Team composition and cohesion in spaceflight missions
Selection, training, cohesion and psychosocial adaptation influence performance and, as such, are relevant factors to consider while preparing for costly, long-duration spaceflight missions in which the performance objectives will be demanding, endurance will be tested and success will be critical.
During the selection of crew members, throughout their training and during their psychosocial adaptation to the mission environment, there are several opportunities to encourage optimal performance and, in turn, minimize the risk of failure.
Individual selection and crew composition
Evidence linking crew selection, composition, training, cohesion or psychosocial adaptation to performance errors is uncertain. Many NASA-backed studies regarding spaceflight, as well as space analogs, emphasize the need to consider these factors. The research on performance errors caused by team factors is ambiguous and currently, no systematic attempt has been undertaken to measure performance errors due to psychosocial team factors during space flight.
As a result, evidence does not help identify what is needed to reduce the risk of performance errors in space. Ground-based evidence demonstrates that decrements in individual and team performance are related to the psychosocial characteristics of teamwork. Also, there are reasons to believe that ground support personnel and crew members experience many of the same basic issues regarding teamwork and performance.
The study of performance errors implies that human actions may be simplified into a dichotomy of "correct" or "incorrect" responses. It has been argued that this dichotomy is a harmful oversimplification, and that it would be more productive to focus on the variability of human performance and how organizations can manage that variability.
There are two particular problems that occur when focusing on performance errors:
- errors are infrequent and therefore, are difficult to observe and record
- the errors do not correspond to failure
Research shows that humans are fairly adept at correcting or compensating for performance errors before such errors result in recognizable or recordable failures. Most failures are recorded only when multiple errors occur and are not preventable.
For NASA's purposes, a team is commonly understood to be a collection of individuals that is assigned to support and achieve a particular mission. One way of selecting for teams is to identify those individuals who are best suited to work in teams, ensuring that each individual team member possesses the qualities and skills that lend themselves to optimal teamwork. Many organizations use competency frameworks to select individuals utilizing a "team-working" competency that measures how an individual works with other team members (support, knowledge sharing, etc.). These "teamwork" competencies have been shown to help predict individual performance in teams.
Efforts have been made within spaceflight operations to identify factors that are important for selecting individual crew members for long duration spaceflight. There has also been an analytical study to identify the skills necessary for long and short duration missions to inform the initial astronaut candidate selection process. In this study, twenty experts (including astronauts) rated 47 relevant skills on criticality and another 42 environmental and work demands on their probability of occurrence.
This resulted in 10 broad factors that were deemed important for long-duration missions:
- performance under stressful conditions
- mental/emotional stability
- judgement/decision making
- teamwork skills
- family issues
- group living skills
- communication skills
- leadership capabilities
There is a lack of data that related performance to team composition and cohesion due to the evolution of job duties and selection practices over the history of manned spaceflight as well as the limited number of astronauts actually selected (340 U.S. astronauts to date). These issues are relevant to other space agencies as well. In 1990, a European astronaut working group reevaluated selection criteria for the selection of European astronauts as Russian researchers have collected personality data on cosmonauts for a number of years. The empirical linking of personality factors to specific performance levels still eludes researchers.
Influences on Team Performance
Positive influences on team performances
- Select individuals who are more capable of performing well in a team
- Different team compositions better facilitate different types of performance
- Training individual team skills and training teams together encourages better individual and team performance
- Teams that are more cohesive demonstrate better performance than less cohesive teams
- Better teamwork increases the likelihood of recovery and survival in the event of a malfunction or error
- Members of more cohesive teams demonstrate better individual performance and report more physical and psychological resilience under duress
- Individuals and teams perform better and maintain high performance and good health longer when they adapt more quickly and effectively to the stressors that are inherent in a psychosocial environment
- Psychosocial factors that influence teamwork and performance in traditional work environments appear in the space exploration work environment
Negative influences on team performances
- Negative consequences (e.g., incomplete objectives, lost time) that are related to interpersonal stressors such as isolation, confinement, danger, monotony, inappropriate workload, lack of control group composition-related tensions, personality conflicts, and leadership issues have been observed on previous long-duration missions
- Interpersonal stressors, which are cumulative over time, pose a greater threat to performance and team success as work duration increases
Long-duration space flights are so physically, mentally and emotionally demanding that simply selecting individual crew members who have the "right stuff" is insufficient. Training and supporting optimal performance is more effective than simply selecting high performers. Training team skills and supporting optimal performance entails more than educating astronauts about the technical aspects of the job, it also requires equipping those astronauts with the resources that are needed to maintain psychological and physical health during long-duration spaceflight missions.
Developing the right kind of training for team skills is further complicated by operational issues. Not all tasks that will or may be encountered can be anticipated. Unexpected tasks can, and have, arise suddenly. Team training needs to be broad and flexible enough to support these unexpected performance requirements.
Group cohesiveness has been defined as the strength of members' motivations to stay in the group. Leon Festinger cited three primary characteristics that define team cohesion: interpersonal attraction, task commitment and group pride. Studies to determine the strength or willingness of individuals to stick together and act as a unit have most consistently assessed the level of conflict, degree of interpersonal tensions, facility and quality of communications, collective perceptions of team health and performance of the group, and the extent to which team members share perceptions or understandings concerning their operational context.
Researchers at the U.S. Army Research Institute (ARI) noted in their recent review of cohesion as a construct, that the definitions of cohesion is ambiguous; therefore, the means of measuring cohesion is complex. The ARI authors concluded that "cohesion can best be conceptualized as a multidimensional construct consisting of numerous factors representing interpersonal and task dynamics. There is a large body of ground-based evidence showing cohesion influences levels of performance, but this evidence is primarily correlational rather than causal.
Cohesive teams are more productive than less cohesive teams. This situation could be because
- more productive teams become more cohesive,
- more cohesive teams become more productive.
Teams preserve their cohesion when they succeed rather than fail. Therefore, applied scientists advise it is important to promote three essential conditions for team performance:
- ability (knowledge and skills) - Team members need to have sufficient levels of interpersonal and technical skills to perform their jobs and to attain team objectives.
- motivation - Team members must also be motivated to use their knowledge and skills to achieve shared goals.
- coordination strategy - Team context (organizational context, team design, and team culture) must create conditions to avoid problems such as social loafing, free riding, or diffusion of responsibility.
These kinds of problems undermine team performance and can have detrimental effects on team cohesion (Thompson, 2002).
Research shows that cohesive teams tend to sit closer to each other, focus more attention on each other, show signs of mutual affection, display coordinated patterns of behavior as well as give due credit to their partners. Non-cohesive teams are more likely to take credit for successes and blame others for mistakes and failures. It is important to differentiate between team cohesiveness and individual morale. An individual who has low morale can influence team cohesion, but it may be possible for a team to remain cohesive even with low-morale members.
Psychosocial experts within the spaceflight community have articulated their concern that interpersonal conflicts and lack of cohesion will impede the abilities of crews to perform tasks accurately, efficiently, or in a coordinated manner during long-duration missions.
From the evidence, it cannot be said that lack of team cohesion is statistically likely to result in numerous performance errors or an observable failure, but it does seem likely that ignoring the relationship between cohesion and performance will result in sub-optimal performance. We know that many factors contribute to how cohesion is built and encouraged within a team, and we know that cohesion is positively related to better performance. Research cannot effectively determine in a reasonable amount of time what minimum level of cohesion is required to avoid catastrophic failure. Instead of investing research and time in such an endeavor, funding would be better used to test and identify effective means of building cohesion and promoting optimal performance in a long-duration mission context.
Although the astronaut candidate selection process screens for individuals with personality or mood disorders, certain disorders (i.e. poor psychosocial adaptation) may develop due to poor cohesion and/or support is a concern that could ultimately decrease performance in space flight crews.
Although spaceflight evidence regarding cohesion and performance is limited by the scarcity of objective team performance data, case studies, interviews and surveys have been conducted within the spaceflight community that have provided evidence that issues pertaining to cohesion exist and are perceived as threats to effective operations. For example, breakdowns in team coordination, resource and informational exchanges, and role conflicts (all common indicators of poor team cohesion) were mentioned as contributors to both the Challenger and the Columbia space shuttle accidents. Likewise, interviews and surveys of flight controllers indicate that mission teams are commonly concerned with team member coordination and communications, and that interpersonal conflicts and tensions do exist.
Because of a lack of empirical evidence from spaceflight research, much of the evidence surrounding cohesion and performance comes from non-space domains such as aviation, medicine, the military, and space analogs. Some reports have estimated that "crew error" in aviation contributes 65% to 70% of all serious accidents. The resulting accident investigations and mishap reports note poor teamwork, communication, coordination, and tactical decision-making as significant causal factors in mishap samples and team breakdowns are repeatedly implicated in accidents. Interpersonal conflicts, miscommunications, failures to communicate, and poor teamwork skills have been shown to contribute significantly to the rate of errors in the medical field.
Meta-analyses conducted in various industries and types of performance teams (work, military, sport, educational, etc.) provide additional ground-based evidence that cohesion is related to performance. The authors of these meta-analyses (Evans and Dion found a positive correlation between cohesion and individual performance, but did not include group performance criterion measures. Mullen and Copper found that cohesion positively affects performance. They also found that this relationship was stronger in real teams verses ad hoc teams, in small teams verses large teams as well as in field studies. Mullen and Copper also noted that successful performance also promotes cohesion and numerous performance outcomes including individual and group performance, behavioral health, job satisfaction, readiness to perform, and absence of discipline problems.
In the later meta-analyses, it was found that as work required more collaboration, the cohesion-performance relationship became stronger and highly cohesive teams became more likely to perform better than less-cohesive teams. This conclusion coincides with Thompson's cumulated field study finding that cohesion facilitates team processes and team coordination among work teams in various industrial settings.
A significant positive relationship between performance and the generalized beliefs of team members concerning the capabilities of their team across different situations. Although most research on team cohesion and performance concentrate on the positive aspects of team attitudes, some have investigated the level of conflict and negative attitudes concerning the team as indicators of cohesion. De Dreu and Weingart noted an important distinction between interpersonal conflict and task conflict (defined, interpersonal conflicts are about relationship issues, whereas task conflicts are about how to handle tasks).
Interpersonal conflict is generally detrimental to team cohesion, and, in turn, is destructive to team performance. While team members may correct each other, offer alternatives and argue about how to solve a problem, some level of task-related conflict can promote optimal performance. In contrast, interpersonal and task-related aspects of cohesion are generally found to influence performance positively. A study conducted with Canadian military groups showed that task-related cohesion was positively related to individual job satisfaction, interpersonal cohesion was negatively related to reports of psychological distress, and both types of cohesion were positively related to job performance.
Research conducted on Antarctic space analogs investigated conflict, cohesion and performance. It was found that:
- Inter-member hostility was related to the poor ratings of member effectiveness
- Team members' perceptions of status contributed to conflicts and reduced perceptions of cohesion
- Positive team climate and cohesion helped to reduce interpersonal tensions, contributing to work satisfaction
This last point was studied over a ten-year period, modeling individual and group effects on adaptation to life in an extreme environment using multilevel analysis (Category III).
The military and aviation industries have focused more on task cohesion and shared mental models (SMMs) in their cohesion studies. SMMs refer to implicit agreements in team member expectations concerning how things work and what behaviors will result in various conditions and were proposed to characterize cohesive work teams. Studies that compare performance during simulated operations and training note that
- Members of high-performing teams coordinate with one another frequently to establish, maintain and adapt SMMs as the situation evolves.
- Teams that have little to no training on developing or coordinating SMMs demonstrate more errors and are less productive as compared to teams that have received training on building SMMs
Leadership and cohesion
Leadership, or the ability to influence others toward achieving group goals, may also play a role in team cohesion. Although there is an abundance of research that exists for this topic, much of it is complex and conflicting and the findings are often mixed. Many studies are at the individual level and may not generalize to the spaceflight setting. Studies have shown a supporting relationship between different types of leadership styles, individual performance and morale.
- Ball, John R.; Charles H. Evans, Jr.; Committee on Creating a Vision for Space Medicine during Travel Beyond Earth Orbit; Institute of Medicine's Board on Health Sciences Policy (2001). Safe passage : astronaut care for exploration missions ([Online-Ausg.] ed.). Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. ISBN 978-0-309-07585-5.
- Hackman, RJ (29 April 1996). "Team performance in aeronautical and space environments" (PDF). NASA-CR-200947. Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, Calif.: NASA. Cite journal requires
- Helmreich, RL (31 May 1985). "Determinants of individual and group performance" (PDF). NASA-Ames Agreement NAD 2-137. NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, Calif.: NASA (NASA-CR–181178).
- NASA. "Effects of confinement, social isolation, and diurnal disruption of crew adjustment and performance in long duration space missions" (PDF). NASA Order T-1082-K: NASA/JSC-CR-188280. Johnson Space Center, Houston: NASA.
- Paletz, SBF; Kaiser, M (2007). "Behavioral health and performance: technical gap analysis white papers". NASA-TM-2009-215381. NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, Calif.: NASA. Cite journal requires
- Vinograd, SP (1974). Studies of social group dynamics under isolated conditions. Objective summary of the literature as it related to potential problems of long duration space flight (PDF) (NASA/JSC-CR-2496 ed.). Johnson Space Center, Houston: NASA.
- Lautman, LG; Gallimore, PL (1987). "Control of crew-caused accidents: results of a 12-operator survey". Airliner. Air Line Pilots Association. 56 (10): 1–6. OCLC 2251072.
- Hollnagel, edited by Erik; Woods, David D.; Leveson, Nancy (2006). Resilience engineering : concepts and precepts. Quality & Safety in Health Care. 15 (Reprinted. ed.). Burlington, VT: Ashgate. pp. 447–448. doi:10.1136/qshc.2006.018390. ISBN 978-0754646419. PMC 2464899.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
- Dismukes, RK; Berman, BA; Loukopoulos, LD (2007). The limits of expertise : rethinking pilot error and the causes of airline accidents ([Online-Ausg.] ed.). Aldershot [u.a.]: Ashgate. ISBN 978-0754649656.
- Rodriguez, Donna; Patel, Rita; Bright, Andrea; Gregory, Donna; Gowing, Marilyn K. (2002). "Developing competency models to promote integrated human resource practices". Human Resource Management. 41 (3): 309–324. doi:10.1002/hrm.10043.
- Caldwell, BS (June 2005). "Multi-team dynamics and distributed expertise in imission operations". Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine. 76 (6 Suppl): B145–53. PMID 15943207.
- Galarza, L; Holland, A (July 1999). "Critical astronaut proficiencies for long-duration space missions". Paper Presented at the International Conference on Environmental Systems. SAE Technical Paper Series. Denver, CO. 1. doi:10.4271/1999-01-2096.
- Holland, A (2000). "Psychology of human spaceflight". JHPEE. 5: 4–20.
- Nicholas, JM; Foushee, HC (Sep–Oct 1990). "Organization, selection, and training of crews for extended spaceflight: findings from analogs and implications". Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets. 27 (5): 451–6. Bibcode:1990JSpRo..27..451N. doi:10.2514/3.26164. PMID 11537615.
- McFadden, TJ; Helmreich, RL; Rose, RM; Fogg, LF (October 1994). "Predicting astronaut effectiveness: a multivariate approach". Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine. 65 (10 Pt 1): 904–9. PMID 7832731.
- Santy, Patricia A. (1994). Choosing the right stuff : the psychological selection of astronauts and cosmonauts (1. publ. ed.). Westport, Conn. u.a.: Praeger. ISBN 978-0275942366.
- Kanas, N; Manzey, D (2008). Space psychology and psychiatry (2nd ed.). Dordrecht: Springer. ISBN 978-1402067693.
- Sandal, GM (1998). "The effects of personality and interpersonal relations on crew performance during space simulation studies". Life Support & Biosphere Science: International Journal of Earth Space. 5 (4): 461–70. PMID 11871456.
- Jones, R; Stevens, MJ; Fischer, D (2000). "Selection in team contexts". In Kehoe, J (ed.). Managing selection in changing organizations: human resource strategies. San Francisco, Calif: Josey-Bass.
- Bell, Suzanne T. (January 2007). "Deep-level composition variables as predictors of team performance: A meta-analysis". Journal of Applied Psychology. 92 (3): 595–615. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.92.3.595. PMID 17484544.
- Barrick, MR; Stewart, GL; Neubert MJ; Mount, MK (June 1998). "Relating member ability and personality to work-team processes and team effectiveness" (PDF). Journal of Applied Psychology. 83 (3): 377–391. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.83.3.377.
- Chidester, TR; Helmreich, RL; Gregorich, SE; Geis, CE (1991). "Pilot personality and crew coordination: implications for training and selection". International Journal of Aviation Psychology. 1 (1): 25–44. doi:10.1207/s15327108ijap0101_3. PMID 11539104.
- Stuster, Jack (1996). Bold endeavors : lessons from polar and space exploration (1st Naval Institute Press pbk. ed.). Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 978-1591148302.
- Allen, NJ; West, MA (2005). "Selection for teams". In Evers, A; Anderson, N; Voskuijl, O (eds.). Handbook of Personnel Selection. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing. pp. 476–494.
- Barry, B; Stewart, GL (February 1997). "Composition, process, and performance in self-managed groups: the role of personality". The Journal of Applied Psychology. 82 (1): 62–78. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.82.1.62. PMID 9119798.
- Harrison, D. A.; Price, K. H.; Bell, M. P. (1 February 1998). "Beyond Relational Demography: Time and the Effects of Surface- and Deep-Level Diversity on Work Group Cohesion". Academy of Management Journal. 41 (1): 96–107. doi:10.2307/256901. JSTOR 256901.
- McGrath, Joseph E. (1984). Groups : interaction and performance (PDF). Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. ISBN 978-0133657005.
- Edwards, BD; Day, EA; Arthur W, Jr; Bell, ST (May 2006). "Relationships among team ability composition, team mental models, and team performance". The Journal of Applied Psychology. 91 (3): 727–36. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.91.3.727. PMID 16737368.
- Schmidt, LL; Wood, J; Lugg, DJ (August 2004). "Team climate at Antarctic research stations 1996-2000: leadership matters". Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine. 75 (8): 681–7. PMID 15328785.
- Mannix, E.; Neale, M. A. (1 October 2005). "What Differences Make a Difference?: The Promise and Reality of Diverse Teams in Organizations". Psychological Science in the Public Interest. 6 (2): 31–55. doi:10.1111/j.1529-1006.2005.00022.x. PMID 26158478.
- Hirschfeld, RR; Jordan, MH; Feild, HS; Giles, WF; Armenakis, AA (March 2006). "Becoming team players: team members' mastery of teamwork knowledge as a predictor of team task proficiency and observed teamwork effectiveness". The Journal of Applied Psychology. 91 (2): 467–74. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.91.2.467. PMID 16551197.
- Paris, CR; Salas, E; Cannon-Bowers, JA (August 2000). "Teamwork in multi-person systems: a review and analysis" (PDF). Ergonomics. 43 (8): 1052–75. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.208.8301. doi:10.1080/00140130050084879. PMID 10975173.
- Salas, E; Rhodenizer, L; Bowers, CA (2000). "The design and delivery of crew resource management training: exploiting available resources". Human Factors. 42 (3): 490–511. doi:10.1518/001872000779698196. PMID 11132810.
- Grice, RL; Katz, LC (2005). Cohesion in sports and organizational psychology: an annotated bibliography and suggestions for U.S. Army Aviation. Arlington, Va.: Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences.
- Baker, David P.; Day, Rachel; Salas, Eduardo (1 August 2006). "Teamwork as an Essential Component of High-Reliability Organizations". Health Services Research. 41 (4p2): 1576–1598. doi:10.1111/j.1475-6773.2006.00566.x. PMC 1955345. PMID 16898980.
- Shapiro, M J (December 2004). "Simulation based teamwork training for emergency department staff: does it improve clinical team performance when added to an existing didactic teamwork curriculum?" (PDF). Quality and Safety in Health Care. 13 (6): 417–421. doi:10.1136/qshc.2003.005447. PMC 1743923. PMID 15576702.
- Kidwell, R. E.; Mossholder, KW; Bennett, N (December 1997). "Cohesiveness and Organizational Citizenship Behavior: A Multilevel Analysis Using Work Groups and Individuals". Journal of Management. 23 (6): 775–793. doi:10.1177/014920639702300605.
- Podsakoff, PM; MacKenzie, SB; Ahearne, M (1997). "Moderating effects of goal acceptance on the relationship between group cohesiveness and productivity". Journal of Applied Psychology. 82 (6): 374–383. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.82.6.374.
- Vallacher, R; Seymore, G; Gunderson, E (1974). Relationship between cohesiveness and effectiveness in small isolated groups: a field study (Report 74-50 ed.). San Diego, CA: U.S. Naval Research Center.
- Gunderson, EK (March 1966). "Adaptation to extreme environments: prediction of performance. Rep No. 66-17" (PDF). Report - Navy Medical Neuropsychiatric Research Unit: 1–41. PMID 5938304.
- Lugg, DJ (1977). Physiological adaptation and health of an expedition in Antarctica, with comment on behavioral adaptation. Vol. 126. Canberra, ACT, Australia: Australian Government Publishing Service.
- Riggio, Ronald E.; Watring, Kristin P.; Throckmorton, Barbara (1993). "Social skills, social support, and psychosocial adjustment". Personality and Individual Differences. 15 (3): 275–280. doi:10.1016/0191-8869(93)90217-Q.
- Kanas, N; Salnitskiy, V; Grund, EM; Gushin, V; Weiss, DS; Kozerenko, O; Sled, A; Marmar, CR (September 2000). "Interpersonal and cultural issues involving crews and ground personnel during Shuttle/Mir space missions". Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine. 71 (9 Suppl): A11–6. PMID 10993303.
- Kanas, N; Manzey, D (2003). Space psychology and psychiatry. El Segundo, Calif: Microcosm Press.
- Cropanzano, R; Rupp, DE; Byrne, ZS (February 2003). "The relationship of emotional exhaustion to work attitudes, job performance, and organizational citizenship behaviors". The Journal of Applied Psychology. 88 (1): 160–9. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.88.1.160. PMID 12675403.
- Halbesleben, JR; Bowler, WM (January 2007). "Emotional exhaustion and job performance: the mediating role of motivation". The Journal of Applied Psychology. 92 (1): 93–106. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.92.1.93. PMID 17227154.
- Rasmussen, Thomas H.; Jeppesen, Hans Jeppe (April 2006). "Teamwork and associated psychological factors: A review". Work & Stress. 20 (2): 105–128. doi:10.1080/02678370600920262.
- Staal, MA (2004). Stress, cognition, and human performance: a literature review and conceptual framework (PDF) (NASA/JSC-TM-2004-212824 ed.). Johnson Space Center, Houston: NASA.
- You, JH; Lee, SJ; Lee, HK (1998). "The influence on individual's emotional characteristics on work-related burnout experience: the emotional intelligence as a mediator to experience burnout feeling". Korean J. I/O Psychology. 11 (1): 23–52.
- Flynn, CF (June 2005). "An operational approach to long-duration mission behavioral health and performance factors". Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine. 76 (6 Suppl): B42–51. PMID 15943194.
- Holland, A; Hysong, S; Galarza, L (2007). A review of training methods and instructional techniques: implications for behavioral skills training in U.S. astronauts (PDF) (TP-2007-21372 ed.). Johnson Space Center, Houston: NASA.
- Festinger, L (1950). "Informal social communication". Psychological Review. 57 (5): 175–186. doi:10.1037/h0056932. PMID 14776174.
- Thompson, JD (1967). Organizations in action. NY: McGraw-Hill.
- GUZZO, RICHARD A.; JETTE, RICHARD D.; KATZELL, RAYMOND A. (1 June 1985). "The Effects of Psychologically Based Intervention Programs on Worker Productivity: A Meta-Analysis". Personnel Psychology. 38 (2): 275–291. doi:10.1111/j.1744-6570.1985.tb00547.x.
- Arthur, W; Bennett W, Jr; Edens, PS; Bell, ST (April 2003). "Effectiveness of training in organizations: a meta-analysis of design and evaluation features". The Journal of Applied Psychology. 88 (2): 234–45. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.88.2.234. PMID 12731707.
- BRADLEY, JOHN; WHITE, BARBARA JO; MENNECKE, BRIAN E. (2003). "Teams and Tasks: A Temporal Framework for the Effects of Interpersonal Interventions on Team Performance". Small Group Research. 34 (3): 353–387. doi:10.1177/1046496403034003004.
- Powell, SM; Hill, RK (January 2006). "My copilot is a nurse--using crew resource management in the OR". AORN Journal. 83 (1): 179–80, 183–90, 193–8 passim, quiz 203–6. doi:10.1016/s0001-2092(06)60239-1. PMID 16528907.
- Burke, CS; Stagl, KC; Salas, E; Pierce, L; Kendall, D (November 2006). "Understanding team adaptation: a conceptual analysis and model". The Journal of Applied Psychology. 91 (6): 1189–207. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.91.6.1189. PMID 17100478.
- Marks, MA; Zaccaro, SJ; Mathieu, JE (December 2000). "Performance implications of leader briefings and team-interaction training for team adaptation to novel environments". The Journal of Applied Psychology. 85 (6): 971–86. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.85.6.971. PMID 11125660.
- SMITH-JENTSCH, KIMBERLY A.; SALAS, EDUARDO; BAKER, DAVID P. (1 December 1996). "Training Team Performance-Related Assertiveness". Personnel Psychology. 49 (4): 909–936. doi:10.1111/j.1744-6570.1996.tb02454.x.
- Morgeson, FP; DeRue, DS (2006). "Event criticality, urgency, and duration: understanding how events disrupt teams and influence team leader intervention" (PDF). Leader Q. 17 (3): 271–287. doi:10.1016/j.leaqua.2006.02.006.
- Espevik, Roar; Johnsen, Bjørn Helge; Eid, Jarle; Thayer, Julian F. (1 July 2006). "Shared Mental Models and Operational Effectiveness: Effects on Performance and Team Processes in Submarine Attack Teams". Military Psychology. 18 (sup3): S23–S36. doi:10.1207/s15327876mp1803s_3.
- Balkundi, P; Harrison, DA (2006). "Ties, leaders, and time in teams: strong inference about network structure's effects on team viability and performance" (PDF). Academy of Management Journal. 49 (1): 49–68. doi:10.5465/amj.2006.20785500. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-10-30.
- Espinosa, J. A.; Slaughter, S. A.; Kraut, R. E.; Herbsleb, J. D. (July 2007). "Familiarity, Complexity, and Team Performance in Geographically Distributed Software Development". Organization Science. 18 (4): 613–630. doi:10.1287/orsc.1070.0297.
- Columbia accident investigation board report. Washington, D.C: NASA. 2003. Archived from the original on 2006-01-05.
- Frontiers of space exploration (2 ed.). Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press. 2004. ISBN 978-0313325243.
- Parke, B; Oransu, J; Castle, R; Hanley, J (2005). "Identifying organizational vulnerabilities in space operations with collaborative, tailored, anonymous surveys". International Association for the Advancement of Space Safety Conference. Nice, France. 599: 577. Bibcode:2005ESASP.599..577P.
- Sumwalt, R; Watson, A (2001). "What ASRS incident data tell about flight crew performance during aircraft malfunctions". Eighth International Symposium on Aviation Psychology. Columbus, Ohio.
- NTSB. "A review of flightcrew-involved, major accidents of U.S. Air Carriers, 1978-1990". NTSB Report No. PB 94-917001, NTSB/SS-94/01. Washington, DC: NTSB.
- Merket, D; Bergondy, M (2000). "Making sense out of team performance errors in military aviation environments". Transport. Hum. Factors. 1 (3): 231–242. doi:10.1207/sthf0103_4.
- Nagel, D (1988). "Human error in aviation operations". In Weiner, E; Nagel, D (eds.). Human factors in aviation. NY: Academic Press. pp. 263–303.
- McKeon, LM; Oswaks, JD; Cunningham, PD (Nov–Dec 2006). "Safeguarding patients: complexity science, high reliability organizations, and implications for team training in healthcare". Clinical Nurse Specialist. 20 (6): 298–304, quiz 305–6. doi:10.1097/00002800-200611000-00011. PMID 17149021.
- Evans, C. R.; Dion, K. L. (May 1991). "Group Cohesion and Performance: A Meta-Analysis". Small Group Research. 22 (2): 175–186. doi:10.1177/1046496491222002.
- Mullen, Brian; Copper, Carolyn (January 1994). "The relation between group cohesiveness and performance: An integration". Psychological Bulletin. 115 (2): 210–227. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.115.2.210.
- Beal, DJ; Cohen, RR; Burke, MJ; McLendon, CL (December 2003). "Cohesion and performance in groups: a meta-analytic clarification of construct relations". The Journal of Applied Psychology. 88 (6): 989–1004. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.88.6.989. PMID 14640811.
- Oliver, Laurel W.; Harman, Joan; Hoover, Elizabeth; Hayes, Stephanie M.; Pandhi, Nancy A. (1 March 1999). "A Quantitative Integration of the Military Cohesion Literature". Military Psychology. 11 (1): 57–83. doi:10.1207/s15327876mp1101_4.
- Ahronson, Arni; Cameron, James E. (2 April 2007). "The Nature and Consequences of Group Cohesion in a Military Sample". Military Psychology. 19 (1): 9–25. doi:10.1080/08995600701323277.
- Bowers, CA; Salas, E; Asberg, K; Burke, S; Priest, H; Milham, L (2002). Combat readiness and stress: Laboratory investigations of teams. Department of Defense Multidisciplinary Research Program: MURI Operator Performance Under Stress (OPUS).
- Driskell, James E.; Salas, Eduardo; Johnston, Joan (1 January 1999). "Does stress lead to a loss of team perspective?" (PDF). Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice. 3 (4): 291–302. doi:10.1037/1089-26188.8.131.521.
- Gully, SM; Incalcaterra, KA; Joshi, A; Beauien, JM (October 2002). "A meta-analysis of team-efficacy, potency, and performance: interdependence and level of analysis as moderators of observed relationships". The Journal of Applied Psychology. 87 (5): 819–32. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.87.5.819. PMID 12395807.
- De Dreu, CK; Weingart, LR (August 2003). "Task versus relationship conflict, team performance, and team member satisfaction: a meta-analysis". The Journal of Applied Psychology. 88 (4): 741–9. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.88.4.741. PMID 12940412.
- Jehn, KA; Mennix, EA (2001). "The dynamic nature of conflict: a longitudunal study of intragroup conflict and performance" (PDF). Academy of Management Journal. 44 (2): 238–251. doi:10.2307/3069453. JSTOR 3069453.
- Dutta Roy, D; Deb, NC. Role stress profiles of scientist and defence ersonnel in fifteenth Antarctic expedition, Vol. 13 (PDF). Goa.: National Centre for Antarctic and Ocean Research, Department of Ocean Development.
- Wood, J; Schmidt, L; Lugg, D; Ayton, J; Phillips, T; Shepanek, M (June 2005). "Life, survival, and behavioral health in small closed communities: 10 years of studying isolated Antarctic groups". Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine. 76 (6 Suppl): B89–93. PMID 15943201.
- Wech, Barbara A. (2002). Team-member exchange and trust contexts : effects on individual level outcome variables beyond the influence of leader-member exchange. Ann Arbor, MI: UMI Dissertation Services. ISBN 978-0493329956.
- Avolio, BJ; Sosik, JJ; Jung, DI; Berson, Y; Borman, WC; Ilgen, DR; et al. (2003). "Leadership models, methods, and applications" (PDF). Handbook of Psychology: Industrial and Organization Psychology, Vol. 12. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons, Inc. 12: 277–307. doi:10.1002/0471264385.wei1212. ISBN 978-0471264385. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-12-24.
- Den Hartog, DN; Koopman, PL; Anderson, N; Ones, DS; Sinangil, HK; Viswesvaran, C (2002). "Leadership in organizations" (PDF). Handbook of Industrial, Work and Organizational Psychology, Vol 2: Organizational Psychology. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc. 2: 166–187. doi:10.4135/9781848608368.n10. ISBN 9780761964896.
- Howell, Jane M.; Avolio, Bruce J. (1 January 1993). "Transformational leadership, transactional leadership, locus of control, and support for innovation: Key predictors of consolidated-business-unit performance". Journal of Applied Psychology. 78 (6): 891–902. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.78.6.891.