Thalys (French: [talis]) is a French-Belgian high-speed train operator originally built around the LGV Nord high-speed line between Paris and Brussels. This track is shared with Eurostar trains that go from Paris, Brussels or Amsterdam to London via Lille and the Channel Tunnel and with French domestic TGV trains. Thalys serves Amsterdam (via the HSL-Zuid, a service part of NS International) and Cologne as well. Its system is managed by Thalys International — 62% SNCF, 28% NMBS/SNCB, and 10% Deutsche Bahn — and operated by THI Factory — 60% SNCF, 40% NMBS/SNCB.
Thalys TGV on winter service in the French Alps
|Rolling stock||9 Thalys PBA sets|
17 Thalys PBKA sets
|Track gauge||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge|
|Operating speed||300 km/h (190 mph)|
Before Thalys, there had been an express rail service between Paris and Brussels since 1924 on the train service l'Étoile du Nord. In the 1970s it connected the two cities in around 2 hours 30 minutes.
The decision to build a high-speed railway between Paris, Brussels, Cologne, and Amsterdam was made in 1987. On 28 January 1993, SNCF, SNCB/NMBS, Nederlandse Spoorwegen and Deutsche Bundesbahn (which became part of Deutsche Bahn in 1994) signed an agreement to operate the axis jointly through the brand Thalys, and in 1995 Westrail International was created by the French and Belgian national railways to operate the services. On 4 June 1996, the first train left Paris using the LGV Nord until it reached Belgium, taking 2:07 hours to Brussels and 4:47 hours to Amsterdam.
In 1997, the Belgian HSL 1 line, allowing 300 km/h (186.41 mph) and running from the French border to the outskirts of Brussels, was completed for service. On 14 December 1997, the first Thalys train from Paris to Brussels ran on the HSL 1, reducing travel time to 1:25 hours. At the same time service commenced to Cologne and Aachen in Germany, and Bruges, Charleroi, Ghent, Mons, Namur and Ostend in Belgium. On 19 December 1998 the Thalys Neige service started to the ski resorts of Tarentaise Valley and Bourg-Saint-Maurice. In May 1999, the new high-speed line serving Charles de Gaulle Airport opened, and Thalys started direct services from the Airport to Brussels, including codeshare agreements with Air France, American Airlines and Northwest Airlines. On 28 November 1999, the company changed its name to Thalys International.
In 2000, Thalys started a daily Service between Brussels and Geneva. Thalys Soleil started offering direct connections to the Provence, initially to Valence, and extended to Avignon and Marseille in 2002. Service between Brussels and Cologne was improved in December 2002 when trains began running on the new HSL 2 in Belgium. In 2003, services started to Brussels Airport and the Thalys Nuits d’Été service to Marne-la-Vallée. In 2007 Deutsche Bahn purchased a 10% shareholding with SNCF reducing its stake to 62% and SNCB 28%.
Beginning 14 June 2009 the journey between Brussels and Cologne was shortened by 19 minutes when the new high-speed line HSL 3 between Liège and Aachen opened using Deutsche Bahn's thrice-daily ICE trains running between Brussels and Frankfurt. HSL 3 was completed in 2007, but Thalys trains had not yet been equipped with the European Train Control System (ETCS) signaling equipment necessary to use the new line. After installation and testing, Thalys began operating on HSL 3 on 13 December 2009. For the same reasons, Thalys started operating on the HSL 4/HSL-Zuid high-speed line between Antwerp and Amsterdam 13 December 2009, two years after the line's construction.
In June 2013, Deutsche Bahn stopped selling Thalys tickets, and began a plan to exit from Thalys capital.
Thalys has served Düsseldorf Airport station since the winter 2013 schedule went into effect.
On 12 April 2014, Thalys started a regular service between Lille Europe and Amsterdam Centraal.
At the end of March 2015, Thalys dropped the Paris – Oostende and the Paris – Brussels – Mons – Charleroi – Namur – Liège routes, due to the lack of funding from the Belgian government.
Starting from 13 December 2015, service in Germany is extended to Dortmund.
In September 2019, Thalys announced its intention to merge with Eurostar, subject to gaining European Commission clearance, to form Green Speed. SNCF and SNCB already hold a controlling shareholding in Eurostar.
Beyond Brussels, the main cities Thalys trains reach are Antwerp, Rotterdam, Amsterdam, Liège, Aachen and Cologne. Trains to these destinations run partly on dedicated high-speed tracks, and partly on conventional tracks shared with normal-speed trains. The high-speed lines used by Thalys are HSL 1 between Paris and Brussels, HSL 4/HSL-Zuid between Antwerp and Amsterdam, and the HSL 2 and HSL 3 between Brussels and Aachen. For its seasonal operations within France, other high-speed lines are used.
Plans to continue the line past Cologne to Frankfurt had to be abandoned, because the Thalys train sets are very inefficient under Germany's 15 kV electric system and thus unable to operate at full speed on the Cologne-Frankfurt high-speed rail line.
Journeys from Brussels (Brussels-South) to Paris (Gare du Nord) are normally 1 hour and 22 minutes, for a distance of approximately 300 kilometres (190 mi). Peak speed is 300 km/h (186 mph) on a dedicated high-speed railway track, which is electrified at 25 kV AC OHLE.
The ligne à grande vitesse (LGV) link with Charles de Gaulle Airport allowed Air France to withdraw its air service between Paris and Brussels; instead, Air France books seats on Thalys trains. Thalys has been given the IATA designator 2H. This is used in conjunction with American Airlines and Delta Air Lines. American Airlines has a code-sharing agreement with Thalys for rail service from Charles de Gaulle airport to Brussels-South. The airline alliance SkyTeam also has a code-sharing agreement with Thalys for rail service connecting its hub Amsterdam Schiphol Airport with Antwerp-Centraal and Bruxelles Midi/Brussel Zuid.
|Paris Nord||Bruxelles Midi||Liege||Aachen Hbf||Köln Hbf / Cologne||Düsseldorf Hbf||Duisburg Hbf||Dortmund Hbf||Amsterdam Centraal||Schiphol Airport||Rotterdam Centraal||Antwerpen Centraal||Lille Europe|
|Köln Hbf / Cologne||3h14min||1h47min||1h01min||36min||x||24min||43min||N/A||x||x||x||x||x|
Thalys targets a passenger market in France, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Germany.
- Paris-Brussels: 55.6%
- Paris-Belgium (outside Brussels): 8.9%
- Paris-Belgium-Netherlands: 21.3%
- Paris-Belgium-Germany: 11.8%
- Others: 2.4%
52% of customers are from the leisure market; 48% from the business market.
A large segment of Thalys's total sales and income comes from the connection between Paris and Brussels.
Unlike many national train companies, Thalys does not allow children below 12 years old to travel alone.
Since 24 August 2010, there has been a supplement of €7 to Thalys (as well as other international high-speed tickets) tickets bought at SNCB/NMBS ticket offices at train stations (but not on tickets bought over the Internet). This is due to a reduction of a sales fee paid by Thalys and Eurostar to the Belgian rail company. The sales prices have evolved, and in June 2019 that "booking fee" (as it is called) is €9.
All figures in millions. Revenue in millions of euros.
Due to the departure of Deutsche Bahn, the distribution of Thalys tickets was discontinued by the railway on June 9, 2013. Tickets are still available on the train (25 euros surcharge), by phone at Thalys itself for the same periods as the Internet sales (see below), the French (SNCF), the Dutch (NS) and the Belgian State Railways (NMBS / SNCB), some travel agencies (also with surcharge) and on the Internet up to three months in advance.
At Cologne Central Station (in the building opposite the main entrance of the station) there has been a Thalys Store & More since October 22, 2012. It acts as a normal travel agency with the above restrictions and makes a surcharge even for own trains.
Further outlets of Thalys Store & More exist in the main station Aachen as well as beside the main station Düsseldorf (Bertha-von-Suttner-Platz, south entrance).
Thalys operates a number of station lounges in Brussels, Cologne, Aachen, and Paris. Opened on 9 July 2015, the newest lounge in Paris' Gare du Nord (not to be confused with Brussels' Gare du Nord, where Thalys trains pass through without stopping), located on Rue de Dunkerque, offers travelers with a valid Thalys the Card (Thalys Loyalty Program) a variety of services, including free WiFi or a luggage storage service. For business travelers, a fully equipped meeting room is available for up to six people.
|PBA||Electric multiple unit||300||186||9||1996||Tri-current; Operates only on the Paris–Brussels–Amsterdam route.|
|PBKA||Electric multiple unit||300||186||17||1997||Quadri-current; Operates on Paris–Brussels–Cologne–Amsterdam route.|
Accidents and incidents
- On 9 May 1998, a truck was struck by a Thalys PBKA on an unprotected level crossing; it had attempted to cross the tracks at the crossing when the train arrived. The truck driver was killed in the impact and the train's power unit and first two-passenger carriages derailed; the trainset was left heavily damaged. Six passengers were injured and tracks and catenary were broken in the incident. Passenger carriages R1 and R2 had to be scrapped. The trainset was later repaired with the R1 and R2 carriages from a regular TGV trainset.
- On 11 October 2008, a Thalys PBA set bound for Amsterdam collided with a national ICM train set at Gouda railway station in the Netherlands. The Thalys train set had been diverted via Gouda due to engineering work on its usual route. None of the passengers were seriously injured, but both trains incurred serious damage. An investigation concluded that staff of the ICM was to blame, as they left the platform whilst still under a red signal.
- On 21 August 2015, a gunman attacked passengers on an Amsterdam–Paris train near Arras. The incident was treated as a terrorist attack. Three passengers plus the assailant received non-fatal injuries.
- "Thalys: Key figures". thalys.com. Thalys. 16 September 2008. Archived from the original on 16 September 2008. Retrieved 8 November 2019.
- "About Thalys: Corporate". thalys.com. Thalys. 17 December 2007. Archived from the original on 17 December 2007. Retrieved 8 November 2019.
- "1976–1995 The train: economic development drive". thalystory.com. 24 November 2006. Archived from the original on 24 November 2006. Retrieved 8 November 2019.CS1 maint: unfit url (link)
- "Thalys: History". thalys.com. Thalys. 8 June 2008. Archived from the original on 8 June 2008. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
- "DB buys into Thalys". Today's Railways Europe. No. 140. 1 August 2007. p. 40. ISSN 1354-2753.
- Hermsen, Stephen (22 December 2010). "Thalys verbindet das Ruhrgebiet mit Paris" [Thalys connects the Ruhr area with Paris]. DerWesten (in German). Essen: Funke Mediengruppe. Archived from the original on 16 May 2018. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
Ab August 2011 ist das Ruhrgebiet direkt mit der Stadt der Liebe verbunden. Einmal täglich fährt dann der Schnellzug Thalys nicht mehr nur bis nach Köln, sondern auch über Düsseldorf und Duisburg nach Essen.
- "Brussels Airport à 1h47 de Paris via Thalys" [Brussels Airport 1h47 from Paris via Thalys]. La Libre Belgique (in French). La Libre Belgique. 14 September 2011. Archived from the original on 24 September 2012. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
Une liaison Thalys quotidienne entre Brussels Airport et Paris-Nord, via Bruxelles-Midi, sera ouverte dès le 30 octobre, ont annoncé mercredi Thalys et...
- "Fahrkarten nach Paris, Brüssel, Amsterdam, Köln" [Tickets to Paris, Brussels, Amsterdam, Cologne]. thalys.com (in German). Thalys. 7 December 2013. Archived from the original on 7 December 2013. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
- "Thalys is now a train operating company" (PDF) (Press release). Thalys International. 1 April 2015. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 September 2015. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
On Monday 30 March, Agnès Ogier, CEO of Thalys, Jo Cornu, CEO of SNCB, and Rachel Picard, Managing Director of Voyages SNCF, signed the agreements to complete Thalys' formal transformation into a train operating company.
- Coffey, Helen (30 September 2019). "EUROSTAR AND THALYS COULD COMBINE TO FORM HIGH-SPEED TRAIN NETWORK IN RESPONSE TO CLIMATE CHANGE". The Independent. Independent Print Limited. ISSN 0951-9467. OCLC 185201487. Archived from the original on 4 October 2019. Retrieved 8 November 2019.
Plans are afoot to merge two high-speed train companies – Eurostar and Thalys – to form one mega rail network spanning five countries, in a response to increasing demand for more sustainable travel options.
- "Thalys-Eurostar merger planned under Green Speed initiative". Railway Gazette International. EUROPE: DVV Media Group. 27 September 2019. ISSN 0373-5346. Archived from the original on 18 October 2019. Retrieved 8 November 2019.
SNCF, SNCB and the Patina Rail investment vehicle announced on September 27 their intention to combine the Eurostar and Thalys high speed rail operations, reporting that outline proposals were being presented to their respective boards.
- "Eurostar to merge with Thalys to form Green Speed". The Railway Magazine. No. 1424. 1 November 2019. p. 11. ISSN 0033-8923.
- Jeunesse, Alain; Rollin, Michel (1 March 2004). "La motorisation du TGV POS". orange.fr (in French). Orange S.A.
- Intermodal Transportation. Diane Publishing. United States Government Accountability Office. 1994. p. 27. ISBN 978-1428933378.
- "Chiffres Clés". thalys.com (in French). Thalys. 22 January 2008. Archived from the original on 22 January 2008. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
- "Thalys et Eurostar économisent sur le dos de la SNCB" [Thalys and Eurostar save on the back of SNCB]. La Libre Belgique (in French). La Libre Belgique. 24 September 2010. Archived from the original on 9 November 2019. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
"L’augmentation de 7 euros, c’est l’un des effets de la libéralisation du trafic international effectif depuis le 1er janvier , précise Michel Praillet, secrétaire national CGSP Cheminot. Dans ce contexte, la commission versée à la SNCB est passée de 10% du prix des tickets à 5%, affirme Michel Praillet. Une diminution de moitié, donc, qui aggrave les problèmes financiers de la SNCB. Est-ce que la SNCB espère ramener les comptes à l’équilibre via ce supplément de 7 euros ? En tout cas, cela devrait combler une grosse partie de la diminution de recettes liées à la décision des opérateurs", ajoute-t-il.
- "Thalys trook 57 procent meer treinreizigers in 1998; NMBS: Internationaal treinverkeer zit duidelijk in de lift" [Thalys drives 57 percent more train passengers in 1998; NMBS: International train traffic is clearly on the rise.]. De Financieel-Economische Tijd (in Dutch). Mediafin. 20 January 1999. p. 26. ISSN 0771-6079. OCLC 917185135.
- "Thalys vervoert bijna 5 miljoen passagiers" [Thalys carries almost 5 million passengers]. NRC Handelsblad (in Dutch). Mediahuis. 8 February 2000. p. 15. ISSN 0002-5259. OCLC 795962805.
- "Opnieuw goed jaar voor Thalys" [Another good year for Thalys]. De Financieel-Economische Tijd (in Dutch). Mediafin. 10 January 2001. p. 9. ISSN 0771-6079. OCLC 917185135.
- Van der Heide, Lolke (27 July 2002). "Vliegen zonder vleugels ; Hogesnelheidstrein komt nog niet los van strijd om nationaal belang" [Flying without wings; High-speed train is not yet released from the struggle for national interest]. NRC Handelsblad (in Dutch). Mediahuis. p. 11. ISSN 0002-5259. OCLC 795962805.
- "Thalys: zes miljoen passagiers in 2002" [Thalys: six million passengers in 2002]. Nieuws.nl (in Dutch). Nort Groep. 6 January 2003. Archived from the original on 25 April 2012. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
- "Thalys vervoert minder passagiers" [Thalys carries fewer passengers]. NRC Handelsblad (in Dutch). Mediahuis. 16 January 2004. ISSN 0002-5259. OCLC 795962805. Archived from the original on 10 November 2019. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
De hogesnelheidstreinen van de Thalys hebben in 2003 2,4 procent minder mensen vervoerd dan het jaar ervoor. Het totaal aantal kwam uit op 5,8 miljoen, het concern was uitgegaan van 6,5 miljoen reizigers. Dat is gisteren bekendgemaakt
- "Recordjaar voor Thalys" [Record year for Thalys]. AD Rotterdams Dagblad (in Dutch). DPG Media. 20 January 2005. p. 716.
- "Kort Nieuws" [Short News]. Algemeen Dagblad (in Dutch). DPG Media. 3 January 2006. p. 3.
- "6,5 miljoen reizigers voor Thalys" [6.5 million travelers for Thalys]. De Tijd (in Dutch). Mediafin. 10 January 2007. p. 4. ISSN 0771-6079. OCLC 917185135.
- "Thalys verliest reizigers maar behoudt omzet" [Thalys loses travelers but retains revenue]. De Tijd (in Dutch). Mediafin. 16 January 2008. p. 6. ISSN 0771-6079. OCLC 917185135.
- "THALYS POURSUIT SA CROISSANCE EN 2008: HAUSSE DE SON CHIFFRE D'AFFAIRES DE 9,2% AUGMENTATION DU TRAFIC DE 5,2%" [THALYS CONTINUES ITS GROWTH IN 2008: INCREASE IN REVENUE BY 9.2% INCREASE TRAFFIC BY 5.2%] (PDF) (Press release) (in French). Paris: Thalys International. 22 January 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 April 2009. Retrieved 10 November 2019.
Pour la 5ème année consécutive, Thalys affiche une belle croissance, avec un chiffre d'affaires enprogression de 9,2%, soit un total de 392,1 millions d'euros en 2008.
- "Flink meer reizigers voor Thalys" [A lot more travelers for Thalys]. de Volkskrant (in Dutch). Brussels: DPG Media. ANP. 25 January 2001. OCLC 781575477. Retrieved 10 November 2019.
BRUSSEL - Het spoorbedrijf Thalys heeft vorig jaar een omzet geboekt van 432 miljoen euro, 13 procent meer dan een jaar eerder. Het aantal passagiers steeg met 6,25 procent tot 6,45 miljoen.
- "Meer reizigers en hogere omzet voor Thalys in 2011" [More travelers and higher sales for Thalys in 2011] (PDF) (Press release) (in Dutch). Rotterdam: Thalys International. 31 January 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 February 2014. Retrieved 10 November 2019.
Thalys heeft het jaar 2011 afgesloten met een omzet van 470 miljoen euro; een stijging van 8,4% ten opzichte van 2010. Ook het aantal reizigers nam met 3,1% toe. Meer dan 6,6 miljoen mensen werden vorig jaar vervoerd door Thalys
- "Hogere omzet voor Thalys in 2012" [Higher turnover for Thalys in 2012] (PDF) (Press release) (in Dutch). Rotterdam: Thalys International. 21 February 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 February 2014. Retrieved 10 November 2019.
Rotterdam - Thalys sluit het jaar 2012 af met een omzet van 479 miljoen euro, een stijging van 2,1% ten opzichte van 2011. In totaal reisden 6,6 miljoen mensen met Thalys. Over het gehele netwerk is dat een daling van 1% in vergelijking met het jaar ervoor. Het aantal reizigers tussen Nederland, Brussel en Parijs is echter gestegen.
- "Hogere omzet voor Thalys in 2013" [Higher turnover for Thalys in 2013] (PDF) (Press release) (in Dutch). Rotterdam: Thalys International. 17 February 2014. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 February 2014. Retrieved 10 November 2019.
Rotterdam, 17 februari 2014 - Thalys sluit het jaar 2013 af met een omzet van 487 miljoen euro, een stijging van 1,9% ten opzichte van 2012. In totaal reisden bijna 6,7 miljoen mensen met Thalys in 2013. Over het gehele netwerk is dat een stijging van 1,8% in vergelijking met het jaar ervoor. Vooral het treinverkeer tussen Nederland en België is met een toename van 46,3% aanzienlijk gestegen. Tussen Nederland en Frankrijk is er een lichte stijging van verkeer van 0,6% ten opzichte van 2012.
- Botman, Hans (27 March 1999). "Thalys raast door" [Thalys rushes through]. Algemeen Dagblad (in Dutch). DPG Media. p. 49.
- Van Gelder, Harry (22 March 1997). "Thalys levert NS komende jaren 200 miljoen verlies op" [Thalys will cause NS to lose 200 million in the coming years]. de Volkskrant (in Dutch). Amsterdam: DPG Media. OCLC 781575477. Archived from the original on 16 March 2012. Retrieved 10 November 2019.
De Thalys, de hogesnelheidstrein die sinds juni 1996 vijf keer per dag van Amsterdam naar Parijs rijdt, bezorgt de Nederlandse Spoorwegen de komende acht jaar een verlies van minstens 200 miljoen gulden....
- "Fors meer reizigers voor Thalys naar België. Totale reizigersgroei beperkt" [Significantly more travelers for Thalys to Belgium. Total passenger growth limited]. treinreiziger.nl (in Dutch). 17 February 2014. Archived from the original on 4 January 2018. Retrieved 10 November 2019.
Het is op tal van plaatsen te lezen: hogesnelheidstrein Thalys heeft vorig jaar 46,3 procent meer reizigers tussen Nederland en België vervoerd. Dat is een forse groei, maar de reizigers naar België blijven in de Thalys in de minderheid. De totale treinmarkt tussen Nederland en België is met zes procent gegroeid.
- "Can I take my bike? Provisions for cyclists on the Thalys". raileurope.co.uk. Rail Europe, Inc. 1 December 2010. Archived from the original on 1 December 2010. Retrieved 10 November 2019.
You can take your bike as carry-on luggage as long as it either folds up or, with the front wheel removed, can be held in a loose cover measuring up to 190 cm × 90 cm (74.80 in × 35.43 in).
- "Manufacturers must share the risk". Railway Gazette International. DVV Media Group. 1 October 1997. ISSN 0373-5346. Archived from the original on 1 October 2012. Retrieved 10 November 2019.
- "Twee treinen botsen bij Gouda" [Two trains collide at Gouda]. NU.nl (in Dutch). Gouda: Sanoma. 11 October 2008. Archived from the original on 2 May 2008. Retrieved 10 November 2019.
GOUDA - Bij station Gouda zijn zaterdagochtend twee treinen op elkaar gebotst. Het gaat om de intercity van Den Haag naar Groningen en de Thalys van Parijs naar Amsterdam. Volgens een woordvoerder van het Korps landelijke politiediensten (KLPD) zijn er door het ongeval geen mensen gewond geraakt.
- "Treinbotsing Gouda door samenloop" [Train collision Gouda due to confluence]. ivw.nl (in Dutch). Inspectie Verkeer en Waterstaat. 18 May 2009. Archived from the original on 15 July 2009. Retrieved 10 November 2019.
De zijdelingse aanrijding bij Gouda tussen de intercity en de Thalys op zaterdag 11 oktober 2008 is het gevolg geweest van een opeenvolging van onjuiste handelingen door de conducteurs en machinist van de intercity. Dit blijkt uit onderzoek van de Inspectie Verkeer en Waterstaat. Bij de aanrijding met lage snelheid vielen geen gewonden, wel was de materiele schade groot.
- "France train shooting: Hollande thanks 'heroes' who foiled gunman". BBC. 22 August 2015. Archived from the original on 21 August 2015. Retrieved 10 November 2019.
French President Francois Hollande has thanked three American men hailed as heroes for overpowering a heavily-armed gunman on a train in northern France.
- "Deux blessés par balle dans un Thalys reliant Amsterdam à Paris" [Two shot dead in Thalys between Amsterdam and Paris]. Le Monde (in French). Agence France-Presse. 21 August 2015. ISSN 1950-6244. Archived from the original on 12 August 2015. Retrieved 10 November 2019.
Un homme a ouvert le feu, vendredi 21 août, dans un train Thalys entre Amsterdam et Paris, avant d’être maîtrisé par des passagers.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Thalys.|
- Brunhouse, Jay (1 July 2001). Traveling Europe's Trains. Pelican Publishing Company. ISBN 978-1565548541. LCCN 2001032741. OCLC 46936207. OL 3946616M.
- Solomon, Brian (1 April 2001). Bullet Trains. Enthusiast Color Series. Motorbooks International. ISBN 978-0760307687. OCLC 45172807. OL 8010840M.
- Xia, H; De Roeck, G; Zhang, N; Maeck, J (13 November 2003). "Experimental analysis of a high-speed railway bridge under Thalys trains". Journal of Sound and Vibration. 268 (1): 103–113. doi:10.1016/S0022-460X(03)00202-5. ISSN 0022-460X.
The bridge is composed of multi-span simply supported PC girders with spans of 50 m and U-shaped sections. The loads are the high-speed Thalys trains with articulated vehicles. The speeds of the Thalys trains were between 265 and 310 km/h. In the experiments, the dynamic responses of the bridge such as the deflections, the accelerations and the strains that were measured by a laser velocity displacement transducer accelerometers and strain gauges, respectively.
- "A star is born". International Railway Journal. Simmons-Boardman Publishing. 2003. ISSN 0744-5326.