Television in Turkey
Television in Turkey was introduced in 1952 with the launch of ITU TV. The first national television channel is TRT 1, which was introduced in 1968. Color television was introduced in 1981. Back then it was the only channel with the name of TRT 1, and it broadcast in several times of the dateline. Turkey's first private television channel Star started it broadcast on 26 May 1989.
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Until the 1990s, there was only one television channel controlled by the state, but with the wave of liberalization, privately owned broadcasting began. Turkey's television market is defined by a handful of big channels, led by Kanal D, ATV and Show, with 14%, 10% and 9.6% market share, respectively.
The most important reception platforms are terrestrial and satellite, with almost 50% of homes using satellite (of these 15% were pay services) at the end of 2009. Three services dominate the multi-channel market: the satellite platforms Digitürk and D-Smart and the cable TV service Türksat.
The Uzan Group made the first digital television transmissions in Turkey with Turkey's first television channel Star TV. As they were on the lead with their channels Star, TeleOn and Kral, the Uzan Group launched Star Digital on Turksat in late 1999. In 2003, the platform's name was changed as DigiFun Club, but it was short lived before became defunct.
Turkey's first pay television provider, CINE5 from MultiCanal (owned by Erol Aksoy) launched in late 1994. It held the rights to the latest movie premieres, series and especially sports such as the Turkish Football League. In 2000, CINE5 launched CINE+Digital on Turksat with some specialty channels, but again in 2003 this platform was taken down.
Turkey's first and leading digital platform, Digiturk, owned by the Çukurova Group, launched in 1999. Digiturk was a lot more professional and had a lot of advantages over the other platforms such as Star Digital and CINE+Digital. Digiturk has the rights of airing the main sports live coverage in Turkey with its channel Lig TV. Digiturk is transmitted to the air via Eutelsat 7 East satellite with the usage of Turksat 42 East satellite. There are options with its own receiver or the subscription with module and card for Eutelsat 7. Digiturk recently launched HD channels of itself such as Lig TV HD, MovieMax HD, EuroSport HD, National Geographic HD, SporMax HD and İZ HD.
Turkey's second digital platform is D-Smart owned by the Dogan Holding. Actually, the first HD television broadcasts were carried out by the Dogan Holding with the two channels Kanal D HD and Discovery Channel HD on their D-Smart platform. Currently, there are some HD channels via D-Smart which are Discovery HD, EuroSport HD, HD Smart, Kanal D HD and Star TV HD. Recently, D-Smart has had some deals with Turkey's MTV Group, MCD and the channels of SinemaTV, SinemaTV 2, SinemaTV Aile and SinemaTV HD have begun to be transmitted to the air firstly by D-Smart. D-Smart uses Turksat 42 East for the transmissions.
KabloTV (Cable service)
Cable network is renamed as KabloTV which has some HD channels at the moment also called as National Geographic HD and EuroSport HD. Lately the cable network has had some deals with Turkey's MTV Network Group, MCD, and French television provider ABSAT. KabloTV is expected to carry out new television channels more than 100 in the following months of 2009. KabloTV broadcasts via the cable network around the country but it is not available largely which blocks the system from reaching every part of the land.
DTV transition controversy
Turkey began trial digital transmissions in 2006. The Turkish government was expected to gradually handle the switchover, with a completion date of March 2015. In 2013, the broadcasting regulator awarded a license to a firm; this was cancelled in 2014 after the AYM upheld a complaint against the process. New licenses have been proposed, but as of 2018 Turkey still has no DTT network, and it is still unclear if it would ever be rolled out with satellite having an 80% penetration.
Government channels (TRT - Turkish Radio and Television Corporation)
Private national channels