Stormfront (website)

Stormfront is a white nationalist,[3] white supremacist,[4] antisemitic, Holocaust denial,[5][6][7] neo-Nazi[8] Internet forum, and the Web's first major racial hate site.[9] In addition to its promotion of Holocaust denial, Stormfront has increasingly become active in the propagation of Islamophobia.

Type of site
White supremacist, Neo-Nazi, Holocaust denial forum
Available inEnglish, with sub-forums in multiple languages
OwnerDon Black
Created byDon Black
Alexa rank 11,906 (October 2017)[1]
RegistrationRequired to post (except in open sub-fora)
LaunchedNovember 1996 (1996-11)[2]
Current statusOnline

Stormfront began as an online bulletin board system in the early 1990s before being established as a website in 1996 by former Ku Klux Klan leader and white supremacist Don Black. It received national attention in the United States in 2000 after being featured as the subject of a documentary, Stormfront has been the subject of controversy after being removed from French, German, and Italian Google indexes, for targeting an online Fox News poll on racial segregation, and for having political candidates as members. Its prominence has grown since the 1990s, attracting attention from watchdog organizations that oppose racism and antisemitism.

In August 2017, Stormfront was taken offline for just over a month when its registrar seized its domain name due to complaints that it promoted hatred and that some of its members were linked to murder.[10][11] The Lawyers' Committee for Civil Rights Under Law claimed credit for the action after advocating for Stormfront's web host, Network Solutions, to enforce its Terms of Service agreement which prohibits users from using its services to incite violence.[12][13]


Early history

Stormfront began in 1990 as an online bulletin board for white nationalist David Duke's campaign for United States senator for Louisiana. The name "Stormfront" was chosen for its connotations of a political or military front (such as the German Nazi stormtroopers, the Sturmabteilung or SA) and an analogy with weather fronts that invokes the idea of a tumultuous storm ending in cleansing.[14] The website was founded in 1996 by Don Black, a former grand wizard of the Ku Klux Klan in the 1970s and a member of the National Socialist White People's Party.[15][16] Black first received computer training while he was imprisoned for his role in an abortive 1981 attempt to overthrow the government of Dominica.[17][18]

Although Stormfront became the first website associated with white supremacy, its founding as a private cyberspace medium for white supremacy was based on the earlier online bulletin board system Liberty Net.[19][20] Liberty Net was implemented in 1984 by Klan grand dragon Louis Beam and protected by four password-protected computers that took the FBI two years to decrypt.[21] Liberty Net's code-accessed message board contained personal ads along with recruitment material and information about the white power movement.[21] Liberty Net's success as a computer platform led to Stormfront's establishment and later conversion into a website.

Until this point, attempts at using the Internet as opposed to bulletin boards for the white pride movement had limited success,[22] but Stormfront developed a following with the growth of the Internet during the 1990s.[14][23] By 1999, nearly 2,000 websites associated with white supremacy existed, with the recruitment power of reaching millions across the United States.[24]

National attention

The website has received considerable attention in the United States, given that, as of 2009, it had over 120,000 active members.[25]

The 2000 CBS/HBO TV documentary special focused on the rise of hate groups online and included input from Don Black, the founder of Stormfront.[26] Narrated by Morris Dees of the Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC), it featured interviews with Black and his son Derek as well as interviews with other white nationalist groups and organizations.[26] Black had participated in the hope that the broadcast would show some sympathy towards the white nationalist movement, but focused exclusively on the group's tactics and not its grievances.[24]


In 2002, Google complied with French and German legislation forbidding links to websites which host white supremacist, Holocaust-denying or historical revisionist material by removing from their French and German indexes.[27]

Stormfront returned to the news in May 2003, when Fox News Channel host Bill O'Reilly reported on a racially segregated prom being held in Georgia and posted a poll on his website asking his viewers if they would send their own children to one. The next night, O'Reilly announced that he could not report the results of the poll as it appeared Stormfront had urged its members to vote in the poll, thus skewing the numbers.[28]

Doug Hanks, a candidate for the city council of Charlotte, North Carolina, withdrew his nomination in August 2005 after it was revealed that he had posted on Stormfront. Hanks had posted more than 4,000 comments over three years, including one in which he described black people as "rabid beasts".[29][30] Hanks said his postings were designed to gain the trust of Stormfront users to help him write a novel: "I did what I thought I needed to do to establish myself as a credible white nationalist."[29]

In 2012, Italian police blocked the website and arrested four people for inciting racial hatred.[31] The measure was taken after the publication of a blacklist of "prominent Jews and people who support Jews and immigrants" on the Italian section of the website. The list included possible targets of violent attacks, including gypsy camps.[32] The subsequent year, in November 2013, Italian police raided the homes of 35 Stormfront posters. One man who was arrested in Mantua had two loaded weapons, a hand grenade casing, and a flag with a swastika in his possession.[33]

According to a 2014 two-year study by the Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC)'s Intelligence Report, registered Stormfront users have been disproportionately responsible for some of the most lethal hate crimes and mass killings since the site was put up in 1995. In the five years leading up to 2014, Stormfront members murdered nearly 100 people.[34][35][36][37] Of these, 77 were massacred by one Stormfront user, Anders Behring Breivik, a Norwegian terrorist who perpetrated the 2011 Norway attacks.[38]

Public profile and later history

The total of registered users is just shy of 300,000, a fairly astounding number for a site run by an ex-felon and former Alabama Klan leader. And that doesn't include thousands of visitors who never register as users. At press time, Stormfront ranked as the Internet's 13,648th most popular site, while the NAACP site, by comparison, ranked 32,640th. – The Year in Hate and Extremism, 2015[39]

In a 2001 USA Today article, journalist Tara McKelvey called Stormfront "the most visited white supremacist site on the Net."[18] The number of registered users on the site rose from 5,000 in January 2002 to 52,566 in June 2005,[40] by which year it was the 338th largest Internet forum, receiving more than 1,500 hits each weekday and ranking in the top one percent of Internet sites in terms of use.[41][42] By June 2008, the site was attracting more than 40,000 unique users each day.[43] Operating the site from its West Palm Beach, Florida headquarters is Black's full-time job, and he was assisted by his son and 40 moderators.[15][43][44] The public profile of the site attracted attention from groups such as the Simon Wiesenthal Center and the Anti-Defamation League (ADL).[45] The ADL describes Stormfront as having "served as a veritable supermarket of online hate, stocking its shelves with many forms of anti-Semitism and racism".[46]

In 2006, the Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC) reported a discussion on Stormfront in which white nationalists were encouraged to join the United States military to learn the skills necessary for winning a race war.[47][48] The 2008 United States presidential candidacy of African-American Democrat Barack Obama was a cause of significant concern for some Stormfront members:[43] the site received 2,000 new members the day after Obama was elected as President, and went offline temporarily due to the increase in visitors.[49] Stormfront posters saw Obama as representing a new multicultural era in the United States replacing "white rule", and feared that he would support illegal immigration and affirmative action and that he would help make white people a minority group.[43]

During the 2008 primary campaigns, The New York Times mistakenly reported that Stormfront had donated $500 to Republican presidential hopeful Ron Paul;[50] in fact, it was site owner Don Black who had contributed the money to Paul.[51] Following an April 2009 shooting, Richard Poplawski, a poster on the site, was charged with ambushing and killing three Pittsburgh Police officers and attempting to kill nine others.[52]

During the 2016 election season, site founder Don Black said that the site was experiencing huge spikes in traffic corresponding to controversial statements by Donald Trump, who is popular among white supremacists. In response, Black upgraded the site's servers.[53]

Black's son Derek, who was a long-time participant in the site, has disavowed the beliefs held by his father and family and the Stormfront site, according to an article in The Washington Post. Through his years in college, Derek Black came to feel that white nationalism is not supportable.[54]

In August 2017, Stormfront's domain name was seized by its registrar for "displaying bigotry, discrimination or hatred."[12] Earlier the same month, white supremacist news and commentary website The Daily Stormer had been removed from the public Internet for its involvement in the Unite the Right rally.[12]

The site came back online on September 29, 2017. As of October 2017, services to keep the site online were provided by Tucows, Network Solutions, and Cloudflare.[55]


Stormfront is a resource for those courageous men and women fighting to preserve their White Western culture, ideals and freedom of speech and association—a forum for planning strategies and forming political and social groups to ensure victory.

Stormfront mission statement.[56]

Stormfront is a white nationalist,[3] white supremacist[4] and neo-Nazi website[8] known as a hate site.[9]

It is a site on which Nazi mysticism and the personality cult of Adolf Hitler are sustained and Nazi iconography is used and accepted.[57] The website is organized primarily as a discussion forum with multiple thematic sub-fora including "News", "Ideology and Philosophy" ("Foundations for White Nationalism"), "Culture and Customs", "Theology", "Quotations", "Revisionism", "Science, Technology and Race" ("Genetics, eugenics, racial science and related subjects"), "Privacy", "Self-Defense, Martial Arts, and Preparedness", "Homemaking", "Education and Homeschooling", "Youth", and "Music and Entertainment".[40][43] There are boards for different geographic regions, and a section open to unregistered guests, who are elsewhere unable to post, and even then, only under heavy moderation.

Services hosts files from and links to a number of white nationalist and white racist websites,[19] an online dating service (for "heterosexual White Gentiles only"), and electronic mailing lists that allows the white nationalist community to discuss issues of interest.[22][45][58] It features a selection of current news reports, an archive of past stories, live streaming of The Political Cesspool radio show,[59] and a merchandise store featuring literature and music.[56] Stormfront has reportedly published stories aimed at children.[57]

A 2001 study of recruitment by extremist groups on the Internet noted that Stormfront at that time came close to offering most of the standard services offered by web portals, including an internal search engine, web hosting, and categorized links, and lacking only an Internet search engine and the provision of free email for its members (though a limited email service was available at the price of $30 a month).[57]


Prominently featured on the homepage is a Celtic cross surrounded by the words "white pride, world wide." A mission statement praises courage and freedom. Stormfront states it discourages racial slurs, and prohibits violent threats and descriptions of anything illegal.[40][57] Others state that blatant hate and calls for violence are only kept off the opening page.[56][60]

The site uses the Fraktur font,[61] which was the favored font of the Nazi Party when it emerged in the early 1920s. Official Nazi documents and letterheads employed the font, and the cover of Hitler's Mein Kampf used a hand-drawn version of it.[62]

Purpose and appeal

Don Black has long worked to increase the mainstream appeal of white supremacism.[40] Black established Stormfront to heighten awareness of perceived anti-white discrimination and government actions detrimental to white people,[63] and to create a virtual community of white extremists.[14][43][57][64] Black owns the site's servers, so he is not dependent upon website hosting providers.[42]

Black's organization inculcated enough white pride to make "its worldwide aspirations meaningful and socially significant".[56] Stormfront keeps the rhetoric in its forums muted, discourages racial slurs, and prohibits violent threats and descriptions of anything illegal.[40][57] Site moderator Jamie Kelso was reportedly "the motivating force behind real community-building among Stormfront members" due to his energy and enthusiasm in organizing offline events.[65] Black's positioning the site as a community with the explicit purpose of "defending the white race" helped sustain the community, as it attracts white people who define themselves in opposition to ethnic minorities, particularly Jews.[40]

Stormfront established to discredit Martin Luther King, Jr.[66] In a 2001 study of white nationalist groups including Stormfront, academics Beverly Ray and George E. Marsh II commented: "Like the Nazis before them, they rely upon a blend of science, ignorance, and mythology to prop up their arguments".[57][67]


Stormfront presents itself as being engaged in a struggle for unity, identifying culture, speech and free association as its core concerns,[56] though members of Stormfront are especially passionate about racial purity.[65] It promotes a lone wolf mentality, which links it to white nationalist theorist Louis Beam's influential work on leaderless resistance and offers a sympathetic assessment of Benjamin Nathaniel Smith, a white supremacist who committed suicide after a racially motivated killing spree in July 1999.[57] Violet Jones notes that Stormfront credits its mission to "the founding myth of an America created, built, and ideologically grounded by the descendants of white Europeans."[68] Don Black has specifically compared his views to those of the Founding Fathers, whom he asserts "did not believe that an integrated black and white society was possible in America."[69] Asked in 2008 by an interviewer for the Italian newspaper la Repubblica whether Stormfront was a 21st-century version of the Ku Klux Klan without the iconography, Black responded affirmatively, though he noted that he would never say so to an American journalist.[70] In addition to its promotion of antisemitism and Holocaust denial, Stormfront has increasingly become active in the propagation of Islamophobia.[71]

See also


  1. " Site Info". Alexa Internet. Retrieved April 11, 2018.
  2. Wojcieszak, Magdalena (June 16, 2009). "Cyber Racism: White Supremacy Online and the New Attack on Civil Rights". Sociological Inquiry 80 (1). Retrieved March 24, 2016. ...John Black founded stormfron in November 1996….
  3. Sources which consider Stormfront a white nationalist website include:
    • Keating, Dan (May 2, 1995). "White supremacists booted from Internet". Knight-Ridder Newspapers. 'I wasn't surprised,' said Don Black of West Palm Beach, who runs the Stormfront World Wide Web site for white nationalists.
    • Backover, Andrew (November 8, 1999). "Hate sets up shop on Internet". The Denver Post. Archived from the original on August 16, 2017. Nationally,, a white nationalist site, is considered the granddaddy of online hatred.
    • Jean Winegardner (February 17, 1998). "Is Hate Young and New on the Web?". USC Annenberg's Online Journalism Review. Archived from the original on February 14, 2002. Don Black, 44, a white nationalist since the age of 15, runs a site many would put in the hate speech category. He [is] the founder of Stormfront, a white nationalist Web site.CS1 maint: unfit url (link)
    • Anchor: Ted Koppel (January 13, 1998). "Hate and the Internet". ABC News Nightline. ABC. [...] Storm Front, a Web site dedicated to the white nationalist movement [...] Storm Front, a white nationalist Web site [...]
    • Swain, Carol Miller (2002). The New White Nationalism in America. Cambridge University Press. p. 98. ISBN 978-0-521-80886-6. Don Black, leader of the white nationalist organization Stormfront
  4. Sources which consider Stormfront a white supremacist website include:
    • Abel, David Schwab (February 19, 1998). "The Racist Next Door". New Times Broward-Palm Beach. Archived from the original on June 6, 2015. Black's swastika-strewn "Stormfront" – the only white supremacist Website on the Internet before the bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City
    • Etchingham, Julie (January 12, 2000). " expands on the net". BBC News. Archived from the original on May 1, 2011. Retrieved September 14, 2007.
    • Lloyd, Robin (August 12, 1999). "Web trackers hunt racist groups online". CNN. Archived from the original on August 17, 2000. Retrieved September 14, 2007.
    • "Hate on the World Wide Web:A Brief Guide to Cyberspace Bigotry". Anti-Defamation League. October 1998. Archived from the original on October 1, 2002. Retrieved January 1, 2009.
    • Potok, Mark (September 20, 2007). "Jena Rally Sparks White Supremacist Rage, Lynching Threat". Southern Poverty Law Center. Archived from the original on January 31, 2019. Retrieved January 29, 2008.
    • Ripley, Amanda (March 5, 2005). "The Bench Under Siege". Time. p. 2. Archived from the original on December 10, 2012. Retrieved January 29, 2008.
    • Scheneider, Keith (March 13, 1995). "Hate Groups Use Tools Of the Electronic Trade". The New York Times. Archived from the original on August 13, 2019. Retrieved January 29, 2001.
    • Atkins, Stephen E. (August 30, 2002). Encyclopedia of Modern American Extremists and Extremist Groups. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. ISBN 978-0-313-31502-2. Retrieved July 19, 2008. In 1995 Black brought up a Web site, Stormfront, which now serves as the primary site for white supremacist Internet communications.
    • Mooney, Linda A.; Knox, David; Schach, Caroline (2004). "Race and Ethic Relations". Understanding Social Problems. Thomson Wadsworth. p. 181. ISBN 978-0-534-62514-6. Retrieved July 19, 2008. White supremacist groups such as Stormfront spread their message of racial hate through their Web site.
    • Wang, Wallace (2006). "Hate Groups and Terrorists on the Internet". Steal This Computer Book 4.0: What They Won't Tell You About the Internet (4th ed.). San Francisco: No Starch Press Inc. p. 239. ISBN 978-1-59327-105-3. Retrieved July 19, 2008. Don Black, an ex-Grand Dragon of the Ku Klux Klan and owner of the white supremacist homepage Stormfront (
    • Casey, Natasha (February 2006). "'The Best Kept Secret in Retail': Selling Business in Contemporary America". In Negra, Diane (ed.). The Irish in Us: Irishness, Performativity, and Popular Culture. Duke University Press. p. 94. ISBN 978-0-8223-3740-9. Retrieved July 19, 2008. … the inclusion of the Stormfront flag specifically defines its audience as white supremacist.
    • Gerstenfeld, Phyllis B. (June 26, 2003). Hate Crimes: Causes, Controls, and Controversies. Sage Publications. p. 227. ISBN 978-0-7619-2814-0. A search for the term 'Stormfront' on the American version of Google results in a list of sites with the white supremacist Web site Stormfront first on the list.
    • Lane, Henry W.; DiStefano, Joseph J.; Maznevski, Martha L. (2005). International Management Behavior: Text, Readings, and Cases (Fifth ed.). Blackwell Publishing. p. 539. ISBN 978-1-4051-2671-7. After his release in 1985, Black launched the first white supremacist Web site. Black's "Stormfront" was one of the largest hate sites on the Internet
    • Jepson, Peter (2003). Tackling Militant Racism. Ashgate Publishing. p. 151. ISBN 978-0-7546-2163-8. Stormfront is a white supremacist organisation. footnote 83.
  5. Roberts, Jeff John (December 20, 2016). "Google Demotes Holocaust Denial and Hate Sites in Update to Algorithm". Fortune. Archived from the original on April 29, 2017.
  6. Cadwalladr, Carole (December 17, 2016). "How to bump Holocaust deniers off Google's top spot? Pay Google". The Guardian. Archived from the original on December 19, 2016.
  7. Darnell, Scott (Spring 2010). Measuring Holocaust Denial in the United States (PDF) (Report). Harvard University. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 30, 2019.
  8. Sources which consider Stormfront a Neo-Nazi website include:
    • Kim, T.K. (Summer 2005). "Electronic Storm – Stormfront Grows a Thriving Neo-Nazi Community". Intelligence Report. Southern Poverty Law Center (118). Archived from the original on May 21, 2006. Retrieved December 30, 2008.
    • Zhou, Yilu; Reid, Edna; Qin, Jialun; Chen, Hsinchun; Lai, Guanpi (2008). "U.S. Domestic Extremist Groups on the Web: Link and Content Analysis" (PDF). University of Arizona. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 9, 2010. Retrieved December 27, 2008., a neo-Nazi's Web site set up in 1995, is considered the first major domestic "hate site" on the World Wide Web because of its depth of content and its presentation style which represented a new period for online right-wing extremism
    • Eshman, Rob (December 23, 2008). "Jewish Money". Jewish Journal. Archived from the original on July 12, 2017. Earlier this week, when I entered the search terms "Madoff" and "Jewish" into Google, the top responses included and, a neo-Nazi Web site.
    • Hildebrand, Joe (January 1, 2008). "RSL slams Australia Day hijack". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on January 22, 2009. Much of the activity has been co-ordinated through the neo-Nazi website Stormfront, whose Australian arm is moderated by 18-year-old Newcastle resident Rhys McLean.
    • Levant, Ezra (2009). Shakedown: How Our Government Is Undermining Democracy in the Name of Human Rights. McClelland & Stewart. p. 208. ISBN 978-0-7710-4619-3. A particularly rough stretch of road is a neo-Nazi website called
    • Kaplan, Jeffrey; Lööw, Heléne, eds. (2002). The Cultic Milieu: Oppositional Subcultures in an Age of Globalization. Rowman Altamira. p. 224. ISBN 978-0-7591-0204-0. Also, Web Pages such as ...'Stormfront'... in addition to racist, anti-Semitic, and neo-Nazi messages and illustrations, provide links...
    • Friedman, James, ed. (2002). Reality Squared: Televisual Discourse on the Real. Rutgers University Press. p. 163. ISBN 978-0-8135-2989-9. Stormfront provides its viewers with... a general store stocked with Ku Klux Klan (KKK) and neo-Nazi literature and music...
    • Katel, Peter (2010). "Hate Groups: Is Extremism on the Rise in the United States?". In CQ Researcher (ed.). Issues in Terrorism and Homeland Security (Second ed.). SAGE Publications. p. 79. ISBN 978-1-4129-9201-5. ...a March 13 Web post by Poplawski to the neo-Nazi Web site Stormfront.
    • Jacobs, Steven Leonard (2006). "Jewish "Officialdom" and The Passion of the Christ: Who Said What and What Did They Say?". In Garber, Zev (ed.). Mel Gibson's Passion: The Film, the Controversy, and its Implications. Purdue University Press. p. 147. ISBN 978-1-55753-405-7. JSTOR j.ctt6wq6d1. ...Internet websites (e.g. Angry White Female web-page, Vanguard News Network, Christian Identity website, Stormfront Neo-Nazi website, National Alliance website...)
    • Miller, Mark Crispin (2007). Fooled Again: The Real Case for Electoral Reform. Basic Books. p. 461. ISBN 978-0-465-04580-8. ...appearing on such ultra-rightist websites as Free Republic and the neo-Nazi outfit Stormfront ("WHITE PRIDE WORLD WIDE")
    • Moulitsas, Markos (2010). American Taliban: How War, Sex, Sin, and Power Bind Jihadists and the Radical Right. Polipoint Press. p. 56. ISBN 978-1-936227-02-0. Poplawski was active on white supremacist and neo-Nazi Stormfront internet forums.
    • Martin, Andrew; Petro, Patrice, eds. (2006). Rethinking Global Security: Media, Popular Culture, and the "War on terror". Rutgers University Press. p. 174. ISBN 978-0-8135-3830-3. ...9/11 Internet chat-room discussions, including radical hate-group sites like the neo-Nazi
    • Gorenfeld, John (2008). Bad Moon Rising: How Reverend Moon Created the Washington Times, Seduced the Religious Right, and Built an American Kingdom. Polipoint Press. p. 68. ISBN 978-0-9794822-3-6. She has even written in to neo-Nazi Web site Stormfront, geeking out together on Peter Jackson's film adaptation;...
  9. Sources which identify Stormfront as the Internet's "first hate site" include:
  10. "World's oldest neo-Nazi website Stormfront shut down". The Telegraph. Associated Press. August 29, 2017. Archived from the original on August 29, 2017.
  11. Hern, Alex (August 29, 2017). "Stormfront: 'murder capital of internet' pulled offline after civil rights action". The Guardian. Archived from the original on September 21, 2017.
  12. Crocker, Brittany (August 29, 2017). "White supremacist forum site Stormfront seized by domain hosts". Knoxville News Sentinel. USA Today. Archived from the original on April 22, 2019. Retrieved June 5, 2019.
  13. "Lawyers' Committee for Civil Rights Under Law Takes Action Leading to Shut Down of" (Press release). Lawyers' Committee for Civil Rights Under Law. August 28, 2017. Archived from the original on April 13, 2019. Retrieved June 5, 2019.
  14. Swain, Carol M.; Nieli, Russ, eds. (2003). "Don Black". Contemporary Voices of White Nationalism in America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 153–165. ISBN 978-0-521-01693-3.
  15. Schwab Abel, David (February 19, 1998). "The Racist Next Door". New Times Broward-Palm Beach. Archived from the original on September 12, 2015.
  16. Schultz, David A., ed. (2000). It's Show Time!: Media, Politics, and Popular Culture. Frankfurt Am Main: P. Lang. p. 236. ISBN 978-0-8204-4135-1.
  17. Lloyd, Robin (August 8, 1999). "Web trackers hunt racist groups online". CNN. Archived from the original on August 17, 2000. Retrieved September 14, 2007.
  18. McKelvey, Tara (August 16, 2001). "Father and Son Team on Hate Site". USA Today. Gannett Company. Archived from the original on January 24, 2019. Retrieved January 29, 2008.
  19. Swain, Carol Miller (2002). The New White Nationalism in America. Cambridge University Press. pp. 30–32. ISBN 978-0-521-80886-6. Stormfront has links to many dozens of other white nationalist and white racist websites, and many of these also feed into Stormfront.
  20. Altschiller, Donald (2015). Hate Crimes: A Reference Handbook (Third ed.). Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 9781610699464. OCLC 909777157.
  21. Belew, Kathleen (December 31, 2018). Bring the War Home: The White Power Movement and Paramilitary America. Cambridge, MA and London, England: Harvard University Press. doi:10.4159/9780674984943. ISBN 9780674984943.
  22. Kaplan, Jeffrey; Weinberg, Leonard (1998). The Emergence of a Euro-American Radical Right. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press. pp. 160–161. ISBN 978-0-8135-2564-8.
  23. Etchingham, Julie (January 12, 2000). " expands on the net". BBC News. Archived from the original on February 6, 2011. Retrieved September 14, 2007.
  24. "The New White Nationalism in America: Its Challenge to Integration". Nations and Nationalism. 9 (4): 641–642. September 26, 2003. doi:10.1111/1469-8219.00143. ISSN 1354-5078.
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  26. Saslow, Eli (September 18, 2018). Rising Out of Hatred: The Awakening of a Former White Nationalist. ISBN 9781984833594. OCLC 1055267618.
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  33. "Italian Police Raid Homes of Suspected Online anti-Semites". Haaretz. The Associated Press and JTA. November 15, 2013.
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  37. Newcomb, Alyssa (April 17, 2014). "Stormfront Website Posters Have Murdered Almost 100 People, Watchdog Group Says". ABC News. Archived from the original on April 28, 2019. Retrieved September 17, 2014.
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  40. Daniels, Jessie (2008). "Race, Civil Rights and Hate Speech in the Digital Era". In Everett, Anna (ed.). Learning Race and Ethnicity: Youth and Digital Media. MIT Press. p. 133. ISBN 978-0-262-05091-3. Retrieved July 19, 2008. Black has long been advocate for 'mainstreaming' the white supremacist movement, and the Internet is his preferred medium for doing so. His first and primary presence is
  41. Jessup, Michael (2006). "The Sword of Truth in a Sea of Lies: The Ideology of Hate". In Priest, Robert J.; Nieves, Alvaro L. (eds.). This Side of Heaven: Race, Ethnicity, and Christian Faith. Oxford, Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press. p. 165. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195310566.003.0011. ISBN 978-0-19-531056-6.
  42. Cohen-Almagor, Raphael (November 1, 2005). "Conclusion". The Scope of Tolerance: Studies on the Costs of Free Expression and Freedom of the Press (1st ed.). Routledge. p. 254. doi:10.4324/9780203003411. ISBN 978-0-415-35758-6. Retrieved July 21, 2008.
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