Sylvain Simard

Sylvain Simard (born April 26, 1945) is a politician and academic based in the Canadian province of Quebec. He represented Richelieu in the National Assembly of Quebec from 1994 to 2012, and was a cabinet minister in the governments of Lucien Bouchard and Bernard Landry. Simard is a member of the Parti Québécois (PQ).

Sylvain Simard
Member of the National Assembly of Quebec for Richelieu
In office
September 12, 1994  2012
Preceded byAlbert Khelfa
Succeeded byÉlaine Zakaïb
Minister of State for Education and Employment, Minister of Education, and Minister responsible for Employment
In office
January 30, 2002  April 29, 2003
Preceded byFrançois Legault
Succeeded byPierre Reid (education), Claude Béchard (employment)
President of the Treasury Board, Minister of state for Administration and the Public Service, and Minister responsible for Administration and the Public Service
In office
March 8, 2001  January 30, 2002
Preceded byJacques Léonard
Succeeded byJoseph Facal
Minister of Citizenship and Immigration
In office
October 6, 2000  March 8, 2001
Preceded byRobert Perreault
Succeeded byJoseph Facal
Minister of International Relations and Minister responsible for La Francophonie
(also Minister responsible for international humanitarian action after January 22, 1997)
In office
January 29, 1996  December 15, 1998
Preceded byBernard Landry
Succeeded byLouise Beaudoin
Minister responsible for the Outaouais
In office
January 29, 1996  December 15, 1998
Preceded byYves Blais[1]
Succeeded byJoseph Facal
In office
March 8, 2001  April 29, 2003
Preceded byJoseph Facal
Succeeded byBenoît Pelletier
President of the Mouvement National des Quebecois
In office
Preceded byRolland Chaussé[2]
Succeeded byLouise Laurin
Vice-President of the Parti Québécois
In office
Preceded byLouise Harel
Succeeded byNadia Assimopoulos
Personal details
Born (1945-04-26) April 26, 1945
Chicoutimi, Quebec, Canada
Political partyParti Québécois
PortfolioTreasury Board

Early life and career

Simard was born in Chicoutimi, Quebec. He holds a Bachelor of Arts degree in Education from the Université de Montréal (1967), a Master of Arts degree from McGill University (1970), and a Ph.D. in Comparative Literature from the University of Bordeaux in France (1975). From 1976 to 1994, he was a professor of French literature at the University of Ottawa. He completed a work entitled Mythe et reflet de la France: L'image du Canada en France in 1987, examining perceptions of Quebec in France from the time of Louis Napoleon to World War I.[3]

Simard's brother, Christian Simard, was a Bloc Québécois member of the House of Commons of Canada from 2004 to 2006.[4]

PQ vice-president

Simard first became involved with the Parti Québécois as a regional organizer in the Outaouais. He was elected as the PQ's vice-president in 1981 and argued that the party's internal organization should receive more autonomy from the provincial PQ government of René Lévesque.[5]

In 1982, he helped organize a street protest against Canadian prime minister Pierre Trudeau's patriation of the Canadian Constitution without Quebec's approval.[6] Later in the same year, he requested that Elections Canada incorporate a federal wing of the PQ so that the party could run candidates in the next Canadian federal election. Some senior party members opposed this measure, which led to the creation of the Parti nationaliste du Québec.[7] Simard also helped coordinate the PQ's bid to join the Socialist International in 1983. This was opposed by the New Democratic Party, then the leading social democratic party in the rest of Canada outside Quebec.[8]

Simard supported electoral reform and proposed that future elections in Quebec be conducted under a system of compensatory proportional representation.[9] He also encouraged Premier Levesque to shuffle his cabinet and staff in early 1984, arguing that some people had been in the same positions for too long.[10] His own term as vice-president ended in 1984.

Political activist

Simard was encouraged to run as a New Democratic Party candidate in the 1988 federal election, at a time when the NDP was seeking to build its support base in Quebec. He ultimately decided against running.[11]

In the same period, Simard became involved with local politics in the Outaouais region. He was a prominent local member of the Société nationale des Québécois and opposed proposed changes to the province's Charter of the French Language.[12] He also formed a group called the Gatineau Democratic Movement in 1987, and there was some speculation that he would run for mayor in that year's municipal election. He ultimately decided against doing so, arguing that it would be irresponsible to split the vote against incumbent Gaétan Cousineau.

Cousineau was narrowly re-elected to the mayoralty, but resigned from office in early 1988.[13] Simard was the first declared candidate in a by-election to succeed him, running on a platform of increased democratic consultation, budget cuts that would not affect municipal salaries, and reduced taxes.[14] He also argued that Gatineau residents should be allowed to have a referendum on a proposed cultural centre, called for all mayoral candidates to declare their financial interests, and proposed a new municipal code of ethics.[15] On election day, he lost to Bob Labine by only 174 votes.[16]

Simard was a PQ candidate in the 1989 provincial election, narrowly losing to Liberal Party cabinet minister Guy Rivard in the Montreal division of Rosemont.

From 1990 to 1994, Simard was president of the Mouvement National des Quebecois (MNQ). In 1991, he argued that a sovereign Quebec would try to reduce the concentration of immigrant communities in Montreal neighbourhoods. He was quoted as saying, "We can't lower the concentration [of existing communities]; the people who are here are here. But in the future . . . we will have to adjust our welcome of immigrants to our capacities to integrate them." He also argued that francophone Quebecers would need to become more accepting of immigrants and the changes they would bring to Quebec culture.[17] At a MNQ meeting in May 1991, he said that most francophone Quebecers were "remarkably open to the necessity for and the advantages of immigration."[18]

As MNQ president, Simard argued that francophone Quebecers were unfairly singled out by Canadian federalists for having condoned racist and xenophobic behaviour in earlier times. In the wake of a public controversy over Esther Delisle's The Traitor and the Jew, which addressed historical anti-Semitism and Quebec nationalism, Simard said, "Of course we denounce all forms of anti-Semitism and xenophobia, and we don't excuse it even fifty years later. But why should we have to respond to [...] attacks that are obviously politically motivated?"[19] Unlike other Quebec sovereigntist groups, the MNQ under Simard's leadership sought to build links with francophone groups across Canada.[20]

Simard called for a referendum on sovereignty in early 1992 and campaigned against the Charlottetown Accord on Canadian constitutional reform later in the same year.[21]


Minister of International Relations

Simard was first elected to the National Assembly of Quebec for Richelieu in the 1994 provincial election, defeating Liberal incumbent Albert Khelfa. The PQ won a majority government in this election under Jacques Parizeau's leadership, and Simard entered the legislature as a government backbencher. When Lucien Bouchard succeeded Parizeau as premier of Quebec on January 29, 1996, he appointed Simard as minister of international relations and minister responsible for La Francophonie, with further responsibilities for the Outaouais region. On January 22, 1997, Simard was given additional responsibilities as minister responsible for international humanitarian action.

Soon after his appointment, Simard warned the Canadian government to consider the possibility of a violent reaction if it ever tried to partition the predominantly federalist areas from a future, sovereign Quebec. This was in response to a statement by Canadian intergovernmental affairs minister Stéphane Dion, who said that if Canada was divisible, then Quebec would be as well.[22]

In March 1996, Simard announced that Quebec would close thirteen of its nineteen foreign delegations as a cost-saving measure. He added that Quebec representatives in some of the affected areas could operate from within Canadian embassies, promoting both Quebec trade interests and sovereignty.[23] Canadian deputy prime minister Sheila Copps responded that Quebec representatives would "absolutely not" be allowed to promote Quebec sovereignty in Canadian facilities, and Simard's plan was widely criticized in the rest of Canada.[24]

Simard took part in a bid for Quebec to receive special status at the United Nations in 1997. This was defeated by the Canadian government.[25] Later in the same year, he quarreled with federal politicians over the terms of a child-support agreement between Quebec and France; the Canadian government argued that some sections of the deal came close to defining Quebec as a sovereign country.[26] Simard also threatened a boycott of the 2001 Francophone Games in Ottawa and Hull, on the grounds that the federal government was excluding Quebec from the organizing committee.[27]

As minister of international relations, Simard represented Quebec in trade and diplomatic missions to France, China, Vietnam, Senegal, Côte d'Ivoire, Israel, Palestine, Lebanon, and Zimbabwe.[28] He was skeptical of the Multilateral Agreement on Investment and encouraged Canada to withdraw from negotiations around the accord in October 1998.[29]

In late November 1996, Simard criticized Charles Aznavour after the well-known troubadour sang some of his best-known songs in English during a concert in Ottawa. The minister was quoted as saying, "Charles Aznavour is a French singer and when he comes here he should sing in French. It shows a complete ignorance of the reality and sensibilities of Quebec society — it's a provocation."[30]

Simard was re-elected in the 1998 Quebec election, but was dropped from cabinet on December 15, 1998. In 2000, he co-authored a procedural review document recommending that elected representatives be given more opportunities to consider and scrutinize proposed legislation.[31]

Minister of Citizenship and Immigration

Simard rejoined Lucien Bouchard's cabinet on October 6, 2000, as the minister of citizenship and immigration. Soon after his appointment, he announced that Quebec would increase its annual immigration rate from 30,000 to a figure between 40,000 and 45,000 by 2003, while also raising its rate of francophone immigration from 44% to 52%.[32] Echoing his statements from a decade earlier, he called for an increased settlement of immigrants into areas outside of Montreal to facilitate their integration to Quebec society.[33] In March 2001, he announced that the numbers of both educated and francophone immigrants to Quebec were increasing and that the province would look to the Maghreb for more francophone immigration in upcoming years.[34]

In late 2000, Simard said that he would not serve alongside Yves Michaud, a candidate for the PQ nomination in an upcoming Montreal by-election. Michaud had characterized Jewish support for the Canadian federalist option in the 1995 Quebec referendum as an "ethnic vote against the sovereignty of the Quebec people" and described B'nai Brith Canada as "anti-sovereigntist extremists." He was also quoted as saying that Jews believed themselves to be "the only people in the world who have suffered." Simard described Michaud's comments as "an old anti-Semitic throwback that leave me no choice but to condemn." Michaud, in turn, contended that he was "falsely demonized" by the reporting of his comments and was not anti-Semitic.[35] This controversy exposed divisions in the ranks of the PQ and is widely believed to have provoked Lucien Bouchard's resignation as premier shortly thereafter.[36]

President of the Treasury Board

When Bouchard resigned from office in early 2001, Simard supported Bernard Landry's successful bid to become the party's new leader.[37] Landry was sworn in as premier on March 8, 2001, and reassigned Simard as president of the treasury board, minister of state for administration and the public service, minister responsible for administration and the public service, and minister responsible for the Outaouais.

Simard issued his first report as treasury board president on March 29, 2001, indicating that government spending would increase by 3.1% in 2001-02 with three-quarters of the new revenues going to health and education. He added that spending as a percentage of gross domestic product would decline, as it had in previous years.[38] Later in 2001, he announced that Quebec would take nearly one billion dollars from its reserve fund to avoid going into deficit amid a serious North American economic downturn.[39] In November 2001, Simard launched a $220 million initiative to ensure pay equity.[40]

Simard launched a major recruitment campaign in early 2001, seeking to fill 1,500 full-time and 5,000 part-time public service positions. This was described as the department's most important outreach program in twenty years.[41] In making the announcement, Simard indicated that minority groups, including anglophones and youth, would receive fair representation.[42]

Simard also served on a cabinet committee overseeing strategies for Quebec's asbestos sector in this period.[43]

Minister of Education

Bernard Landry shuffled his cabinet on January 30, 2002, and reassigned Simard as minister of state for education and employment, minister of education, minister responsible for employment, and minister responsible for the Outaouais. Simard delivered an education policy statement in March 2002, in which he promised to maintain Quebec's longstanding freeze on university tuition rates and remove a legislative loophole that allowed non-anglophone parents to send their children to English public schools after one year at an English private school.[44]

He announced a $91 million program for reforming Quebec's secondary schools in January 2003, highlighted by increased tutoring, a focus on history and the French language as well as upgrades to the sciences, and new steps to target the provincial dropout rate.[45] He introduced another plan in the same month to counter schoolyard harassment and intimidation.[46] He was strongly critical of the right-wing Action démocratique du Québec's proposal to introduce a system of school vouchers to the province.[47]

Simard was one of the few ministers in the Landry government with a strong interest in promoting Quebec sovereignty.[48] In February 2003, he argued that Quebec would receive an additional $800 million in education spending if the "fiscal imbalance" between Quebec and the Canadian federal government was fixed.[49]

Opposition member

The Liberal Party under Jean Charest defeated the PQ in the 2003 provincial election. Simard was re-elected in Richelieu by a reduced margin and served as opposition critic for the treasury board and public service.[50] He was named as the PQ's chief organizer in October 2004.[51] Simard was strongly critical of the Charest government's cuts to economic development and the public service, as well as its move toward public-private partnerships.[52] In 2006, he brought forward a private member's bill to create a pension benefits guarantee fund.[53]

Simard called for a public inquiry into federalist spending practices during the 1995 referendum on sovereignty in 2005, following statements by a high-ranking Liberal Party of Canada organizer that the federalist side had "violated" and "flouted" Quebec's election laws. Simard was quoted as saying, "We don't want to rewrite the past. What is done is done. What we need are new ground rules and the means to ensure that that this doesn't happen again."[54]

Simard supported Bernard Landry's bid to retain the PQ leadership after the 2003 election,[55] but nonetheless helped Landry reach his decision to resign after receiving only 76 per cent support at the party's June 2005 convention. Later in the same year, Simard supported André Boisclair's successful bid to succeed Landry as party leader.[56]

Simard suggested lifting Quebec's tuition freeze in 2006, arguing that it had created a state of "perpetual underfunding" for universities. The PQ's youth wing opposed this suggestion, and a subsequent policy workshop reaffirmed the party's support for the freeze.[57]

The PQ fell to a third-place finish in the 2007 general election, and Simard was again re-elected by a reduced margin over a strong challenge from an ADQ candidate. Following the election, he was one of the few PQ MNAs who still supported Boisclair's leadership.[58] When Boisclair resigned, Simard planned to support Gilles Duceppe's bid to lead the party.[59] Duceppe ultimately decided not to run, and Pauline Marois was chosen as Boisclair's successor.

The PQ returned to official opposition status in the 2008 election under Marois's leadership, and Sylvain was re-elected by an increased margin. He was re-appointed as critic for the treasury board and public service after the election.[60] In March 2009, he argued that the government could save four billion dollars by building two new university teaching hospitals in Montreal as conventional projects rather than as private-public partnerships.[61] The following year, he accused the Charest government of falsifying cost estimates to favour the public-private approach.[62]

In early 2011, Pauline Marois said that she favoured extending Quebec's Charter of the French Language to restrict non-anglophone students from attending English-language CEGEPs. Simard openly disagreed with this policy approach, which was approved by delegates to a PQ convention in April 2011.[63]

In May 2011, Simard introduced a private member's bill to protect whistleblowers in the Quebec civil service.[64]

In June 2012 he announced that he would not run for re-election.[65]

Electoral record

2008 Quebec general election: Richelieu
Party Candidate Votes%±%
Parti QuébécoisSylvain Simard11,59146.99+8.96
LiberalChristian Cournoyer8,55234.67+10.43
Action démocratiquePatrick Fournier3,12612.67−18.70
Québec solidairePaul Martin7052.86+0.27
GreenPatrick Lamothe6932.81−0.48
Total valid votes 24,667 100.00
Rejected and declined votes 554
Turnout 25,221 61.75 −13.36
Electors on the lists 40,842
Parti Québécois hold Swing −0.73
Source: Official Results, Le Directeur général des élections du Québec.
2007 Quebec general election: Richelieu
Party Candidate Votes%±%
Parti QuébécoisSylvain Simard11,41138.03−8.33
Action démocratiquePhilippe Rochat9,41331.37+18.26
LiberalGilles Salvas7,27524.24−13.89
GreenFrançois Desmarais9863.29
Québec solidaireÉric Noël7782.59
     Independent Normand Philibert 145 0.48
Total valid votes 30,008 100.00
Rejected and declined votes 389
Turnout 30,397 75.11 +2.18
Electors on the lists 40,468
Parti Québécois hold Swing −13.30
Source: Official Results, Le Directeur général des élections du Québec.
2003 Quebec general election: Richelieu
Party Candidate Votes%±%
Parti QuébécoisSylvain Simard13,28646.36−9.95
LiberalBenoît Lefebvre10,92738.13+10.46
Action démocratiqueMicheline Ulrich3,75613.11−1.31
Bloc PotMarie-Hélène Charbonneau4071.42
     Independent Nidal Joad 109 0.38
     Independent Steve Ritter 100 0.35
Christian DemocracyFlorette Villemure Larochelle740.26
Total valid votes 28,659 100.00
Rejected and declined votes 484
Turnout 29,143 72.93
Electors on the lists 39,961
Parti Québécois hold Swing −10.21
Source: Official Results, Le Directeur général des élections du Québec.
1998 Quebec general election: Richelieu
Party Candidate Votes%±%
Parti QuébécoisSylvain Simard17,74556.31+1.22
LiberalGilles Ferlatte8,71827.66−12.22
Action démocratiquePatrick Gauthier4,54314.42
     Non-affiliated Michel Groleau 261 0.83
  Socialist Democracy Isabelle Latour 246 0.78
Total valid votes 31,513 100.00
Rejected and declined votes 689
Turnout 32,202 80.99 −2.24
Electors on the lists 39,762
Parti Québécois hold Swing +6.72
Source: Official Results, Le Directeur général des élections du Québec.
1994 Quebec general election: Richelieu
Party Candidate Votes%±%
Parti QuébécoisSylvain Simard17,18655.09+12.84
LiberalAlbert Khelfa12,44139.88−13.49
     Non-affiliated Marcel Cloutier 1,570 5.03
Total valid votes 31,197 100.00
Rejected and declined votes 1,003
Turnout 32,200 83.23 +3.42
Electors on the lists 38,688
Source: Official Results, Le Directeur général des élections du Québec.
1989 Quebec general election: Rosemont
Party Candidate Votes%
LiberalGuy Rivard13,12146.97
Parti QuébécoisSylvain Simard12,98846.50
New DemocraticPierre Dion6202.22
Progressive ConservativeLyse T. Giguère2981.07
Parti indépendantisteRichard Belleau2781.00
WorkersRégis Beaulieu2560.92
Commonwealth of CanadaNormand Bélanger1340.48
United Social CreditJean-Paul Poulin920.33
Marxist–LeninistFrance Tremblay790.28
Socialist MovementJean-Yves Desgagnés670.24
Total valid votes 27,933
Rejected and declined votes 862
Turnout 28,795 75.65
Electors on the lists 38,064
Source: Official Results, Le Directeur général des élections du Québec.
Gatineau mayoral by-election results, June 5, 1988


  1. Yves Blais was designated as the regional delegate for the Outaouais in the government of Jacques Parizeau and was not a government minister.
  2. Rolland Chaussé was president of the MNQ from the late 1980s to 1990. In late 1988, he urged Quebec premier Robert Bourassa to defend the province's Charter of the French Language against a decision by the Supreme Court of Canada that struck down three of its more contentious provisions. See Patricia Poirier, "Groups urge Premier to override ruling," Globe and Mail, 16 December 1988, A10. During the 1992 Canadian referendum, Chaussé wrote, photocopied, and distributed a letter opposing the Charlottetown Accord. He was subsequently fined one hundred dollars for illegal campaigning, a decision that many regarded as unduly harsh. See Tu Thanh Ha, "Strict regulations govern referendum campaigns," Globe and Mail, 4 October 1995, A4. At the time of the 1992 campaign, Chaussé was described as a forty-eight-year-old councillor in the small community of Saint-Jacques-le-Mineur, Quebec.
  3. John Hare, "Ex-minister's witty, anecdotal account of Quebec's diplomatic role," Ottawa Citizen, 15 August 1987, C2.
  4. Norman Delisle, "Le Parti québécois compte tirer des leçons de l'élection de lundi," La Presse Canadienne, 24 January 2006, 4:15 pm.
  5. Margot Gibb-Clark and Victor Malarek, "Quebec won't play with dice loaded, Levesque tells PQ," Globe and Mail, 5 December 1981, 1.
  6. "PQ plan to protest constitution arrival with street march," Globe and Mail, 5 April 1982, 20; "PQ calls march start of separation drive," Globe and Mail, 14 April 1982, 8.
  7. "Ottawa receives PQ request to make party status federal," Globe and Mail, 1 July 1982, 4.
  8. Jeff Sallot, "NDP will oppose PQ bid for entry to socialist club," Globe and Mail, 2 April 1983, 15.
  9. Joyce Napier, "Province studying reform of polling system," Globe and Mail, 5 December 1983, 9.
  10. Margot Gibb-Clark, "Party needs new blood, PQ officials state," Globe and Mail, 13 January 1984, N3.
  11. Graham Fraser, "Public regard for Broadbent pushing NDP up in Quebec," Globe and Mail, 16 July 1987, A8.
  12. Jack Aubry, "Vandals splash paint on pro-Bill 101 signs," Ottawa Citizen, 9 January 1987, C1.
  13. Jeff Heinrich, "Gatineau group won't field mayoral candidate," 24 September 1987, B1. After the election, Simard accused him of being in a conflict-of-interest situation due to his part ownership of an office building near the city's planned downtown core. See David Gamble, "Quebec lawyer feels Cousineau broke no rules," Ottawa Citizen, 15 December 1987, C1. Cousineau rejected the claim and described Simard's charges as a smear campaign. See Sharon Trottier, "Gatineau mayor says citizen group waging 'smear campaign' with conflict charge," Ottawa Citizen, 18 December 1987, B4; Philip Authier, "Cousineau critic enters race for Gatineau mayor," Ottawa Citizen, 22 March 1988, D5. Simard stood by his criticism of the mayor, later saying that Cousineau's investment was inappropriate even though it was not technically illegal. See David Gamble, "Simard would return 'democracy' to Gatineau's city hall if elected," Ottawa Citizen, 20 May 1988, C3.
  14. David Gamble, "Simard would return 'democracy' to Gatineau's city hall if elected," Ottawa Citizen, 20 May 1988, C3.
  15. "Put cultural centre to vote, Gatineau mayoral candidate says," Ottawa Citizen, 19 April 1988, C3; David Gamble, "Simard wants candidates to disclose interests," Ottawa Citizen, 21 April 1988, B3.
  16. David Gamble, "Labine wins tight race for mayor in Gatineau," Ottawa Citizen, 6 June 1988, A1. Labine later sued Simard for libel over statements made during the campaign. Simard described the lawsuit as an attempt to muzzle criticism. See Tu Thanh Ha, "Gatineau mayor suing rival for libel," Ottawa Citizen, 8 June 1988, B1. Newspaper reports do not indicate how the matter was resolved.
  17. "Ethnic mix in Montreal worries separatist," Toronto Star, 17 February 1991, A6.
  18. Pauline Couture, "Quebecois voices," Globe and Mail, 22 May 1991, A15.
  19. Andre Picard, "Debate flares over Quebec icon," Globe and Mail, 24 June 1993, A7.
  20. Pauline Couture, "Quebecois voices," Globe and Mail, 14 January 1992, A15.
  21. Rheal Seguin, "Bourassa accepts invitation to lunch," Globe and Mail, 30 July 1992, A1.
  22. Edison Stewart and Derek Ferguson, "Use of force to be avoided minister says," Toronto Star, 2 February 1996, A11.
  23. Rheal Seguin, "PQ wants to sell separatism through Canadian missions," Globe and Mail, 29 March 1996, A5.
  24. "Copps rebuffs separatists," Globe and Mail, 30 March 1996, A9; "It's Canada guys", Toronto Star, 1 April 1996, A16; David Olive, "Enough Is Enough", Globe and Mail, 31 May 1996, 12.
  25. Rheal Seguin and Jeff Sallot, "Quebec's bid for UN status quashed," Globe and Mail, 21 June 1997, A4.
  26. "Deadlock stalls deal on support payments," Globe and Mail, 11 November 1997, A6.
  27. Rheal Seguin, "Quebec threatens boycott, says Copps playing games," Globe and Mail, 20 March 1998, A4.
  28. Rod Mickleburgh, "Quebecker plays it cool in China," Globe and Mail, 7 September 1996, A11; "PRESS DIGEST - Vietnam - Sept 11," Reuters News, 11 September 1996; "Quebec business team winds up Senegal mission," Agence France-Presse, 5 March 1997; Marc Koffi, "LA CÔTE D'IVOIRE VEUT SÉDUIRE LES FIRMES QUÉBECOISES," Reuters - Les actualités en français, 6 March 1997, 10:22 am; "Funeral sparks more West Bank riots," Globe and Mail, 10 April 1997, A14; "Quebec, Lebanon should strengthen economic relations: Lebanese PM," Agence France-Presse, 14 April 1997; "Québec-Le ministre des Affaires internationales à Paris," Reuters - Les actualités en français, 7 July 1997, 10:38 am; "Zimbabwe, Canada to Increase Cooperation," Xinhua News Agency, 27 April 1998, 11:50 am.
  29. Heather Scoffield, "Nations seek to salvage MAI Without France," Globe and Mail, 19 October 1998, B4.
  30. "Nasty politics of language", Hamilton Spectator, 18 November 1996, A8.
  31. "Assemblée nationale du Québec - UN GROUPE DE TRAVAIL DE DEPUTES PROPOSE," Canada NewsWire, 16 June 2000.
  32. Norman Delisle, "Québec veut augmenter considérablement le nombre d'immigrants accueillis," La Presse Canadienne, 26 October 2000, 04:03 pm.
  33. "Quebec wants more immigrants to live in regions and integrate into society," Canadian Press, 26 October 2000, 06:39 pm.
  34. "Le profil de l'immigrant au Québec a changé; il est plus scolaris et plus francophone," Nouvelles Tele-Radio, 1 March 2001, 1:41 pm.
  35. Rheal Seguin, "Pequiste's anti-Jewish remarks condemned," Globe and Mail, 15 December 2000, A1.
  36. Don Macpherson, "Who's afraid of Lucien Bouchard?", Montreal Gazette, 20 February 2010, B7.
  37. Norman Delisle, "Débats d'idées et course au leadership semblent incompatibles, dit-on au PQ," La Presse Canadienne, 17 January 2001, 2:44 pm; Robert McKenzie, "Rivals topple in dirty PQ leadership race," Toronto Star, 21 January 2001, 1.
  38. Marie Tison, "Le gouvernement québécois augmentera ses dépenses de 3,1 pour cent," La Presse Canadienne, 29 March 2001, 5:19 pm.
  39. "Québec envisage des investissements pour contrer le ralentissement," La Presse Canadienne, 27 September 2001, 10:04 am.
  40. Michel Hébert, "Equité salariale: le gouvernement du Québec versera encore $220 millions," La Presse Canadienne, 21 November 2001, 5:43 pm.
  41. "Québec lance une vaste campagne de recrutement dans la fonction publique," Nouvelles Tele-Radio, 2 April 2001, 4:52 pm; "Fonction publique du Québec - Québec lance la plus vaste campagne de recrutement depuis 20 ans" [press release], Canada Newswire, 12 April 2001.
  42. "Conseil du trésor - Fonction publique du Québec" [press release], Canada Newswire, 15 June 2001; Michel Hébert, "La fonction publique du Québec ouvrira ses portes aux jeunes et aux minorités," 26 June 2001, 02:20 pm.
  43. "Québec confirme la création d'un comité interministériel sur l'amiante," Nouvelles Tele-Radio, 17 May 2001, 02:04 pm; "Utilisation de l'amiante chrysotile" [press release], Canada Newswire, 17 May 2001.
  44. "Le ministre Sylvain Simard fait part de ses idées pour améliorer l'éducation," Nouvelles Tele-Radio, 6 March 2002, 8:06 am; "Alliance Québec entend se battre pour maintenir l'accès à l'école anglaise," Nouvelles Tele-Radio, 6 March 2002, 11:33 am; "Quebec education minister ready to crack down on language loopholes," Canadian Press, 11 March 2002, 02:45 pm; Alexander Panetta, "Quebec to shut law loophole that allows children of rich into English schools," Canadian Press, 17 March 2002, 01:40 pm.
  45. "Québec débloque 91 millions$ pour l'éducation secondaire," Les actualités canadiennes de Reuters en français, 14 January 2003, 12:16 pm; Rheal Seguin, "Quebec tutorial program gets $91-million in funds," Globe and Mail, 15 January 2003, A2; "Quebec government announces spending to upgrade teachers, schools," Canadian Press, 14 January 2003, 11:18 pm.
  46. Lia Levesque, "Le ministre Sylvain Simard annonce son plan d'action contre le taxage," La Presse Canadienne, 23 January 2003, 05:42 pm.
  47. Marianne White, "Quebec separatists train guns on right-wing threat," Reuters News, 3 October 2002, 04:37 pm; "PQ talks aim at rival Liberals and Mario Dumont's ADQ at caucus meeting," Canadian Press, 3 October 2002, 7:22 pm.
  48. Rheal Seguin, "New Quebec cabinet not exactly hotbed for sovereignty push," Globe and Mail, 1 February 2002, A8.
  49. Norman Delisle, "Québec voudrait pouvoir compter sur 800 millions $ de plus en education," La Presse Canadienne, 7 February 2003, 5:29 pm.
  50. "Bernard Landry dévoile la composition de son cabinet fantôme," La Presse Canadienne, 1 May 2003, 10:32 am.
  51. Norman Delisle, "Sylvain Simard devient l'organisateur en chef du Parti québécois," La Presse Canadienne, 7 October 2004, 01:49 pm; Martin Ouellet, "Québec présente une version amendée du projet de loi sur les PPP," La Presse Canadienne, 1 December 2004, 05:17 pm.
  52. Les Perreaux, "Quebec guts economic development and cuts welfare, budget details reveal," Canadian Press, 13 June 2003, 5:20 pm; Norman Delisle, "Le ministère du Revenu met à pied 30 employés du service de pension alimentaire," La Presse Canadienne, 7 April 2004, 04:30 pm; Les Perreaux, "Quebec to shrink government by eliminating 16,000 posts in 10 years," Canadian Press, 5 May 2004, 3:56 pm; "L'opposition à la construction d'une prison en partenariat s'accentue," Nouvelles Tele-Radio, 19 January 2005, 5:25 pm.
  53. Sheryl Smolkin, "Pension guarantee fund proposed by Quebec private member," 20 April 2006, Vol. 3, No. 13.
  54. Rhéal Seguin, "Corbeil's allegations spark calls for inquiry," Globe and Mail, 23 April 2005, A13.
  55. Les Perreaux, "Senior Parti Quebecois members rally to once-embattled leader Bernard Landry," Canadian Press, 3 June 2005, 9:13 pm.
  56. "Sylvain Simard appuie Boisclair et critique les règles de mise en candidature," Nouvelles Tele-Radio, 30 August 2005, 3:45 pm.
  57. Philip Authier, "PQ to debate costly plan to extend school hours: 8 a.m. to 5 p.m", Montreal Gazette, 11 June 2006, A6.
  58. "Les péquistes appuyant Boisclair à 100% ne seraient plus qu'une poignée," La Presse Canadienne, 25 April 2007, 1:43 pm.
  59. Rhéal Seguin and Daniel LeBlanc, "Duceppe decides against PQ leadership bid," Globe and Mail, 12 March 2007 (breaking news).
  61. Kevin Dougherty, "Hospital PPPs should be scrapped to save $4B: critic," Montreal Gazette, 28 March 2009, A6. See also Kevin Dougherty and Aaron Derfel, "Province on the hook for up to $1 billion; Advance for superhospitals: Private sector can only raise 55 per cent of cost," Montreal Gazette, 12 December 2009, A12.
  62. Kevin Dougherty, "Auditor general's latest report on cost of two new hospitals "most devastating" yet, critic says," Montreal Gazette, 9 June 2010.
  63. Philip Authier, "Marois firm on extending Bill 101 rules to CEGEPs," Montreal Gazette, 28 January 2011, A11; Les Perreaux, "PQ leader wins 93 per cent of vote," Globe and Mail, 18 April 2011, A5.
  64. Linda Gyulai, "City's whistleblower policy silences staff; Credibility of hotline called into question," Montreal Gazette, 10 May 2011, A3.
  65. Tommy Chouinard (27 June 2012). "Départ de Sylvain Simard, démissions dans Groulx". La Presse.
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