The Bonnie Banks o' Loch Lomond
"The Bonnie Banks o' Loch Lomond", or simply "Loch Lomond" for short, is a well-known traditional Scottish song (Roud No. 9598) first published in 1841 in Vocal Melodies of Scotland. The song prominently features Loch Lomond, the largest Scottish loch, located between the council areas of West Dunbartonshire, Stirling and Argyll and Bute. In the Scots language, "bonnie" means "pretty, often in reference to a female."
The original composer is unknown, as is definitive information on any traditional lyrics.
By yon bonnie banks and by yon bonnie braes,
Where the sun shines bright on Loch Lomond,
Where me and my true love were ever wont to gae
On the bonnie, bonnie banks o' Loch Lomond.
O ye'll tak' the high road, and I'll tak' the low road,
And I'll be in Scotland a'fore ye,
But me and my true love will never meet again,
On the bonnie, bonnie banks o' Loch Lomond.
'Twas there that we parted, in yon shady glen,
On the steep, steep side o' Ben Lomond,
Where in soft purple hue, the hieland hills we view,
And the moon coming out in the gloaming.
O braw Charlie Stewart, dear true, true heart,
Wha could refuse thee protection,
Like the weeping birk on the wild hillside,
How graceful he looked in dejection
The wee birdies sing and the wildflowers spring,
And in sunshine the waters are sleeping.
But the broken heart it kens nae second spring again,
Though the waeful may cease frae their grieving.
There are many theories about the meaning of the song, most of which are connected to the Jacobite Uprising of 1745. One interpretation based on the lyrics is that the song is sung by the lover of a captured Jacobite rebel set to be executed in London following a show trial. The heads of the executed rebels were then set upon pikes and exhibited in all of the towns between London and Edinburgh in a procession along the "high road" (the most important road), while the relatives of the rebels walked back along the "low road" (the ordinary road travelled by peasants and commoners).
Another interpretation of the "Low Road" is that it refers to the traditional underground route taken by the "fairies" or "little people" who were reputed to transport the soul of a dead Scot who died in a foreign land—in this case, England—back to his homeland to rest in peace.
Another similar interpretation also attributes it to a Jacobite Highlander captured after the 1745 rising. The Hanoverian British victors were known to play cruel games on the captured Jacobites, and would supposedly find a pair of either brothers or friends and tell them one could live and the other would be executed, and it was up to the pair to decide. Thus the interpretation here is that the song is sung by the brother or friend who chose or was chosen to die. He is therefore telling his friend that they will both go back to Scotland, but he will go on the "low road", his body being paraded along the main road controlled by the Duke of Cumberland's forces, whereas his friend will have to head for the hilltops, taking longer to get back. Another supporting feature of this is that he states he will never meet his love again in the temporal world, on Loch Lomond. Some believe that this version is written entirely to a lover who lived near the loch.
A related interpretation holds that a professional soldier and a volunteer were captured by the English in one of the small wars between the countries in the couple of hundred years prior to 1746. Volunteers could accept parole, a release contingent on the volunteer's refusal to rejoin the fighting, but regulars could not and so could face execution. The volunteer would take the high road that linked London and Edinburgh while the soul of the executed regular would return along the "low road" and would get back to Scotland first.
About 1876, the Scottish poet and folklorist Andrew Lang wrote a poem based on the song titled "The Bonnie Banks o' Loch Lomond". The title sometimes has the date "1746" appended—the year of the defeat of Bonnie Prince Charlie's rebellion and the hanging of some of his captured supporters. Lang's poem begins:
There's an ending o' the dance, and fair Morag's safe in France,
And the Clans they hae paid the lawing,
Morag—great one in Gaelic—referred to Bonnie Prince Charlie, who fled to France after his forces were defeated. Lawing means reckoning in Scots. The poem continues:
And the wuddy has her ain, and we twa are left alane,
Free o' Carlisle gaol in the dawing.
Wuddy means hangman's rope, according to Lang's own notes on the poem; dawing is dawn. The poem continues with the song's well-known chorus, then explains why the narrator and his true love will never meet again:
For my love's heart brake in twa, when she kenned the Cause's fa',
And she sleeps where there's never nane shall waken
The poem's narrator vows to take violent revenge on the English:
While there's heather on the hill shall my vengeance ne'er be still,
While a bush hides the glint o' a gun, lad;
Wi' the men o' Sergeant Môr shall I work to pay the score,
Till I wither on the wuddy in the sun, lad!
"Sergeant Môr" is John Du Cameron, a supporter of Bonnie Prince Charlie who continued fighting as an outlaw until he was hanged in 1753.
19th century context
While the song may well draw on actual 18th century Jacobite material, its publication in 1841 in its present form and its great subsequent popularity belong to a time when the Jacobite cause had long since ceased to be an actual political proposition and the House of Stewart itself had died out. In the 19th Century, Jacobite songs and stories had become a favorite Romantic theme, appealing to the descendants of the English as much as to those of the Scots.
Arrangements and recordings
Scottish folk-rock band Runrig have made the song their unofficial anthem, closing their concerts with a rendition for over 25 years. They also had a top ten hit with a re-recorded version in 2007, released for BBC Children in Need. Two verses of the song and the chorus are now a favourite anthem of the supporters of the Scotland rugby team at Murrayfield. Possibly taking a cue from Runrig, and sung at a faster marching pace, the original sad lament is enthusiastically bellowed out by thousands of Scots to celebrate a score and to spur on the team.
In rock n roll, AC/DC, the Mudmen, and Scottish-Canadian punk band The Real McKenzies have recorded versions of "Loch Lomond", and the band Quadriga Consort have, like Runrig, performed it as the final song at concerts. Bill Haley & His Comets recorded it in 1957 for the album Rockin' the Oldies, but never made it onto the album. It was eventually released by Decca as "Rock Lomond" in August 1958 on the album Rockin' the Joint.
The Irish variant of the song is called "Red Is the Rose" and is sung with the same melody but different (although similarly themed) lyrics. It was popularized by Irish folk musician Tommy Makem. Even though many people mistakenly believe that Makem wrote "Red is the Rose", it is a traditional Irish folk song.
The Jazz Discography, an online index of studio recordings, live recordings, and broadcast transcriptions of jazz – as of May 22, 2019 – lists 106 recordings of "Loch Lomond" and 1 recording of "Bonnie Banks o' Loch Lomond."
A notable big band version of "Loch Lomond," arranged by Claude Thornhill, was recorded in a live performance on January 16, 1938, by the Benny Goodman and His Orchestra on the album, The Famous 1938 Carnegie Hall Jazz Concert, on January 16, 1938, featuring Martha Tilton on vocals (Columbia SL 160).
Jazz singer Maxine Sullivan, for whom it was a career-defining hit, recorded it at least 14 times:
- Her first on August 6, 1937, with Claude Thornhill (piano), Frankie Newton (trumpet), Buster Bailey (clarinet), Pete Brown (alto sax), Babe Russin (tenor sax), John Kirby (bass), and O'Neill Spencer (drums) (matrix 21472-1; Vocalion-OKeh 364); and
- Her last, in a live performance at the Fujitsu-Concord Jazz Festival in Tokyo, on September 28, 1986, with the Scott Hamilton Quintet. It was her second to last recording. She died 6 months later, on April 7, 1987.
- Marie Morrisey Keith, aka Mamie Keith, aka Mrs. Roy Keith (née Marie Louise Bosse; aka Bosseé; 1886–1965), formerly a contralto from Flatbush, Brooklyn, who also was around 1938 was President and Director of the Women's Symphony Orchestra of Chicago, and from 1947 to 1951, was President of the National Federation of Music Clubs, through which, since 1952, an endowed Marie Morrisey Keith Scholarship is awarded every four years. She married twice, first, on November 16, 1910, in Flatbush, Brooklyn, to George Sims Morrisey (1878–1958); second, on June 12, 1920, in Egremont, Massachusetts, to Royden James Keith (1881–1955), a 1904 Stanford graduate and pioneer in phonograph business.
- "Chicago's Organized Women's Musicians Tire of Playing Second Fiddle Roles". Chicago Tribune. November 20, 1938. Part 3, p. 3. (accessible via Newspapers.com, subscription required).
- "Mrs. Keith, 78, Once Concert Star, Is Dead". Chicago Tribune. March 5, 1965. Section 1A, p. 7, col 5 (of 8). (accessible via Newspapers.com, subscription required).
- Vocal Melodies of Scotland
- Fuld, James Jeffrey. (1916–2008). The Book of World-Famous Music: Classical, Popular, and Folk. pps. 336 & 337 Crown (1966). OCLC 637942931.
- The Song Loch Lomond Bonnie Banks at the Wayback Machine (archived 27 February 2014)
- Fraser, Amy Stewart (1977). In Memory Long. Routledge. p. 54. ISBN 978-0-7100-8586-3. Retrieved 10 October 2008.
- "Songs&Poems - Loch Lomond". lochlomond.net.
- "The Bonnie Banks o' Loch Lomond" see also; from The Poetical Works of Andrew Lang, ed. Mrs. Lang, 4 vols. (London: Longmans, Green & Co., 1923): I, 55-56
- Andrew Lang (1844-1912) -- The Bonnie Banks o' Loch Lomond
- Poems of Andrew Lang: THE BONNIE BANKS O' LOCH LOMOND
- Lang & Philipp 2000, p. 235.
- Am Baile - The Songs and Hymns of the Scottish Highlands. Part II Song 5
- RPO - Andrew Lang : The Bonnie Banks o' Loch Lomond Archived 2009-01-29 at the Wayback Machine
- "Official Singles Chart Top 100 18 November 2007 - 24 November 2007". Official Charts Company. Retrieved 20 June 2018.
- "Official Scottish Singles Sales Chart Top 100 18 November 2007 - 24 November 2007". Official Charts Company. Retrieved 20 June 2018.
- TV or radio broadcasts of any Scotland home game at Murrayfield from 2017, and possibly earlier
- "Red is the Rose". Jennifer Tyson. Retrieved 2013-08-03.
- Raymond Crooke (2009-01-12). "690. Red is the Rose (Traditional Irish)". YouTube. Retrieved 2013-08-03.
- "Flow Sweetly, Sweet Rhythm: The Maxine Sullivan Story". By Jan Souther (pseudonym of Rev. Thomas Francis Carten, C.S.C., Alumni Chaplin, Kings College; born 1942), The Sunday Voice (magazine of the Citizens' Voice). June 15, 2008, p. D6 (accessible via Newspapers.com, subscription required)
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