TVOntario (often shortened to TVO and stylized on-air as tvo) is a Canadian publicly funded English language educational television station and media organization serving the Canadian province of Ontario. It is operated by the Ontario Educational Communications Authority, a Crown corporation owned by the Government of Ontario. It operates the television station CICA-DT (virtual and UHF digital channel 19) in Toronto, which also relays programming across portions of Ontario through eight rebroadcast stations. All pay television (cable, satellite, IPTV) providers throughout Ontario are required to carry TVO on their basic tier, and programming can be streamed for free online.

CityToronto, Ontario
SloganNever Stop Learning
ChannelsDigital: see below
OwnerOntario Educational Communications Authority
(Government of Ontario)
First air dateSeptember 27, 1970
Call letters' meaningCICA: CI Communications Authority
CICO: CI Communications Ontario
Sister station(s)TFO
Transmitter powersee below
Heightsee below
Transmitter coordinatessee below
Licensing authorityCRTC

Governance, funding and other responsibilities

TVO is governed by a volunteer Board of Directors, and supported by a network of Regional Councillors from across the province. TVO also reports to the Ontario legislature through the Minister of Education, in accordance with the Ontario Educational Communications Authority Act.

Instead of following the model of the federally owned Canadian Broadcasting Corporation's television services, which shows commercial advertisements, TVO chose a commercial-free model similar to the Public Broadcasting Service in the United States. (In fact, various TVO productions wound up being aired on PBS.) This model was emulated by later provincial educational broadcasters Télé-Québec in Quebec and Knowledge Network in British Columbia. The majority of TVO's funding is provided by the Government of Ontario through the Ministry of Education, which provides $39 million annually, with additional funding provided by charitable donations.[1]

TVO is also responsible for over-the-air broadcasts of the Ontario Legislative Assembly in some remote Northern Ontario communities that do not receive cable television access to the Ontario Parliament Network.

In 2002, the Ministry of Education transferred responsibility for the Independent Learning Centre, the agency which provides distance education at the elementary and secondary school level to TVO.

TVO used to operate TFO (Télévision française de l'Ontario), a separate but similar network for Franco-Ontarian audiences. Before the launch of TFO, TVO aired French-language programming on Sundays. Even after TFO's launch, TVO and TFO swapped programming on Sundays well into the 1990s. TFO was separated from TVO and was incorporated under the newly formed GroupeMédia TFO, a separate Crown corporation of the Government of Ontario, in 2007.

In 2017 and 2018, TVOntario launched four regional "hubs", featuring journalism on issues in the various regions of Ontario, on its website.[2] Hubs are currently based in Thunder Bay for the Northwestern Ontario region, Sudbury for Northeastern Ontario, Kingston for Eastern Ontario, and London for Southwestern Ontario.[3] In 2019, the service also launched an Indigenous hub to cover First Nations issues throughout the province.[4]


TVO is Canada's oldest educational television service. It established the country's first UHF television station in 1970, based in Toronto.[5] TVO used to have the largest over-the-air coverage in Ontario, reaching 98.5% of the province with 216 transmitters; however this is no longer the case as the broadcaster shuttered the majority of its analogue transmitters except those located in some mandatory markets, which were converted to digital in 2011 (see Digital television and high definition below). TVO is carried on all cable systems serving Ontario (the alternative choice for those viewers in area that has been served by one of the service's defunct analogue transmitters). On satellite systems in Ontario, it is available in standard definition only on Bell TV on channel 265 and on Shaw Direct on 353 (on its Classic tier) or 55 (on its Advanced tier), and in high definition on channel 39 (Classic) or 539 (Advanced).

The main transmitter in Toronto uses the call sign CICA, with its rebroadcasters using CICO followed by a number to denote their status as rebroadcasters. Many analogue transmitters used CICA-TV and CICO-TV callsigns, in addition to CICE-TV, until the shutdown of TVO's remaining analogue transmitters on July 31, 2012.

TVO's transmitters are primarily located in Ontario, with the only exception being its Ottawa transmitter, CICO-DT-24, which is based at Camp Fortune in Chelsea, Quebec. There, it shares its site with its Quebec counterpart, Télé-Québec, and with most of the region's television and FM radio signals.

From the 1970s through the 1990s, TVO ran top-of-the-hour bumpers where an announcer would mention the channel allocation of the service's flagship station in Toronto, along with an allocation for one of its rebroadcast transmitters: "This is TVOntario. Channel 19 in Toronto, channel XX in (city or town)."

TVO initially announced plans in 2017 to decommission its transmitters in Ottawa, Belleville, Chatham, Cloyne, Kitchener, London, Thunder Bay and Windsor – keeping only CICA-DT in Toronto to fulfill license criteria – in an effort to cut costs by $1 million. Following negative reactions from TVO viewers and donors, the towns and cities affected, and advocacy groups such as Friends of Canadian Broadcasting the decision was reversed and the Government of Ontario agreed to increase its funding of TVO by $1 million.[6]

Carriage dispute

On June 6, 2012, TVO dropped its signal from cable and satellite providers outside Ontario, due to a carriage dispute over compensation for distributing its signal to its subscribers outside the province. The network reached an agreement with Vidéotron, and then entered negotiations with Shaw Communications and Telus, but failed to reach an agreement with Bell Canada. TVO cited that: "...we believe that we have a responsibility to earn revenues from the sale of our service outside of our home province. TVO is willing to consent to cable and satellite distributors carrying our signal outside the province, provided that we're fairly compensated. Since cable or satellite distributors receive subscriber revenues driven by having TVO as part of their offering, we feel it's reasonable to be compensated. Unfortunately, we could not come to an agreement with Bell to compensate TVO for carrying our signal outside of Ontario, and the decision was made to cease offering our signal outside of Ontario."[7] As a result, the only cable and satellite customers outside Ontario that can still view TVO are on the Quebec side of the Ottawa/Gatineau market.

It is unknown if the dispute or carriage restrictions also apply to the few cable systems in the United States that carry TVO.[8]



The Ontario Educational Communications Authority (OECA) was created in June 1970 by then Education Minister Bill Davis. At that time, the OECA produced children's and educational programming which was aired on commercial television stations.

The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, acting on behalf of OECA, applied for and won a licence for the ministry's television station in Toronto. CICA, with the mandate of "[using] electronic and associated media to provide educational opportunities for all people in Ontario". The "CA" in the CICA callsign was derived from the last two letters in the OECA acronym. CBC operated the CICA transmitter while the OECA was in charge of programming. OECA assumed all operations of the station, independent of the CBC, when the provincial government declared the Authority an independent corporation in a 1973 Order-in-Council.

CICA signed on the air on September 27, 1970, operating at a radiated power of 423,000 watts video and 84,600 watts audio. Its studio facilities were located at 1670 Bayview Avenue (a five-storey office building that is still standing) and its 550 feet (170 m) transmitter antenna was located at 354 Jarvis Street on the CBC tower. In 1972, the station moved its operations to a new studio facility at 2180 Yonge Street, where it remains.[9] The station's broadcast name was "OECA", sharing the name of its parent organization, but began using the on-air brand "TVOntario" (and later just TVO) beginning in 1974.

In the latter half of the 1970s, the network began adding rebroadcast transmitters in other Ontario communities. Its first rebroadcast transmitter, CICO (now CICO-24), signed on from Ottawa on October 25, 1975.


In 1987, TVO launched La Chaîne française, a French-language public television network which became TFO in 1994. In 1995, the Ontario government under Mike Harris promised to privatize TVO. They never carried through on this plan, but did cut its budget.


The positions of chair and CEO were divided in 2005. Film producer Peter O'Brian was appointed chairman and Lisa de Wilde became CEO. On June 29, 2006, the provincial Ministry of Education announced a major overhaul of TVO: its production capabilities would be upgraded to fully digital systems by 2009 (ministry funding would be allocated for this); and TFO would be spun off into a separate organization.[10]

Moreover, programming changes were announced later that day: thirteen hours of new weekly children's educational programming was added, Studio 2 was replaced by The Agenda, and More to Life and Vox were cancelled.[11] The move to digitize services represents a transition; The Globe and Mail quoted TVO CEO Lisa de Wilde saying “while television will remain an important medium for TVO, the days of defining ourselves as only a broadcaster are past.”[12]

In 2002, the Independent Learning Centre, which is responsible for distance education at the elementary and secondary school level, and for GED testing, was transferred from the Ministry of Education to TVO.[13]

Chairs and CEOs

The positions of Chair of the Board and CEO were divided in 2005




TVO airs a mixture of original children's programming, documentaries, scripted dramas, and public affairs programs.

Children's programming is aired daily during a daytime television block branded as TVOKids, with the remainder programming aired during primetime and night time hours for adult viewers. Scripted dramas are typically foreign imports, past selections include the Danish political drama Borgen and the British police procedural New Tricks. TVO's first original drama series was Hard Rock Medical, a medical drama set in Sudbury, which aired from 2013 to 2018. Public affairs programming includes the flagship daily current affairs show The Agenda and an overnight rebroadcast of the Legislative Assembly of Ontario's Question Period from the Ontario Parliament Network.

All TVO programming is aired in English or in another language with English subtitles. French-language programs were previously shown on Sundays, from noon until sign-off, for the benefit of Franco-Ontarian viewers. The establishment of French counterpart network Télévision française de l'Ontario (TFO) led to the discontinuation of French-language programming on TVO by the mid-1990s.

Former programming

Earlier in TVO's history, all dramatic programming was required to have some educational content. Therefore actors, journalists or writers were hired to provide commentary on shows aired by TVO that would place them within an educational context. For instance Tom Grattan's War was bookmarked by segments hosted by Andrea Martin that would use scenes from the series to discuss filmmaking techniques. Episodes of The Prisoner were hosted by journalist Warner Troyer whose segments included interviews with the actors and a discussion of various psychological, philosophical or sociological themes regarding the series.[14] Similarly Doctor Who was hosted by science fiction author Judith Merril who would discuss each week's episode to explore various themes in science and science fiction. Saturday Night at the Movies continued to follow this format long after the requirement was dropped because of the popularity of its host, Elwy Yost.

Digital television and high definition

In August 2010, TVO began broadcasting in high-definition via a direct-to-cable HD feed. TVO commenced over-the-air HD broadcasting in August 2011, in compliance with the CRTC regulations. Except for Belleville, Chatham and Cloyne, TVO's transmitters are located within mandatory markets for conversion. Not all digital transmitters are currently broadcasting in high definition.

Digital subchannels

Channel number Resolution Aspect ratio PSIP short name Programming
xx.11080i16:9TVOTV Ontario


TVO Digital Transmitters
Station City of licence Virtual channel Actual Channel ERP HAAT Transmitter Coordinates
CICA-DT Toronto 19.1 19 (UHF) 106.5 kW 491.0 m 43°38′33″N 79°23′14″W
CICO-DT-9 Thunder Bay 9.1 9 (VHF) 4.5 kW 218.7 m 48°33′2″N 89°13′25″W
CICO-DT-18 London 18.1 18 (UHF) 2.4 kW 316.0 m 42°57′16″N 81°21′17″W
CICO-DT-24 Ottawa 24.1 24 (UHF) 95 kW 340.7 m 45°30′9″N 75°50′59″W
CICO-DT-28 Kitchener 28.1 28 (UHF) 20.2 kW 289.5 m 43°15′41″N 80°26′41″W
CICO-DT-32 Windsor 19.1 19 (UHF) 19 kW 214.3 m 42°9′12″N 82°57′11″W
CICO-DT-53 Belleville 26.1 26 (UHF) 13 kW 188.6 m 44°18′45″N 77°12′24″W
CICO-DT-59 Chatham 33.1 33 (UHF) 2.5 kW 218.5 m 42°27′0″N 82°4′59″W
CICO-DT-92 Cloyne 55.1 44 (UHF) 12 kW 168.7 m 44°52′42″N 77°11′50″W

On July 31, 2012, TVO permanently shut down its remaining 114 analogue transmitters (14 full-power and 100 low-power) without converting them to digital; these were in areas of Ontario not considered "mandatory markets" for digital conversion by the CRTC.[15] In many cases, TVO rebroadcasters were operating from CBC-owned transmitter sites and were shut down because of the CBC's 2012 analogue transmitter shutdown. Where TVO owned sites, it provided local communities the option of taking ownership of the towers and transmitters.[16]

Among the transmitters that were converted to digital, the transmitters in Belleville, Chatham and Cloyne were not within a mandatory market. These transmitters were converted to digital on new frequencies (but without high-definition, an on-channel programme guide or other DTV-specific features), as channels 52 to 69 were being reallocated for wireless communication purposes. The conversion of these transmitters took place before TVO's announcement to close down its analogue transmitter network outside the mandatory markets.

On January 25, 2017 TVO announced it would be shutting down eight of its nine remaining digital transmitters, leaving only CICA-DT at Toronto's CN Tower in operation to maintain their current license.[17] CEO Lisa de Wilde announced that shutting down the transmitters would save the broadcaster an estimated $1 million per year, but would also lay off seven transmitter maintenance jobs.[18] Critics of the decision, including the group Friends of Canadian Broadcasting, said that the changes would affect people who have no other options for accessing content.[19]

On February 14, TVO formally applied to the CRTC to remove its eight transmitters outside Toronto from service.[20]

In response to feedback from the towns and cities affected by the planned shutdown, as well as TVO donors and other groups, TVO reversed its decision to shut down the transmitters on February 17.[6] According to TVO, the Government of Ontario agreed to increase TVO's annual funding by $1 million to offset the amount that would have been saved by shutting down the transmitters.[21]


  1. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on February 22, 2018. Retrieved June 1, 2017.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link);;
  2. "TVO receives $2M donation to fund new Ontario journalism Hubs". TVOntario, January 11, 2017.
  3. [ "TVO to launch new Northeastern and Eastern Ontario Hubs by January 2018 to expand in-depth, on-the-ground regional journalism". TVOntario, November 3, 2017.
  4. "TVO welcomes new Ontario Hubs journalist covering Indigenous issues and perspectives". TVOntario, February 11, 2019.
  5. Keast, Ron. "Educational Broadcasting in Canada - A Brief Overview" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on September 21, 2007. Retrieved January 8, 2008.. See page 10.
  6. "TVO changes tune, keeps over-the-air transmission outside Toronto". CBC News. February 17, 2017. Archived from the original on February 17, 2017. Retrieved February 17, 2017.
  7. "TVO pulled from cable, satellite outside Ontario". June 6, 2012. Archived from the original on November 11, 2017. Retrieved March 28, 2018.
  8. Such as Comcast's cable system serving southern Oakland County, Michigan, per channel listings at, zip:"48067".
  9. "Canadian Communications Foundation - Fondation Des Communications Canadiennes". Archived from the original on October 9, 2016. Retrieved March 28, 2018.
  10. "McGuinty Government Transforms TVOntario" (PDF). Ontario Ministry of Education. June 29, 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 8, 2007. Retrieved June 29, 2006.
  11. "TVOntario to cancel Studio 2". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. June 29, 2006. Archived from the original on March 12, 2007. Retrieved June 29, 2006.
  12. "Ontario Liberals deny role in cancelling TVO news show". The Globe and Mail. June 29, 2006. Retrieved June 29, 2006.
  13. History of ILC Archived June 21, 2006, at the Wayback Machine, accessdate=2008-01-24
  14. "Patrick McGoohan Interview". Archived from the original on April 13, 2008. Retrieved March 28, 2018.
  15. Broadcasting Decision CRTC 2012-414 Archived May 31, 2013, at the Wayback Machine TVO (CICA-TV Toronto) – Licence amendment to remove all analog transmitters, CRTC, July 27, 2012
  16. "CACTUS - Tens of thousands of Canadians to lose free access to CBC TV July 31". Archived from the original on June 3, 2013. Retrieved March 28, 2018.
  17. "TVO Decommissions 8 over-the-air Transmitters". TVO News. TVOntario. January 25, 2017. Archived from the original on February 17, 2017. Retrieved February 16, 2017.
  18. Globeman, Danny (February 1, 2017). "TVO dropping over-the-air transmission outside Toronto". CBC News. Archived from the original on February 17, 2017. Retrieved February 16, 2017.
  19. Pilieci, Vito (February 2, 2017). "TVO to end over-the-air broadcast signals for every Ontario city - except Toronto". The Windsor Star. Archived from the original on February 8, 2017. Retrieved February 16, 2017.
  20. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on June 13, 2017. Retrieved February 15, 2017.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  21. "TVO's 8 over-the-air transmitters will continue to send signals". TVO News. TVOntario. February 17, 2017. Archived from the original on February 18, 2017. Retrieved February 17, 2017.
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