States and union territories of India

India is a federal union comprising 28 states and 9 union territories, for a total of 37 entities. The states and union territories are further subdivided into districts and smaller administrative divisions.

States and union territories of India
CategoryFederated states
LocationRepublic of India
Number28 States
9 Union territories
PopulationsStates: Sikkim - 610,577 (lowest); Uttar Pradesh - 199,812,341(highest)
Union Territories: Lakshadweep - 64,473 (lowest); Delhi - 16,787,941 (highest)
AreasStates: 3,702 km2 (1,429 sq mi) Goa – 342,269 km2 (132,151 sq mi) Rajasthan
Union territories: 32 km2 (12 sq mi) Lakshadweep – 59,146 km2 (22,836 sq mi) Ladakh
GovernmentState governments, Union government (Union territories)
SubdivisionsDistricts, Divisions
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of

Responsibilities and authorities

The Constitution of India distributes the sovereign executive and legislative powers exercisable with respect to the territory of any State between the Union and that State.[1]



The Indian subcontinent has been ruled by many different ethnic groups throughout its history, each instituting their own policies of administrative division in the region.[2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12] During the British Raj, the original administrative structure was mostly kept, and India was divided into provinces (also called Presidencies) that were directly governed by the British and princely states which were nominally controlled by a local prince or raja loyal to the British Empire, which held de facto sovereignty (suzerainty) over the princely states.


Between 1947 and 1950 the territories of the princely states were politically integrated into the Indian Union. Most were merged into existing provinces; others were organised into new provinces, such as Rajputana, Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Bharat, and Vindhya Pradesh, made up of multiple princely states; a few, including Mysore, Hyderabad, Bhopal, and Bilaspur, became separate provinces. The new Constitution of India, which came into force on 26 January 1950, made India a sovereign democratic republic. The new republic was also declared to be a "Union of States".[13] The constitution of 1950 distinguished between three main types of states:

States reorganization (1951–1956)

The Union Territory of Puducherry was created in 1954 comprising the previous French enclaves of Pondichéry, Karaikal, Yanam and Mahé.[14] Andhra State was created on 1 October 1953 from the Telugu-speaking northern districts of Madras State.[15]

The States Reorganisation Act of 1956 reorganised the states based on linguistic lines resulting in the creation of the new states.[16] As a result of this act, Madras State retained its name with Kanyakumari district added to form Travancore-Cochin. Andhra Pradesh was created with the merger of Andhra State with the Telugu-speaking districts of Hyderabad State in 1956. Kerala was created with the merger of Malabar district and the Kasaragod taluk of South Canara districts of Madras State with Travancore-Cochin. Mysore State was re-organized with the addition of districts of Bellary and South Canara (excluding Kasaragod taluk) and the Kollegal taluk of Coimbatore district from the Madras State, the districts of Belgaum, Bijapur, North Canara and Dharwad from Bombay State, the Kannada-majority districts of Bidar, Raichur and Gulbarga from Hyderabad State and the province of Coorg. The Laccadive Islands which were divided between South Canara and Malabar districts of Madras State were united and organised into the union territory of Lakshadweep.

Bombay State was enlarged by the addition of Saurashtra State and Kutch State, the Marathi-speaking districts of Nagpur Division of Madhya Pradesh and Marathwada region of Hyderabad State. Rajasthan and Punjab gained territories from Ajmer and Patiala and East Punjab States Union respectively and certain territories of Bihar was transferred to West Bengal.


Bombay State was split into the linguistic states of Gujarat and Maharashtra on 1 May 1960 by the Bombay Reorganisation Act.[17] Nagaland was formed on 1 December 1963.[18] The Punjab Reorganisation Act of 1966 resulted in the creation of Haryana on 1 November and the transfer of the northern districts of Punjab to Himachal Pradesh.[19] The act also designated Chandigarh as a union territory and the shared capital of Punjab and Haryana.[20][21]

Madras state was renamed Tamil Nadu in 1968. North-eastern states of Manipur, Meghalaya and Tripura were formed on 21 January 1972.[22] Mysore State was renamed as Karnataka in 1973. On 16 May 1975, Sikkim became the 22nd state of the Indian Union and the state's monarchy was abolished.[23] In 1987, Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram became states on 20 February, followed by Goa on 30 May, while Goa's northern exclaves of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli became separate union territories.[24]

In November 2000, three new states were created; namely, Chhattisgarh from eastern Madhya Pradesh, Uttaranchal from northwest Uttar Pradesh (renamed Uttarakhand in 2007) and Jharkhand from southern districts of Bihar.[25][26][27][28] Orissa was renamed as Odisha in 2011. Telangana was created on 2 June 2014 as ten former districts of north-western Andhra Pradesh.[29][30]

In August 2019, the Parliament of India passed the Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Act, 2019, which contains provisions to reorganise the state of Jammu and Kashmir into two union territories; Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh effective from 31 October 2019.[31]

In November 2019, the Government of India introduced legislation to merge the union territories of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli into a single union territory to be known as Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu.[32][33][34]

Current proposals


A clickable map of the 28 states and 9 union territories of India


State ISO 3166-2:IN Vehicle
Zone Capital Largest city Statehood Population[35] Area
Additional official
Andhra Pradesh IN-AP AP Southern Hyderabad (de jure)
Amaravati (de facto) Note 1[37][38]
Visakhapatnam 1 October 1953 49,506,799 160,205 Telugu
Arunachal Pradesh IN-AR AR North-Eastern Itanagar 20 February 1987 1,383,727 83,743 English
Assam IN-AS AS North-Eastern Dispur Guwahati 26 January 1950 31,205,576 78,550 Assamese Bengali, Bodo
Bihar IN-BR
BR Eastern Patna 26 January 1950 104,099,452 94,163 Hindi Urdu
Chhattisgarh IN-CT CG Central Naya Raipur 1 November 2000 25,545,198 135,194 Hindi
Goa IN-GA GA Western Panaji Vasco da Gama 30 May 1987 1,458,545 3,702 Konkani English, Marathi
Gujarat IN-GJ GJ Western Gandhinagar Ahmedabad 1 May 1960 60,439,692 196,024 Gujarati
Haryana IN-HR HR Northern Chandigarh Faridabad 1 November 1966 25,351,462 44,212 Hindi Punjabi[39][40]
Himachal Pradesh IN-HP HP Northern Shimla (Summer)
Dharamshala (Winter)
Shimla 25 January 1971 6,864,602 55,673 Hindi English
Jharkhand IN-JH JH Eastern Ranchi Jamshedpur 15 November 2000 32,988,134 74,677 Hindi Urdu[41]
Karnataka IN-KA KA Southern Bangalore 1 November 1956 61,095,297 191,791 Kannada English
Kerala IN-KL KL Southern Thiruvananthapuram Kochi 1 November 1956 33,406,061 38,863 Malayalam English
Madhya Pradesh IN-MP MP Central Bhopal Indore 1 November 1956 72,626,809 308,252 Hindi
Maharashtra IN-MH MH Western Mumbai (Summer)
Nagpur (Winter)[42]
Mumbai 1 May 1960 112,374,333 307,713 Marathi
Manipur IN-MN MN North-Eastern Imphal 21 January 1972 2,855,794 22,347 Meitei English
Meghalaya IN-ML ML North-Eastern Shillong 21 January 1972 2,966,889 22,720 English Khasi[lower-alpha 1]
Mizoram IN-MZ MZ North-Eastern Aizawl 20 February 1987 1,097,206 21,081 English, Hindi, Mizo
Nagaland IN-NL NL North-Eastern Kohima Dimapur 1 December 1963 1,978,502 16,579 English
Odisha IN-OR OD Eastern Bhubaneswar 1 April 1936 41,974,218 155,820 Odia
Punjab IN-PB PB Northern Chandigarh Ludhiana 1 November 1966 27,743,338 50,362 Punjabi
Rajasthan IN-RJ RJ Northern Jaipur 1 November 1956 68,548,437 342,269 Hindi English
Sikkim IN-SK SK North-Eastern Gangtok 16 May 1975 610,577 7,096 Nepali, English Bhutia, Gurung, Lepcha, Limbu, Manggar, Mukhia, Newari, Rai, Sherpa, Tamang
Tamil Nadu IN-TN TN Southern Chennai 26 January 1950 72,147,030 130,058 Tamil English
Telangana IN-TG TS Southern HyderabadNote 1 2 June 2014 35,193,978[43] 114,840[43] Telugu, Urdu[44]
Tripura IN-TR TR North-Eastern Agartala 21 January 1972 3,673,917 10,492 Bengali, English, Kokborok
Uttar Pradesh IN-UP UP Northern Lucknow Kanpur 26 January 1950 199,812,341 243,286 Hindi Urdu
Uttarakhand IN-UT UK Northern DehradunNote 2 9 November 2000 10,086,292 53,483 Hindi Sanskrit[45]
West Bengal IN-WB WB Eastern Kolkata 26 January 1950 91,276,115 88,752 Bengali, Nepali[lower-alpha 2] Hindi, Odia, Punjabi, Santali, Urdu
  • ^Note 1 Andhra Pradesh was divided into two states, Telangana and a residual Andhra Pradesh on 2 June 2014.[46][47][48] Hyderabad, located entirely within the borders of Telangana, is to serve as the capital for both states for a period of time not exceeding ten years.[49] The Government of Andhra Pradesh and the Andhra Pradesh Legislature completed the process of relocating to temporary facilities in the envisaged new capital city Amaravati in early 2017.[37]
  • ^Note 2 Dehradun is the interim capital of Uttarakhand. The town of Gairsain is envisaged as the state's new capital.

Union territories

Union territory ISO 3166-2:IN Vehicle code Capital Largest city Population[35] Area
Additional official
Andaman and Nicobar Islands IN-AN AN Port Blair 380,581 8,249 English, Hindi
Chandigarh IN-CH CH Chandigarh [lower-alpha 3] 1,055,450 114 English
Dadra and Nagar Haveli IN-DN DN Silvassa 343,709 491 Gujarati, Hindi Marathi
Daman and Diu IN-DD DD Daman 243,247 112 English, Gujarati, Hindi, Konkani[lower-alpha 4]
Delhi IN-DL DL New Delhi [lower-alpha 5] 16,787,941 1,490 Hindi Punjabi, Urdu[50]
Jammu and Kashmir IN-JK JK Srinagar (Summer)
Jammu (Winter)
Srinagar 12,258,433 55,538Note 3 Hindi, English Dogri, Kashmiri, Urdu
Ladakh IN-LA LA Leh, Kargil Leh 290,492 1,74,852Note 4 Ladakhi Balti
Lakshadweep IN-LD LD Kavaratti 64,473 32 Malayalam English
Puducherry IN-PY PY Pondicherry 1,247,953 492 English,[51] Tamil Malayalam, Telugu

^Note 3 Jammu and Kashmir has 42,241 km2 of area administered by India and 13,297 km2 of area controlled by Pakistan under Azad Kashmir which is claimed by India as part of Jammu and Kashmir.

^Note 4 Ladakh has 59,146 km2 of area administered by India and 72,971 km2 of area controlled by Pakistan under Gilgit-Baltistan, which is claimed by India as part of Ladakh. Additionally, it has 5,180 km2 of area controlled by the People's Republic of China under Trans-Karakoram Tract and 37,555 km2 of area controlled by the People's Republic of China under Aksai Chin, which is claimed by India as part of Ladakh.

Former states

Map State Capital Years Successor state(s)
Madhya Bharat Indore (Summer)
Gwalior (Winter)
1947–1956 Madhya Pradesh
Eastern States Union Raipur 1947–1948 Bihar, Odisha, Madhya Pradesh
Madras State Madras 1950–1969 Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka
Mysore State Mysore 1947–1973 Karnataka
Patiala and East Punjab States Union Patiala 1948–1956 Punjab
Bombay State Bombay 1947–1960 Maharashtra, Gujarat
Bhopal State Bhopal 1949–1956 Madhya Pradesh
Saurashtra Rajkot 1948–1956 Bombay State
Coorg State Madikeri 1950–1956 Mysore State
Travancore-Cochin Trivandrum 1949–1956 Kerala, Madras State
Hyderabad State Hyderabad 1948–1956 Andhra Pradesh, Telangana (since 2014) and partially Maharashtra, North Karnataka
Vindhya Pradesh Rewa 1948–1956 Madhya Pradesh
Kutch State Bhuj 1947–1956 Bombay State
Bilaspur State Bilaspur 1948–1954 Himachal Pradesh
Cooch Behar State Cooch Behar 1949 West Bengal
Ajmer State Ajmer 1947–1956 Rajasthan
Jammu and Kashmir Srinagar (Summer)
Jammu (Winter)
1954–2019 Jammu and Kashmir (union territory) and


See also


  1. Khasi language has been declared as the Additional Official Language for all purposes in the District, Sub-Division and Block level offices of the State Government located in the Districts of Khasi-Jaintia Hills of Meghalaya.
  2. Bengali and Nepali are the Official Languages in Darjeeling and Kurseong sub-divisions of Darjeeling district.
  3. Chandigarh is both a city and a union territory.
  4. It has also been informed that the communication with States/Centre has to be made in Hindi/English.
  5. Delhi is both a city and a union territory.


  1. "Article 73 broadly stated, provides that the executive power of the Union shall extend to the matters with respect to which Parliament has power to make laws. Article 162 similarly provides that the executive power of a State shall extend to the matters with respect to which the Legislature of a State has power to make laws. The Supreme Court has reiterated this position when it ruled in the Ramanaiah case that the executive power of the Union or of the State broadly speaking, is coextensive and coterminous with its respective legislative power." Territoriality of executive powers of states in India, Balwant Singh Malik, Constitutional Law, 1998
  2. Krishna Reddy (2003). Indian History. New Delhi: Tata McGraw Hill. ISBN 978-0-07-048369-9.
  3. Ramesh Chandra Majumdar (1977). Ancient India. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. ISBN 978-81-208-0436-4.
  4. Romila Thapar. A History of India: Part 1.
  5. V.D. Mahajan (2007). History of medieval India (10th ed.). New Delhi: S Chand. pp. 121, 122. ISBN 978-8121903646.
  6. Antonova, K.A.; Bongard-Levin, G.; Kotovsky, G. (1979). A History of India Volume 1. Moscow, USSR: Progress Publishers.
  7. Gupta Dynasty – MSN Encarta. Archived from the original on 1 November 2009.
  8. "India – Historical Setting – The Classical Age – Gupta and Harsha". 2 November 2009. Retrieved 16 May 2010.
  9. Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. (2002) [1955]. A history of South India from prehistoric times to the fall of Vijayanagar. New Delhi: Indian Branch, Oxford University Press. p. 239. ISBN 978-0-19-560686-7.
  10. Chandra, Satish. Medieval India: From Sultanate To The Mughals. p. 202.
  11. "Regional states, c. 1700–1850". Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
  12. Grewal, J. S. (1990). "Chapter 6: The Sikh empire (1799–1849)". The Sikh empire (1799–1849). The New Cambridge History of India. The Sikhs of the Punjab. Cambridge University Press.
  13. "Article 1". Constitution of India. Archived from the original on 2 April 2012.
  14. "Reorganisation of states" (PDF). Economic Weekly. Retrieved 31 December 2015.
  15. "Map of Madras Presidency in 1909". 28 March 2011. Retrieved 15 October 2013.
  16. "Article 1". Constitution of India. Law Ministry, GOI. Archived from the original on 2 April 2012. Retrieved 31 December 2015.
  17. J.C. Aggarwal, S.P. Agrawal (1995). Uttarakhand: Past, Present, and Future. New DElhi: Concept Publishing. pp. 89–90.
  18. "Nagaland History & Geography-Source". Retrieved 17 June 2013.
  19. "Himachal Pradesh Tenth Five Year Plan" (PDF). Retrieved 17 June 2013.
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  21. "State map of India". Travel India guide. Retrieved 17 June 2013.
  22. "Snapshot of North Eastern States" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 December 2009. Retrieved 17 February 2016.
  23. "About Sikkim". Official website of the Government of Sikkim. Archived from the original on 25 May 2009. Retrieved 15 June 2009.
  24. "Goa Chronology". Archived from the original on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 17 February 2016.
  25. "Official Website of Government of Jharkhand". Archived from the original on 21 June 2013. Retrieved 17 June 2013.
  26. "Chhattisgarh state – History". Archived from the original on 4 July 2010. Retrieved 17 June 2013.
  27. Chopra, Jasi Kiran (2 January 2007). "Uttaranchal is Uttarakhand, BJP cries foul". Times of India. Retrieved 22 January 2013.
  28. "About Us: Uttarakhand Government Portal, India". 9 November 2000. Retrieved 17 June 2013.
  29. "The Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014" (PDF). Ministry of law and justice, Government of India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 January 2016. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
  30. "Telangana bill passed by upper house". The Times of India. Retrieved 20 February 2014.
  31. "Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Bill (No. XXIX of) 2019" (PDF). Parliament of India. 5 August 2019. Retrieved 22 August 2019.
  32. Dutta, Amrita Nayak (10 July 2019). "There will be one UT less as Modi govt plans to merge Dadra & Nagar Haveli and Daman & Diu". New Delhi. The Print. Retrieved 22 August 2019.
  35. "List of states with Population, Sex Ratio and Literacy Census 2011".
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  37. "After 2200 Years, Amaravati Gets Back Power!".
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  41. "Research data".
  42. Monsoon session to start in Maha’s winter Capital Nagpur from July 4
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  44. "Urdu Gets First Language Status".
  45. "Sanskrit: Reviving the language in today's India – Livemint".
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  51. "Regional data" (PDF).
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