Taiwanese Braille

Taiwanese Braille is the braille script used in Taiwan for Taiwanese Mandarin (Guoyu).[1] Although based marginally on international braille, the majority of consonants have been reassigned;[2] also, like Chinese Braille, Taiwanese Braille is a semi-syllabary.

Taiwanese Braille
Type
LanguagesStandard Mandarin
Parent systems
Night writing
Print basis
Zhuyin

An example is,

ㄨㄛˊˇㄧㄢˇˋˋˋ
guódiǎnhào

Charts

Initials

Zhuyin
Pinyin bpmfdtnlgkhjqxzhchshrzcs
Braille

The braille letters for zhuyin/pinyin ㄍ g (/k/), ㄘ c (/tsʰ/), and ㄙ s (/s/) double for the alveolo-palatal consonantsj (/tɕ/), ㄑ q (/tɕʰ/), and ㄒ x (/ɕ/).[3] The latter are followed by close front vowels, namely ㄧ i (/i/) and ㄩ ü (/y/), so the distinction between g, c, s (or z, k, h) and j, q, x in zhuyin and pinyin is redundant.

Medial + rime

Each medial + rime in zhuyin is written with a single letter in braille.

Zhuyin /ㄦ
Pinyin -i/eraoeêaieiaoouanenangeng
Braille
Zhuyin ㄧㄚㄧㄛㄧㄝㄧㄞㄧㄠㄧㄡㄧㄢㄧㄣㄧㄤㄧㄥ
Pinyin iiaioieiaiiaoiuianinianging
Braille
Zhuyin ㄨㄚㄨㄛㄨㄞㄨㄟㄨㄢㄨㄣㄨㄤㄨㄥ
Pinyin uuauouaiuiuanunuangong
Braille
Zhuyin ㄩㄝㄩㄢㄩㄣㄩㄥ
Pinyin üüeüanüniong
Braille

is used for both the empty rime -i ([ɨ]), which is not written in zhuyin, and the rime ㄦ er ([ɐɚ]). See for example 斯 () located above the word Daguerre in the image at right.

Tone Marks

Tone:12340
Zhuyin naˊˇˋ˙
Pinyin ˉˊˇˋna
Braille

Tone is always marked.[4] This includes toneless syllables such as 了 le, rendered in the image above-right.

Punctuation marks

Punctuation[5]

Print
Braille
Print __﹏﹏……—— ——
Braille
Print 「 」『 』( )〔 〕{ }
Braille

References

  1. Not for Taiwanese Hokkien, which commonly goes by the name "Taiwanese"
  2. Only p m d n g c a e ê ü (from p m d n k j ä è dropped-e ü) approximate the French norm. Other letters have been reassigned so that the sets of letters in groups such as d t n l and g k h are similar in shape.
  3. [sic] One might expect ㄐ j (/tɕ/) to pair with ㄗ z (/ts/), by analogy with the others. Compare here, where the character 學 xué is rendered "süé". Historically it could have been either. The principal behind the assignments seems to be that, of the historically appropriate pairs of letters g~z, k~c, and h~s, the letter with the fewer dots is used for j, q, x.
  4. http://www.languagehat.com/archives/003051.php
  5. 萬明美, 2001, 「視障教育」, 五南圖書出版股份有限公司, p. 74 ff
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