Târgoviște (alternative spelling: Tîrgoviște; Romanian pronunciation: [tɨrˈɡoviʃte]) is a city in Romania, and the county seat of the Dâmbovița County. It is situated on the right bank of the Ialomița. At the 2011 census Târgoviște had a population of 79,610, making it the 26th largest city in Romania. One of the most important cities in the history of Wallachia, it was its capital between the early 15th century and the 16th century.
Town hall of Târgoviște
Location of Târgoviște
|Coordinates: 44°55′28″N 25°27′26″E|
|• Mayor||Cristian Daniel Stan (PSD)|
|Time zone||UTC+2 (EET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+3 (EEST)|
The name Târgoviște is a Slavic name which the city acquired in the Middle Ages. It is derived from the Old Bulgarian word for "marketplace", търговище (pronounced [tɐrˈɡɔviʃtɛ]), referring to the place rather than the market itself.
The name is found in placenames not only in South Slavic areas (Bulgarian Търговище, Serbian Трговиште and Croatian Veliko Trgovišće), but also in West Slavic such as Slovakian Trhovište or Polish Targowica. Additionally, places with the same name are found in Romania, in the regions of Oltenia, Banat, and Moldavia.
The Romanian and Bulgarian towns with the same name are also twinned.
The area of Târgoviște which was first inhabited is located where the Saint Nicholas-Geartoglu Church and Stelea Veche Church stand today. It was in this place that the first fortifications were built: a small stone building surrounded by a brick wall and a moat, probably belonging to a local ruler. However, archaeological evidence is scarce and it is difficult to pinpoint exactly when it was erected.
Another nucleus of the city was built by Saxon colonists from Transylvania, in the area where the Catholic Saint Mary Church is located, a church that was built during the early years of the colony. A local tradition says that the church was built in 1300. The colonists came around the end of the 13th century and the beginning of the 14th century, the same period that Câmpulung was colonized. There is archeological evidence that the land occupied by the new colonists had been previously inhabited by locals, which leads to the conclusion that it had been approved by the local ruler.
The colonists influenced the local administration, as Târgoviște was the only town in Wallachia that had Transylvanian organization features, having official titles such as birău and folnog, which are found in documents together with local officials, like vornic and pristav. The town had a night watch which was also known by a Latin term (viglu < vigilia) instead of the local terms such pază or strajă.
After 1400, the town began to grow and become denser. Both Saxon part (around the stronghold) and in the Romanian part, there were several large dwellings with cellars and cocklestoves similar to those found in Central Europe. The wealth is also known based on the number of treasure troves discovered, the largest being a hoard of 6284 silver coins, found in the Saxon part of the town. The town gravitated around the Saxon part, this being valid until the Saxon community began its decline during the 16th century.
Capital of Wallachia
|Capitals of medieval principalities in the History of Romania|
Cluj (1791–1848, 1861–1867)
In the 14th century, the capital of Wallachia was Curtea de Argeș, however, due to Târgoviște's economic growth, toward the end of the century, it became a secondary residence of the Wallachian hospodar. In 1396, Bavarian traveler Johann Schiltberger mentions both Curtea de Argeș and Târgoviște as capitals of Wallachia. While Mircea I lived in Curtea de Argeș, Michael I, Mircea's son and co-prince lived in Târgoviște, where he continued to live even as a single ruler. Dan II preferred Curtea de Argeș and he was the last hospodar to rule from that city, the court being finally moved to Târgoviște by Alexandru Aldea in 1431.
Throughout the period it was the capital of Wallachia, the Princely Court in Târgoviște (Curtea Domnească din Târgoviște) had been constantly refurbished and extended. The compound was surrounded by stone walls and a moat and a new church and a tower had been built. Vlad III Dracula ("the Impaler") later added the Chindia Tower, now a symbol of the city.
Starting with 1465, for the next two centuries, the rulers alternated the capital between Târgoviște and Bucharest, often on political reasons, as the former was preferred by the rulers who were more friendly toward Transylvania and the King of Hungary. Throughout the 15th and 16th centuries, Târgoviște was a major trade hub, especially with Poland, Brașov and Sibiu.
By the 16th century, the Romanians became majority in the city, as some Saxons left for Transylvania and others were assimilated. Greeks merchants began to settle in the city, especially after 1500, while Greek monks settled in the nearby Dealu and Panaghia.
As the capital of Wallachia, Târgoviște faced numerous sieges and invasions. In 1395, it was sieged and set on fire by Bayezid I. In 1457, the townsfolk of Târgoviște were punished by Vlad III Dracula for their involvement in the assassination of his brother: the elite of city was killed, while the young people were sent to work at his Poenari Castle.
The Ottoman invasion of 1462 did not reach the city, being prevented by Vlad III through The Night Attack. In 1476, the city was taken by Stephen V Báthory following a fifteen-day siege intended to restore Vlad to the throne. Several other battles were fought near the city during the rules of Neagoe Basarab and Radu of Afumați.
Târgoviște was the site of the trial and execution of Nicolae Ceaușescu and his wife Elena on 25 December 1989 during the Romanian Revolution.
One village, Priseaca, is administered by the city.
In 2011, there were 79,610 inhabitants. According to the 2002 census, 96.6% of the inhabitants were Romanians and 2.84% Roma people.
|Source: Census data|
Today, the city is desserved by multiple stations:
- Targoviste (south-west of the town)
- Romlux halt (north-west)
- Teiș halt (former Targoviste-Vest) (north)
- Târgoviște Nord station (north-east)
- Valea Voievozilor halt (east).
The railway station is open for both passenger traffic - with sales / reservation office and electronic ticketing machine - and merchandise traffic. Local halts serves the large industrial operators of the city - Mechel, Oțelinox, Upet, Erdemir, Romlux, Rondocarton.
Located at a crossroads of ancient trade routes, the city can be easily approached from all sides. Targoviste Municipality is located approximatively 80 kilometres (50 miles) north-west of Bucharest, with a convenient access to Otopeni International Airport Henri Coanda (located in the north of Bucharest).
|DN 71||Tărtășești — Târgoviște — Pucioasa — Sinaia|
|DN 72||Găești — Târgovişte — Ploiești|
|DN 72A||Târgoviște — Câmpulung|
Also, a number of county roads pass the city:
- Grigore Alexandrescu (1810-1885), poet
- Vasile Atanasiu (1886-1964), general
- Tony Bulandra (1881-1943), actor
- Ioan Alexandru Brătescu-Voinești (1868–1946), writer
- Cornel Dinu (1948), football player
- Ion Heliade Rădulescu (1802–1872), writer, philologist, politician
- Theodor Stolojan (1943), economist, politician
- "2011 Census" (PDF) (in Romanian). INSSE. 5 July 2013. Retrieved 5 June 2016.
- Rădvan, p. 295.
- Rădvan, p. 296.
- Rădvan, p. 297.
- Rădvan, p. 298.
- Rădvan, p. 299.
- Rădvan, p. 299-300.
- Rădvan, p. 300.
- Rădvan, p. 302.
- "International Contacts". Targovishte Municipality. Archived from the original on 21 August 2006. Retrieved 29 August 2013.
- Rădvan, Laurenţiu (2010). At Europe's Borders: Medieval Towns in the Romanian Principalities. BRILL. ISBN 9789004180109. Rădvan.
|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Tîrgovishtea.|
- A presentation of the Medieval Princely Court of Târgovişte - includes 25 contemporary photos, 3 ancient images, 2 layouts, a reconstruction of the Court, bibliography and many other info (in Romanian and in English).
- Museums of Targoviste and of Dambovita county (in Romanian)
- City Hall site
- Local Community Social Network