Teen film is a film genre targeted at teenagers and young adults by the plot being based on their special interests, such as coming of age, attempting to fit in, bullying, peer pressure, first love, teen rebellion, conflict with parents, and teen angst or alienation. Often these normally serious subject matters are presented in a glossy, stereotyped or trivialized way. Many teenage characters are portrayed by young adult actors. Some teen films appeal to young males, while others appeal to young females.
The classic teen film is often similar to a romantic comedy. Hybrid genres include:
Additional types of teen films can be divided again into sub-categories. These can be found at list of teen films.
Codes and conventions
Codes and conventions of teen films vary depending on the cultural context of the film, but they can include proms, alcohol, illegal substances, high school, parties, losing one's virginity, teen pregnancy, social groups and cliques, interpersonal conflict with peers and/or the older generations, fitting in, peer pressure, and American pop culture.
The classic codes and conventions of teen film come from American films. One of the most widely used conventions is an emphasis on stereotypes and social groups. The stereotypes most commonly used include:
- The Jock / Cheerleader
- School Diva (Alternately The It Girl)
- The Geek / Nerd
- The Rebel
- The Misfit / Outcast
- The Boy/Girl next door
- The New Girl / Boy
- The Loner
- The Band Geek
- Class Hottie
- Class Clown
- The Stoner
- The Athlete
- The Queen Bee
Apart from the characters, there are many other codes and conventions of teen film. These films are often set in or around high schools and places frequented by teens, such as shopping malls and themed restaurants. This technique allows for many different social cliques to be shown. These settings are typical for the classic romantic comedy teen film.
A good example of the use of archetypes in teen film was displayed in the 1980s film The Breakfast Club. These archetypes have since become a larger part of the culture. The jock, cheerleader, and social outcast, among others, become a familiar and pleasurable feature for the audience. However, genres are dynamic; they change and develop to meet the expectations of their target audience.
Notable writers and directors
The genre gained more credibility during the 1980s with the works of writer and director John Hughes. His legacy of teen films, including The Breakfast Club, Ferris Bueller's Day Off, and many more, proved to be popular not only with audiences but also with critics.
Gregg Araki filmed independent films in the 1990s. His films, particularly the Teen Apocalypse Trilogy (consisting of Totally Fucked Up, The Doom Generation, and Nowhere), are notable for capturing the disaffected attitudes of suburban teenagers of Generation X.
Éric Rohmer, a pioneering director of the French New Wave, was notable for focusing on young adults or youth and their complications with love in a number of his films. Some of these works are La Collectionneuse, Claire's Knee, Pauline at the Beach, My Girlfriend's Boyfriend, and A Summer's Tale.
Popular actors in teen films have included Annette Funicello, Hayley Mills, and Sal Mineo in the 1960s and 1970s; Molly Ringwald, John Cusack, Michael J. Fox, Robert Downey Jr., Matthew Broderick and members of the Brat Pack in the 1980s and early 1990s; and Sarah Michelle Gellar, Neve Campbell, Rose McGowan, Jennifer Love Hewitt, Heath Ledger, Britney Spears, Kirsten Dunst, Shannon Elizabeth, Gina Ravera, Seth Green, Tobey Maguire, Alicia Silverstone, Mary-Kate and Ashley Olsen, Frankie Muniz, Hilary Duff, Lindsay Lohan, and Hayden Panettiere in the late 1990s and throughout the 2000s. These actors were either pre-teens or teens themselves when the movies were made.
Notable teen genre actors in the 2010s include KJ Apa, Noah Centineo, Timothée Chalamet, Zac Efron, Lucy Hale, Lucas Hedges, Tom Holland, Anna Kendrick, Katherine Langford, Keiynan Lonsdale, Ezra Miller, Evan Peters, Nick Robinson, Cole Sprouse, Amandla Stenberg, Emma Stone, Ashley Tisdale, Emma Watson, and Finn Wolfhard.
- Driscoll, Catherine (June 2011). Teen Film: A Critical Introduction. ISBN 9781847888440.
- Kaveney, Roz (2006-07-11). Teen Dreams: Reading Teen Film and Television from 'Heathers' to 'Veronica Mars'. I.B.Tauris. ISBN 9781845111847.
- Driscoll, Catherine (2011-06-15). Teen Film: A Critical Introduction. Berg. ISBN 9781847886866.