Sumatran tiger

The Sumatran tiger is a Panthera tigris sondaica population in the Indonesian island of Sumatra.[2][3] This population was listed as Critically Endangered on the IUCN Red List in 2008, as it was estimated at 441 to 679 individuals, with no subpopulation larger than 50 individuals and a declining trend.[1]

Sumatran tiger
Sumatran tiger in the Tierpark Berlin
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Suborder: Feliformia
Family: Felidae
Subfamily: Pantherinae
Genus: Panthera
P. t. sondaica
Trinomial name
Panthera tigris sondaica
(Temminck, 1844)
Distribution map

formerly P. t. sumatrae Pocock, 1929

The Sumatran tiger is the only surviving tiger population in the Sunda Islands, where the Bali and Javan tigers are extinct.[4] Sequences from complete mitochondrial genes of 34 tigers support the hypothesis that Sumatran tigers are diagnostically distinct from mainland subspecies.[5]

In 2017, the Cat Classification Task Force of the Cat Specialist Group revised felid taxonomy and recognizes the living and extinct tiger populations in Indonesia as P. t. sondaica.[2]


Felis tigris sondaicus was the scientific name proposed by Coenraad Jacob Temminck in 1844 for a tiger specimen from Java.[6]

The genus Panthera was proposed by Reginald Innes Pocock in 1929 who described a skin and a skull of a tiger specimen from Sumatra using the name Panthera tigris sumatrae.[7] Skull and pelage pattern of tiger specimens from Java and Sumatra do not differ significantly.[8][9] P. t. sondaica is therefore considered the valid name for the living and extinct tiger populations in Indonesia.[2]


Analysis of DNA is consistent with the hypothesis that Sumatran tigers became isolated from other tiger populations after a rise in sea level that occurred at the Pleistocene to Holocene border about 12,000–6,000 years ago. In agreement with this evolutionary history, the Sumatran tiger is genetically isolated from all living mainland tigers, which form a distinct group closely related to each other.[5]


The Sumatran tiger was described on the basis of two zoological specimens that differed in skull size and striping pattern from Bengal and Javan tiger specimen. It is darker in fur colour and has broader stripes than the Javan tiger.[7] Stripes tend to dissolve into spots near their ends, and on the back, flanks and hind legs are lines of small, dark spots between the regular stripes.[10][8] The frequency of stripes is higher than in other subspecies.[11] Males have a prominent ruff, which is especially marked in the Sumatran tiger.[12]

The Sumatran tiger is one of the smallest tigers. Males measure between the pegs 2.2 to 2.55 m (87 to 100 in) in head-to-body length, with a greatest length of skull of 295 to 335 mm (11.6 to 13.2 in), and weigh 100 to 140 kg (220 to 310 lb). Females weigh 75 to 110 kg (165 to 243 lb) and measure 2.15 to 2.30 m (85 to 91 in) in length between the pegs with a greatest length of skull of 263 to 294 mm (10.4 to 11.6 in).[10]

Distribution and habitat

The Sumatran tiger persists in small and fragmented populations across Sumatra, from sea level in the coastal lowland forest of Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park on the southeastern tip of Lampung Province to 3,200 m (10,500 ft) in mountain forests of Gunung Leuser National Park in Aceh Province. It is present in 27 habitat patches larger than 250 km2 (97 sq mi), which cover 140,226 km2 (54,142 sq mi). About a third of these patches are inside protected areas.[13][14]

Sumatran tigers prefer lowland and hill forests, where up to three tigers live in an area of 100 km2 (39 sq mi). They use non-forest habitats and human-dominated landscapes at the fringes of protected areas to a lesser degree.[15]

In 1978, the Sumatran tiger population was estimated at 1,000 individuals, based on responses to a questionnaire survey.[16] In 1985, a total of 26 protected areas across Sumatra containing about 800 tigers were identified.[17] In 1992, an estimated 400–500 tigers lived in five Sumatran national parks and two protected areas. At that time, the largest population comprising 110–180 individuals was reported to live in Gunung Leuser National Park.[18] As of 2011, the tiger population in Kerinci Seblat National Park in central Sumatra comprised 165–190 individuals, which is more than anywhere else on the island. The park has the highest tiger occupancy rate of Sumatra's protected areas, with 83% of the park showing signs of tigers.[19]

Sumatra's total tiger population was estimated at 618 ± 290 individuals in 2017.[15]

Ecology and behaviour

Sumatran tigers strongly prefer uncultivated forest and make little use of plantations of acacia and oil palm even if these are available. Within natural forest areas, they tend to use areas with higher elevation, lower annual rainfall, farther from forest edge, and closer to forest centres. They prefer forest with dense understory cover and steep slope, and they strongly avoid forest areas with high human influence in the forms of encroachment and settlement. In acacia plantations, they tend to use areas closer to water, and prefer areas with older plants, more leaf litter, and thicker subcanopy cover. Tiger records in oil palm plantations and in rubber plantations are scarce. The availability of adequate vegetation cover at the ground level serves as an environmental condition fundamentally needed by tigers regardless of the location. Without adequate understory cover, tigers are even more vulnerable to persecution by humans. Human disturbance-related variables negatively affect tiger occupancy and habitat use. Variables with strong impacts include settlement and encroachment within forest areas, logging, and the intensity of maintenance in acacia plantations.[20] Camera trapping surveys conducted in southern Riau revealed an extremely low abundance of potential prey and a low tiger density in peat swamp forest areas. Repeated sampling in the newly established Tesso Nilo National Park documented a trend of increasing tiger density from 0.90 individuals per 100 km2 (39 sq mi) in 2005 to 1.70 individuals per 100 km2 (39 sq mi) in 2008.[21]

In the Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park, nine prey species larger than 1 kg (2.2 lb) of body weight were identified including great argus, pig-tailed macaque, Malayan porcupine, Malayan tapir, banded pig, greater and lesser mouse-deer, Indian muntjac, and Sambar deer.[13]


Major threats include habitat loss due to expansion of palm oil plantations and planting of acacia plantations, prey-base depletion, and illegal trade primarily for the domestic market.[1]

Tigers need large contiguous forest blocks to thrive.[20] Between 1985 and 1999, forest loss within Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park averaged 2% per year. A total of 661 km2 (255 sq mi) of forest disappeared inside the park, and 318 km2 (123 sq mi) were lost in a 10-km buffer, eliminating forest outside the park. Lowland forest disappeared faster than montane forest, and forests on gentle slopes disappeared faster than forests on steep slopes. Most forest conversion resulted from agricultural development, leading to predictions that by 2010, 70% of the park will be in agriculture. Camera-trap data indicated avoidance of forest boundaries by tigers. Classification of forest into core and peripheral forest based on mammal distribution suggests that by 2010, core forest area for tigers will be fragmented and reduced to 20% of remaining forest.[22]

Sumatra's largest tiger population in Kerinci Seblat National Park is threatened by a high rate of deforestation in its outer regions. Drivers are an unsustainable demand for natural resources created by a human population with the highest rate of growth in Indonesia, and a government initiative to increase tree-crop plantations and high-intensity commercial logging, which ultimately leads to forest fires. The majority of the tigers found in the park were relocated to its center where conservation efforts are focused, but issues in the lowland hill forests of the outskirts remain. While being highly suitable tiger habitat, these areas are also heavily targeted by logging efforts, which substantially contributes to declines in local tiger numbers.[23]

The expansion of plantations is also increasing greenhouse-gas emissions, playing a part in anthropogenic climate change, thus further adding to environmental pressures on endangered species.[24] Climate-based movement of tigers northwards may lead to increased conflict with human populations. From 1987 to 1997, Sumatran tigers reportedly killed 146 people and at least 870 livestock. In West Sumatra, Riau, and Aceh, a total of 128 incidents were reported; 265 tigers were killed and 97 captured in response, and 35 more tigers were killed from 1998 to 2002. From 2007 to 2010, the tigers caused the death of 9 humans and 25 further tigers were killed.[14]

In 1997, an estimated 53 tigers were killed by poachers and their parts sold throughout most of northern Sumatra. Numbers for all of Sumatra are likely to be higher. Farmers killed many of the tigers to prevent livestock losses. They sold them to gold and souvenir shops, and pharmacies.[25] In 2006, wildlife markets were surveyed in 28 cities and nine seaports in seven Sumatran provinces; 33 of 326 retail outlets offered tiger parts like skins, canines, bones, and whiskers. Tiger bones fetched the highest average price of US$116 per kg, followed by canines. There is evidence that tiger parts are smuggled out of Indonesia. In July 2005, over 140 kg (310 lb) of tiger bones and 24 skulls were confiscated in Taiwan in a shipment from Jakarta.[26]

In 2013–2014, Kerinci Seblat National Park experienced an upsurge in poaching, with the highest annual number of snare traps being removed for a patrol effort similar to previous years. Evidence is scarce and misunderstood on whether the strategies implemented to diminish poaching are succeeding despite the investment of millions of dollars annually into conservation strategies.


Panthera tigris is listed on CITES Appendix I. Hunting is prohibited in Indonesia.[12]

In 1994, the Indonesian Sumatran Tiger Conservation Strategy addressed the potential crisis that tigers faced in Sumatra. The Sumatran Tiger Project (STP) was initiated in June 1995 in and around the Way Kambas National Park to ensure the long-term viability of wild Sumatran tigers and to accumulate data on tiger life-history characteristics vital for the management of wild populations.[27] By August 1999, the teams of the STP had evaluated 52 sites of potential tiger habitat in Lampung Province, of which only 15 were intact enough to contain tigers.[28] In the framework of the STP, a community-based conservation programme was initiated to document the tiger-human dimension in the park to enable conservation authorities to resolve tiger-human conflicts based on a comprehensive database rather than anecdotes and opinions.[29]

In 2007, the Indonesian Forestry Ministry and Safari Park established cooperation with the Australia Zoo for the conservation of Sumatran tigers and other endangered species. The program includes conserving Sumatran tigers and other endangered species in the wild, efforts to reduce conflicts between tigers and humans, and rehabilitating Sumatran tigers and reintroducing them to their natural habitat. One hectare of the 186-hectare Taman Safari is the world's only Sumatran tiger captive-breeding center that also has a sperm bank.[30]

Indonesia's struggle with conservation has caused an upsurge in political momentum to protect and conserve wildlife and biodiversity. In 2009, Indonesia's president made a commitment to substantially reduce deforestation, and policies across the nation requiring spatial plans that would be environmentally sustainable at national, provincial and district levels.[31]

Since about 2005, about US$210 million have been invested into tiger law-enforcement activities that support forest ranger patrols, as well as the implementations of front-line law-enforcement activities by the Global Tiger Recovery Plan, which aims to double the number of wild tigers by 2020.[32]

A 2010 study examined a different strategy for promoting Sumatran tiger conservation while at the same time deriving a financial profit, by promoting "tiger-friendly" vegetable margarine as an alternative to palm oil. The study concluded that consumers were willing to pay a premium for high-quality margarine connected with tiger conservation.[33]

A 110,000-acre conservation area and rehabilitation center, Tambling Wildlife Nature Conservation, has been set up on the edge of a national park on the southern tip of Sumatra (Lampung).[34] On 26 October 2011, a tigress that had been captured with an injured leg in early October delivered three male cubs in a temporary cage while waiting for release after her recovery.[35]

Due to Indonesia's need for more sanctuaries for the Sumatran tiger, Sumatran elephant, Sumatran orangutan and Sumatran rhinoceros, the government opened the Batu Nanggar Sanctuary for the Sumatran tiger at North Padang Lawas Regency, North Sumatra in November 2016.[36]

In captivity

In August 2011 two males and a female cub were born at Taronga Zoo in Sydney, Australia.[37] On 6 February 2019, another two females and a male were born at the zoo.[38]

In September 2013, two cubs were born in London Zoo, but one drowned in a pool two weeks later.[39][40] In February 2014, the female gave birth again, to three cubs.[41] In June 2016, she gave birth to two cubs.[42] In August 2017, two cubs were born at Disney's Animal Kingdom in Orlando, Florida.[43] In February 2019, a male tiger on stud loan from a Danish safari park to London Zoo, killed his intended female mate during their first meeting.[44][45]

See also


  1. Linkie, M.; Wibisono, H. T.; Martyr, D. J.; Sunarto, S. (2008). "Panthera tigris ssp. sumatrae". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN: e.T15966A5334836. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T15966A5334836.en. Retrieved 2019-02-08.
  2. Kitchener, A. C.; Breitenmoser-Würsten, C.; Eizirik, E.; Gentry, A.; Werdelin, L.; Wilting, A.; Yamaguchi, N.; Abramov, A. V.; Christiansen, P.; Driscoll, C.; Duckworth, J. W.; Johnson, W.; Luo, S.-J.; Meijaard, E.; O’Donoghue, P.; Sanderson, J.; Seymour, K.; Bruford, M.; Groves, C.; Hoffmann, M.; Nowell, K.; Timmons, Z.; Tobe, S. (2017). "A revised taxonomy of the Felidae: The final report of the Cat Classification Task Force of the IUCN Cat Specialist Group" (PDF). Cat News (Special Issue 11): 66–68.
  3. Liu, Y.-C.; Sun, X.; Driscoll, C.; Miquelle, D. G.; Xu, X.; Martelli, P.; Uphyrkina, O.; Smith, J. L. D.; O’Brien, S. J.; Luo, S.-J. (2018). "Genome-wide evolutionary analysis of natural history and adaptation in the world's tigers". Current Biology. 28 (23): 3840–3849. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2018.09.019. PMID 30482605.
  4. Mazák, J. H. & Groves, C. P. (2006). "A taxonomic revision of the tigers (Panthera tigris)" (PDF). Mammalian Biology. 71 (5): 268–287. doi:10.1016/j.mambio.2006.02.007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-03-13.
  5. Cracraft, J.; Feinstein, J.; Vaughn, J.; Helm-Bychowski, K. (1998). "Sorting out tigers (Panthera tigris): Mitochondrial sequences, nuclear inserts, systematics, and conservation genetics" (PDF). Animal Conservation. 1 (2): 139–150. doi:10.1111/j.1469-1795.1998.tb00021.x.
  6. Temminck, C. J. (1844). "Aperçu général et spécifique sur les mammifères qui habitent le Japon et les iles qui en dépendent". In von Siebold, F.; Temminck, C. J.; Schlegel, H.; de Haan, W.; Nakazawa, K.; Tanaka, S.; Kuroda, N.; Okada, Y. (eds.). Fauna Japonica sive Descriptio animalium, quae in itinere per Japoniam, jussu et auspiciis superiorum, qui summum in India Batava imperium tenent, suscepto, annis 1825 - 1830. Mammalia. Lugduni Batavorum: Arnz et Socius. pp. 1–59.
  7. Pocock, R. I. (1929). "Tigers". Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. 33: 505–541.
  8. Mazák, J. H. & Groves, C. P. (2006). "A taxonomic revision of the tigers (Panthera tigris) of Southeast Asia". Mammalian Biology-Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde. 71 (5): 268–287. doi:10.1016/j.mambio.2006.02.007.
  9. Kitchener, A. C.; Yamaguchi, N. (2010). "What is a tiger? Biogeography, morphology, and taxonomy". In Tilson, R.; Nyhus, P. J. (eds.). Tigers of the World (Second ed.). London: Academic Press. pp. 53–84. doi:10.1016/B978-0-8155-1570-8.00004-9. ISBN 9780080947518.
  10. Mazák, V. (1981). "Panthera tigris" (PDF). Mammalian Species. 152 (152): 1–8. doi:10.2307/3504004. JSTOR 3504004. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-03-09.
  11. Kitchener, A. (1999). "Tiger distribution, phenotypic variation and conservation issues". In Seidensticker, J.; Christie, S., Jackson, P. (eds.). Riding the Tiger. Tiger Conservation in human-dominated landscapes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 19–39. ISBN 978-0-521-64057-2. Archived from the original on 2012-04-23.
  12. Nowell, K., Jackson, P. (1996). Tiger Panthera tigris (Linnaeus 1758) in: Wild Cats: status survey and conservation action plan. IUCN/SSC Cat Specialist Group, Gland, Switzerland
  13. O’Brien, T. G.; Kinnard, M. F. & Wibisono, H. T. (2003). "Crouching tigers, hidden prey: Sumatran tiger and prey populations in a tropical forest landscape". Animal Conservation. 6 (2): 131–139. doi:10.1017/S1367943003003172.
  14. Wibisono, H. T. & Pusarini, W. (2010). "Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae): A review of conservation status". Integrative Zoology. 5 (4): 313–323. doi:10.1111/j.1749-4877.2010.00219.x. PMID 21392349.
  15. Luskin, M. S.; Albert, W. R.; Tobler, M. W. (2017). "Sumatran tiger survival threatened by deforestation despite increasing densities in parks". Nature Communications. 8 (1): 1783. doi:10.1038/s41467-017-01656-4. PMC 5717059. PMID 29208916.
  16. Borner, M. (1978). "Status and conservation of the Sumatran tiger". Carnivore. 1 (1): 97–102.
  17. Santiapillai, C.; Ramono, W. S. (1987). "Tiger numbers and habitat evaluation in Indonesia". In Tilson, R. L.; Seal, U. S. (eds.). Tigers of the World: The Biology, Biopolitics, Management, and Conservation of an Endangered Species. New Jersey: Noyes Publications. pp. 85–91. ISBN 0815511337.
  18. Griffiths, M. (1994). "Population density of Sumatran tigers in Gunung Leuser National Park". In Tilson, R. L.; Soemarna, K.; Ramono, W. S.; Lusli, S.; Traylor-Holzer, K.; Seal, U. S. (eds.). Sumatran Tiger Populations and Habitat Viability Analysis. Apple Valley: Indonesian Directorate General of Forest Protection and Nature Conservation and IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group. pp. 93–102.
  19. Wibisono, H. T.; Linkie, M.; Guillera-Arroita, G.; Smith, J. A.; Sunarto (2011). "Population Status of a Cryptic Top Predator: An Island-Wide Assessment of Tigers in Sumatran Rainforests". PLoS ONE. 6 (11): e25931. Bibcode:2011PLoSO...625931W. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0025931. PMC 3206793. PMID 22087218.
  20. Sunarto; Kelly, M. J.; Parakkasi, K.; Klenzendorf, S.; Septayuda, E.; Kurniawan, H. (2012). Gratwicke, B. (ed.). "Tigers Need Cover: Multi-Scale Occupancy Study of the Big Cat in Sumatran Forest and Plantation Landscapes". PLoS ONE. 7 (1): e30859. Bibcode:2012PLoSO...730859S. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0030859. PMC 3264627. PMID 22292063.
  21. Sunarto (2011). Ecology and restoration of Sumatran tigers in forest and plantation landscapes (PhD dissertation). Blacksburg: Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. Archived from the original on 2013-05-26.
  22. Kinnaird, M. F.; Sanderson, E. W.; O'Brien, T. G.; Wibisono, H.; Woolmer, G. (2003). "Deforestation trends in a tropical landscape and implications for forest mammals" (PDF). Conservation Biology. 17: 245–257. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1739.2003.02040.x.
  23. Linkie, M.; Martyr, D. J.; Holden, J.; Yanuar, A.; Hartana, A. T.; Sugardjito, J.; Leader-Williams, N. (2003). "Habitat Destruction and Poaching Threaten the Sumatran Tiger in Kerinci Seblat National Park, Sumatra". Oryx. 37 (1): 41–48. doi:10.1017/s0030605303000103.
  24. Aldred, J. (2008). "Sumatran deforestation driving climate change and species extinction, report warns". The Guardian. Retrieved 2015-10-29.
  25. Plowden, C.; Bowles, D. (1997). "The Illegal Market in Tiger Parts in Northern Sumatra, Indonesia". Oryx. 31 (1): 59–66. doi:10.1017/s0030605300021918.
  26. Ng, J. and Nemora (2007). Tiger trade revisited in Sumatra, Indonesia (PDF). Petaling Jaya, Malaysia: Traffic, Southeast Asia.
  27. Franklin, N.; Bastoni; Sriyanto; Siswomartono, D.; Manansang, J.; Tilson, R. (1999). "Last of the Indonesian tigers: a cause for optimism". In Seidensticker, J.; Christie, S.; Jackson, P. (eds.). Riding the Tiger: Tiger Conservation in Human-Dominated Landscapes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 130–147. ISBN 978-0521648356.
  28. Tilson, R. (1999). Sumatran Tiger Project Report No. 17 & 18: July − December 1999. Grant number 1998-0093-059. Jakarta: Indonesian Sumatran Tiger Steering Committee.
  29. Nyhus, P.; Sumianto; Tilson, R. (1999). "The tiger-human dimension in southeast Sumatra". In Seidensticker, J.; Christie, S.; Jackson, P. (eds.). Riding the Tiger: Tiger Conservation in Human-Dominated Landscapes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 144–145. ISBN 978-0521648356.
  30. Boediwardhana, Wahyoe (2012-12-15). "Sumatran tiger sperm bank". The Jakarta Post. Archived from the original on 2014-10-23.
  31. Bhagabati, Nirmal K.; Ricketts, T.; Sulistyawan, T. B. S.; Conte, M.; Ennaanay, D.; Hadian, O.; McKenzie, E.; Olwero, N.; Rosenthal, A. (2014). "Ecosystem services reinforce Sumatran tiger conservation in land use plans". Biological Conservation. 169: 147–156. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2013.11.010.
  32. Linkie, M.; Martyr, D. J.; Harihar, A.; Risdianto, D.; Nugraha, R. T.; Maryati; Leader-Williams, N.; Wong, W.-M. (2015). "Safeguarding Sumatran tigers: evaluating effectiveness of law enforcement patrols and local informant networks". Journal of Applied Ecology. 52 (4): 851–860. doi:10.1111/1365-2664.12461.
  33. Bateman, I. J.; Fisher, B.; Fitzherbert, E.; Glew, D.; Naidoo, R. (2010). "Tigers, markets and palm oil: market potential for conservation". Oryx. 44 (2): 230–234. doi:10.1017/S0030605309990901.
  34. Williams, Ian (2010-11-19). "On the prowl for man-eating tigers". NBC News. Archived from the original on 2013-11-13.
  35. "Tambling Ketambahan Tiga Anak Harimau". Media Indonesia. 2011-11-01. Archived from the original on 2012-04-07. English translation at Google Translate
  36. Apriadi Gunawan & Jon Afrizal (2016). "Sumatran tigers need more sanctuaries: Government".
  37. "Tiger Cubs Make Their Debut At Sydney Zoo". HuffPost. 29 October 2011.
  38. "Endangered Sumatran Tiger Gives Birth to Trio of Cubs at Taronga Zoo". Yahoo! News. 2019.
  39. "London Zoo newborn Sumatran tiger cub found dead". BBC News. 2013.
  40. Aldred, J. (30 March 2014). "Sumatran tiger triplets born at London zoo". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 24 October 2014.
  41. "Sumatran tiger cubs born at London Zoo". BBC News. 13 March 2014. Archived from the original on 25 March 2014.
  42. "ZSL London Zoo welcomes tiger cub twins". Pressat. 30 June 2016.
  43. Penning, M. (2017). "Disney's Animal Kingdom Celebrates Birth of Critically Endangered Sumatran Tiger Cubs". Disney Parks Blog.
  44. "London Zoo Sumatran tiger Melati killed in fight". BBC News. 2019.
  45. Rawlinson, K. (2019). "Sumatran tiger killed by potential mate on first meeting in London zoo". The Guardian.
This article is issued from Wikipedia. The text is licensed under Creative Commons - Attribution - Sharealike. Additional terms may apply for the media files.