6051.
  14. "DVD: 'The Day the Earth Stood Still' Shooting Script." Still Galleries, [Fox Video 20th Century Fox Home Entertainment]. Retrieved: February 1, 2015.
  15. Laffoley, Paul. "Disco Volante (the Flying Saucer)". Archived August 7, 2011, at the Wayback Machine, 1998. Retrieved: February 1, 2015.
  16. "Indoor exhibit. The Cold War: 'The Day the Earth Stood Still'." Fort George G. Meade Museum. Retrieved: November 22, 2015.
  17. "Original Print information: 'The Day the Earth Stood Still'". Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved: February 1, 2015.
  18. Warren 1982, p. 621.
  19. Hoberman, J. "The Cold War sci-fi parable that fell to earth." The New York Times, September 31, 2008.
  20. Wrobel, Bill. "Score analysis." Retrieved: February 1, 2015.
  21. "Howard Goodall's 20th Century Greats." Channel 4, December 17, 2004.
  22. "Oscar Roundtable: The composers." The Hollywood Reporter, December 15, 2008.
  23. Variety's Complete Science Fiction Reviews. Ed. Donald Willis. New York and London: Garland Publishing, 1985. p. 88-89. ISBN 0-8240-6263-9.
  24. "'The Day the Earth Stood Still' with Michael Rennie and Patricia Neal". Harrison's Reports: 142. September 8, 1951.
  25. Crowther, Bosley (September 19, 1951). "Movie Review — The Day the Earth Stood Still". The New York Times. Retrieved March 11, 2016.
  26. Gebert 1996, p. 156.
  27. "'The Day the Earth Stood Still'; Award Wins and Nominations". Retrieved: February 1, 2015.
  28. "AFI's 100 Years ... 100 Thrills." Retrieved: February 1, 2015.
  29. "AFI's 100 Years... 100 Cheers." Archived November 22, 2009, at the Wayback Machine Retrieved: February 1, 2015.
  30. "AFI's 10 Top 10." Retrieved: February 1, 2015.
  31. "AFI's 100 Years... 100 Movies: Official Ballot". Retrieved: February 1, 2015.
  32. "AFI's 100 Years... 100 Movies (10th Anniversary): Official Ballot." AFI. Retrieved: February 1, 2015.
  33. "AFI's 100 Years ... 100 Heroes and Villains: The 400 Nominated Characters". Retrieved: February 1, 2015.
  34. "AFI's 100 Years... 100 Movie Quotes: Official Ballot." Retrieved: February 1, 2015.
  35. "AFI's 100 Years of Film Scores: Official Ballot." Retrieved: February 1, 2015.
  36. "The Best 1,000 Movies Ever Made." The New York Times, April 29, 2003.
  37. "The Greatest Films of 1951." AMC Retrieved: May 23, 2010.
  38. "The Best Movies of 1951 by rank"., May 23, 2010.
  39. Spry, Jeff (December 11, 2015). "Childhood's End author Arthur C. Clarke's Top 12 sci-fi movies". SYFY. Retrieved December 29, 2017.
  40. "'The Day the Earth Stood Still' Movie Reviews, Pictures". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved: February 1, 2015.
  41. Tony Magistrale, Abject Terrors: Surveying the Modern and Postmodern Horror Film, 2005 p. 82
  42. "2006 Inductees: Gort." Archived April 12, 2008, at the Wayback Machine The Robot Hall of Fame (Carnegie Mellon University), 2006. The Day the Earth Stood Still
  43. Clarke, Frederick S. Cinefantastique, 1970, p. 2.
  44. Neal, Patricia. As I Am: An Autobiography. ISBN 9781451626001
  45. Skoble 2007, p. 91.
  46. Le Marbe, Tauna. "The Language of Klaatu." Fantastic Films, Issue 1, April 1978.
  47. "DVD: Decoding "Klaatu Barada Nikto": Science Fiction as Metaphor|time = 0:14:05." Twentieth Century Fox Home Entertainment, December 2, 2008.
  48. "DVD: Decoding "Klaatu Barada Nikto": Science Fiction as Metaphor|time = 0:14:20." Twentieth Century Fox Home Entertainment, December 2, 2008.
  49. "DVD: Decoding "Klaatu Barada Nikto": Science Fiction as Metaphor| time = 0:14:47." Twentieth Century Fox Home Entertainment, December 2, 2008.
  50. "DVD: Decoding "Klaatu Barada Nikto": Science Fiction as Metaphor|time = 0:14:55." Twentieth Century Fox Home Entertainment, December 2, 2008.
  51. "Radio Highlights". The Brooklyn Daily Eagle (New York). January 4, 1954. p. 11. Retrieved December 17, 2018.
  52. "Notes: 'The Day the Earth Stood Still'." Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved: February 1, 2015.


  • Gebert, Michael. The Encyclopedia of Movie Awards (listing of 'Box Office (Domestic Rentals)' for 1951, taken from Variety magazine). New York: St. Martin's Paperbacks, 1996. ISBN 0-668-05308-9.
  • Gianos, Phillip L. Politics and Politicians in American Film. Portsmouth, New Hampshire: Greenwood Publishing Group, 1998. ISBN 0-275-96071-4.
  • Holloway, David and John Beck. American Visual Cultures. London: Continuum International Publishing Group, 2005. ISBN 0-8264-6485-8.
  • Matthews, Melvin E.. Hostile Aliens, Hollywood and Today's News: 1950s Science Fiction Films and 9/11. New York: Algora Publishing, 2007. ISBN 0-87586-497-X.
  • Shermer, Michael. The Borderlands of Science: Where Sense Meets Nonsense. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-19-514326-4.
  • Skoble, Aeon J. "Technology and Ethics in The Day the Earth Stood Still". in Sanders, Steven M. The Philosophy of Science Fiction Film. Lexington, Kentucky: University Press of Kentucky, 2007. ISBN 0-8131-2472-7.
  • Solomon, Aubrey. Twentieth Century Fox: A Corporate and Financial History. Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press, 1989. ISBN 978-0-8108-4244-1.
  • Warren, Bill. Keep Watching The Skies, American Science Fiction Movies of the 1950s, Vol I: 1950 - 1957. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company, 1982. ISBN 0-89950-032-3.
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