States and territories of Australia

Government in the Commonwealth of Australia is exercised on three levels: federal, states and territories, and local government.

Australian states and territories
CategoryStates (6)
Internal territories (3)
External territories (7)
LocationCommonwealth of Australia
Populations Two territories are uninhabited: Ashmore & Cartier Islands and Heard & McDonald Islands.
The most populous state/territory is New South Wales, with 7,955,900 people (2016).
Areas The smallest territory is the Cocos (Keeling) Islands with an area of 14 km2 (5.4 sq mi).
The largest state/territory is the Australian Antarctic Territory, which is 5,896,500 km2 (2,276,700 sq mi).
SubdivisionsLocal government areas
Cadastral divisions

There are six states: New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, Western Australia, South Australia and Tasmania. (Historically, each is a successor to one of the previous Australian colonies.) Each state has its own constitution, with its own legislature (parliament), judiciary and executive. The state parliaments have plenary legislative power, except that some areas of legislative power are exclusive to the federal parliament, many others are exercised concurrently with it and, in case of conflict between federal and state legislation, the federal legislation prevails. A decision of a state judiciary is subject to appeal to a federal court.

There are also ten territories, whose existence and governmental structure (if any) depend on federal legislation. The territories are distinguished for federal administrative purposes between internal territories, i.e. those within the Australian mainland, and external territories, although the differences among all the territories relate to population rather than location.

Two of the three internal territoriesthe Australian Capital Territory (ACT), which was established to be a neutral site of the federal capital, and the Northern Territoryfunction almost as states. Each has self-government, through its legislative assembly, but the assembly's legislation can be federally overridden. Each has its own judiciary, with appeal to a federal court. The third internal territory, the Jervis Bay Territory, is the product of Australia's complex relationship with its capital city; rather than having the same level of autonomy as the other internal territories, it has services provided by the ACT.

There are also seven external territories, not part of the Australian mainland or of any state. Three of them have a small permanent population, two have tiny and transient populations, and two are uninhabited. All are directly administered by the federal Department of Infrastructure, Regional Development and Cities (or the Department of the Environment and Energy in the case of the Australian Antarctic Territory). Norfolk Island, which is permanently populated, was partially self-governing until 2015.

The term "interstate" is used within Australia to refer to any cross-border events, transactions, or travel.

Geographic Australia

The term geographic Australia is used by the Australian government to describe the area covered by demographic statistics such as national population figures. This area comprises Christmas Island and the Cocos (Keeling) Islands in addition to the six states and three mainland territories; Norfolk Island is the only territory with a permanent population that is not part of geographic Australia.[1]

States and territories

Reference map for states and territories of Australia

States of Australia[n 1]
Flag State name Abbrev ISO[2] Postal Capital Population
(Mar 2019)[3]
Area (km²)[4] Governor Premier
New South WalesNSWAU-NSWNSWSydney8,071,071809,952 Margaret Beazley Gladys Berejiklian
QueenslandQLDAU-QLDQLDBrisbane5,076,5121,851,736 Paul de Jersey Annastacia Palaszczuk
South AustraliaSAAU-SASAAdelaide1,748,6301,044,353 Hieu Van Le Steven Marshall
TasmaniaTasAU-TASTASHobart533,30890,758 Kate Warner Will Hodgman
VictoriaVicAU-VICVICMelbourne6,556,170237,657 Linda Dessau Daniel Andrews
Western AustraliaWAAU-WAWAPerth[n 2]2,615,7942,642,753 Kim Beazley Mark McGowan
Internal territories of Australia[n 3]
Flag Territory name Abbrev ISO[2] Postal Capital Population
(Mar 2019)[3]
Area (km²)[4] Administrator Chief Minister
Australian Capital TerritoryACTAU-ACTACTCanberra425,7062,358 none[5] Andrew Barr
Jervis Bay TerritoryJBTACTnone (Jervis Bay Village)40567 none[6] none
Northern TerritoryNTAU-NTNTDarwin245,5621,419,630 Vicki O'Halloran Michael Gunner
External territories of Australia[n 4]
Flag Territory name Abbrev ISO[2] Postal Capital
(or largest settlement)
(Jun 2018)[3]
Area (km²)[4] Administrator Shire President
Ashmore and Cartier Islands(Offshore anchorage)0199nonenone
Australian Antarctic TerritoryAATAQ[n 5] Davis Station60[n 6]5,896,500 none none
Christmas IslandCX WAFlying Fish Cove1,938135 Natasha Griggs Gordon Thompson
Cocos (Keeling) IslandsCC WAWest Island54714 Seri Wati Iku
Coral Sea Islands (Willis Island)4[n 7]780,000 none none
Heard Island and McDonald IslandsHIMIHM (Atlas Cove)0372 none none
Norfolk IslandNF NSWKingston1,75835 Eric Hutchinson none

At Federation in 1901, what is now the Northern Territory was within South Australia, what are now the Australian Capital Territory and the Jervis Bay Territory were within New South Wales, and Coral Sea Islands was part of Queensland. Ashmore and Cartier Islands was accepted by Australia in 1934[7] and was annexed to the Northern Territory prior to adoption of the Statute of Westminster in 1942, deemed effective from 1939; it has thus become part of Australia.

Cocos (Keeling) Islands voted for integration in 1984. Together with Christmas Island, Commonwealth laws apply automatically to the territory unless expressly stated otherwise[8] and residents of both external territories are associated with Northern Territory for federal elections. They are, thus, constitutionally part of Australia.

Uninhabited Heard and McDonald Island is treated as constitutionally part of Australia by the central government.[9]

The constitutional status of the Australian Antarctic Territory is unclear, with successive governments treating it either as a separate territory (as in the United Kingdom and Norway) or an integral part of the country (as in New Zealand and France). As of 2018, the present government appears to take the view that it is not constitutionally part of Australia.[10]

Norfolk Island's status is controversial, with the present (as of 2018) government taking measures to integrate the territory into Australia proper (including representation in parliament and compulsory voting). The Norfolk Islanders have not formally consented to this change in constitutional status and assert that they are not Australian.[11]

Defunct territories

Three territories established by the federal government under section 122 of the Constitution of Australia no longer exist:

Additionally, two other areas were administered by Australia as de facto external territories.

Both New Guinea and Nauru were originally German territories, but were occupied by Australian forces during World War I and subsequently made League of Nations mandates. They later became United Nations trust territories. The Papua and New Guinea Act 1949 placed the Territory of New Guinea in an "administrative union" with the Territory of Papua. The Territory of Papua and New Guinea was eventually given independence as Papua New Guinea in 1975. Nauru was granted independence in 1968.

Background and overview

The states originated as separate British colonies prior to Federation in 1901. The Colony of New South Wales was founded in 1788 and originally comprised much of the Australian mainland, as well as Lord Howe Island, New Zealand, Norfolk Island, and Van Diemen's Land, in addition to the area currently referred to as the state of New South Wales. During the 19th century, large areas were successively separated to form the Colony of Tasmania (initially established as a separate colony named Van Diemen's Land in 1825), the Colony of Western Australia (initially established as the smaller Swan River Colony in 1829), the Province of South Australia (1836), the Colony of New Zealand (1840),[13] the Victoria Colony (1851) and the Colony of Queensland (1859). Upon Federation, the six colonies of New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, South Australia, Western Australia, and Tasmania became the founding states of the new Commonwealth of Australia.

Legislative powers of the states are protected by the Australian constitution, section 107, and under the principle of federalism, Commonwealth legislation only applies to the states where permitted by the constitution. The territories, by contrast, are from a constitutional perspective directly subject to the Commonwealth Government; laws for territories are determined by the Australian Parliament.[14]

Most of the territories are directly administered by the Commonwealth Government, while two (the Northern Territory and the Australian Capital Territory) have some degree of self-government although less than that of the states. In the self-governing territories, the Australian Parliament retains the full power to legislate, and can override laws made by the territorial institutions, which it has done on rare occasions. For the purposes of Australian (and joint Australia-New Zealand) intergovernmental bodies, the Northern Territory and the Australian Capital Territory are treated as if they were states.

Each state has a governor, appointed by the monarch (currently Queen Elizabeth II), which by convention she does on the advice of the state premier. The Administrator of the Northern Territory, by contrast, is appointed by the Governor-General. The Australian Capital Territory has neither a Governor nor an Administrator, but the Governor-General exercises some powers that in other jurisdictions are exercised by the Governor of a state or Administrator of a territory, such as the power to dissolve the Legislative Assembly.

Jervis Bay Territory is the only non-self-governing internal territory. Until 1989, it was administered as if it were a part of the ACT, although it has always been a separate territory. Under the terms of the Jervis Bay Territory Acceptance Act 1915,[15] the laws of the ACT apply to the Jervis Bay Territory insofar as they are applicable and providing they are not inconsistent with an Ordinance.[16] Although residents of the Jervis Bay Territory are generally subject to laws made by the ACT Legislative Assembly, they are not represented in the Assembly. They are represented in the Parliament of Australia as part of the Electoral Division of Fraser in the ACT and by the ACT's two Senators. In other respects, the territory is administered directly by the Federal Government through the Territories portfolio.

The external territory of Norfolk Island possessed a degree of self-government from 1979 until 2015.

Each state has a bicameral parliament except Queensland, which abolished its upper house in 1922. The lower house is called the Legislative Assembly, except in South Australia and Tasmania, where it is called the House of Assembly. Tasmania is the only state to use proportional representation for elections to its lower house; all others elect members from single member constituencies, using preferential voting. The upper house is called the Legislative Council and is generally elected from multi-member constituencies using proportional representation. The three self-governing territories, the ACT, the Northern Territory, and Norfolk Island, each have unicameral Legislative Assemblies.

The head of government of each state is called the premier, appointed by the state's Governor. In normal circumstances, the Governor will appoint as premier whoever leads the party or coalition which exercises control of the lower house (in the case of Queensland, the only house) of the state Parliament. However, in times of constitutional crisis, the Governor can appoint someone else as Premier. The head of government of the self-governing internal territories is called the chief minister. The Northern Territory's chief minister, in normal circumstances whoever controls the Legislative Assembly, is appointed by the administrator.

The term "interstate" is used within Australia to refer to a number of events, transactions, registrations, travel, etc. which occurs across borders or outside of the particular state or territory of the user of the term. Examples of use include motor vehicle registration,[17] travel,[18] applications to educational institutions out of one's home state.[19]


  • 1788 – British Empire establishes Colony of New South Wales across central and eastern mainland Australia, the island of Tasmania, both islands of New Zealand and Norfolk Island.
  • 1803 – The Coral Sea Islands are claimed by New South Wales
  • 1825 – The island of Tasmania becomes the independent colony of Van Diemen's Land. New South Wales extends its borders further west in mainland Australia.
  • 1829 – British Empire establishes Swan River Colony in western mainland Australia
  • 1832 – Swan River Colony is renamed the colony of Western Australia
  • 1836 - The Colony of South Australia is established
  • 1841 – The islands of New Zealand become the independent colony of New Zealand. Much of eastern Antarctica is annexed by Britain as Victoria Land.
  • 1844 – New South Wales transfers Norfolk Island to Van Diemen's Land
  • 1846 – Northern central and eastern Australia briefly become the independent Colony of North Australia, then are returned to New South Wales.
  • 1851 – Southeastern mainland Australia becomes the independent colony of Victoria
  • 1856 – Van Diemen's Land is renamed the colony of Tasmania. Norfolk Island becomes the independent colony of Norfolk Island, however it is to be administered by the same Governor as New South Wales.
  • 1857 – Much of southern central mainland Australia becomes the independent colony of South Australia. The Cocos (Keeling) Islands are annexed by Britain.
  • 1859 – Northeastern mainland Australia and Coral Sea Islands become the independent colony of Queensland
  • 1860 – A pocket of New South Wales territory remaining in southern central mainland Australia is transferred to South Australia
  • 1862 – Some of New South Wales' northern central mainland Australian territory is transferred to Queensland
  • 1863 – New South Wales' remaining northern central mainland Australian territory is transferred to South Australia
  • 1878 – Britain annexes Ashmore Island
  • 1883 – Queensland annexes southeastern New Guinea
  • 1884 – Southeastern New Guinea becomes the independent Territory of Papua
  • 1886 – The Cocos (Keeling) Islands are to be administered by the same Governor as the Straits Settlements
  • 1888 – Christmas Island is annexed by Britain and incorporated into the Straits Settlements
  • 1897 – Norfolk Island is officially reintegrated into New South Wales
  • 1901 – New South Wales, Tasmania, Western Australia, Victoria and South Australia federate into the Commonwealth of Australia. Queensland transfers the Coral Sea Islands to the federal government, creating a federal external territory.
  • 1902 – Britain transfers Papua to Australia as an external territory
  • 1903 – The Cocos (Keeling) Islands are incorporated into the Straits Settlements
  • 1909 – Britain annexes Cartier Island
  • 1910 – Britain claims Heard Island and the McDonald Islands
  • 1911 – The state of South Australia transfers control of northern central mainland Australia to the federal government, creating the Northern Territory. A small pocket of New South Wales around the city of Canberra is transferred to the federal government (who are seated within it), creating the Federal Capital Territory.
  • 1913 – New South Wales transfers Norfolk Island to the federal government, making it a federal external territory
  • 1915 – A small pocket of New South Wales around Jervis Bay is transferred to the federal government and incorporated into the Federal Capital Territory
  • 1920 – Following the defeat of the German Empire in World War I, the League of Nations establishes an Australian mandate in northeastern New Guinea, it becomes the external Territory of New Guinea
  • 1923 – Another conquered German territory, the island of Nauru, is established as an Australian mandate and external territory by the League of Nations, this time as a co-mandate with Britain and New Zealand
  • 1927 – The Northern Territory is split into two territories – North Australia and Central Australia
  • 1930 – Remaining territory in eastern Antarctica is annexed by Britain as Enderby Land
  • 1931 – North Australia and Central Australia are reincorporated as the Northern Territory. Britain recognises Australia as possessors of the uninhabited Ashmore and Cartier Islands, making them an external federal territory.
  • 1933 – Britain transfers Victoria Land and Enderby Land to Australia, creating the Australian Antarctic Territory, with ongoing limited international recognition
  • 1938 – The Federal Capital Territory is renamed the Australian Capital Territory
  • 1942 – The Japanese Empire conquers Nauru from Australia, Britain and New Zealand as part of World War II. Japan also conquers much of the Straits Settlements, including Christmas Island. The Cocos (Keeling) Islands are not conquered and are transferred to the Colony of Ceylon.
  • 1946 – The United Nations, the successor to the League of Nations, renews its mandate of New Guinea to Australia
  • 1947 – Following the defeat of Japan in World War II, the United Nations returns Nauru to Australia, Britain and New Zealand as a joint mandate. Christmas Island returns to Britain and is incorporated into the Colony of Singapore. The Cocos (Keeling) Islands are also transferred to Singapore.
  • 1949 – Papua and New Guinea are incorporated into the singular Territory of Papua and New Guinea. Britain transfers Heard Island and the McDonald Islands to Australia, creating a federal external territory.
  • 1955 – Britain transfers the Cocos (Keeling) Islands to Australia, they become an external territory
  • 1958 – Britain transfers Christmas Island to Australia, it becomes an external territory
  • 1966 – The Republic of Nauru is established, ending Australian/British/New Zealander control of the island
  • 1975 – Papua and New Guinea becomes the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, ending British/Australian control
  • 1978 – Northern Territory gains self-government with certain Commonwealth control.
  • 1989 – Jervis Bay becomes independent of the ACT, becoming the Jervis Bay Territory
  • 1993 – Australian Capital Territory gains self-government with certain Commonwealth control.
  • 2015 – Norfolk Island loses self-government with full Commonwealth control.

Comparative terminology

Entity Type of entity Tie to the monarch Domestic administrator Head of government Upper House of Parliament Lower House of Parliament Member of Parliament
Upper house Lower house[note 1]
Commonwealth of Australia Federal government Direct Governor-General Prime Minister Senate House of Representatives Senator MP
South Australia Federated state Direct (established by the Australia Act 1986) Governor Premier Legislative Council House of Assembly MLC MHA
New South Wales Legislative Assembly MP
Victoria MLA
Western Australia
Queensland N/A (abolished 1922) N/A MP
Australian Capital Territory Self-governing territory Indirect (through Governor-General acting as "administrator") Assembly and Chief minister Chief minister N/A MLA
Northern Territory Indirect (through Governor-General) Administrator
Christmas Island External territory Mayor/shire president Shire Council Councillor
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Norfolk Island Regional Council[note 2]
  1. The abbreviation MP is an acceptable, and indeed more common, term for members of each lower house.
  2. Between 1979 and 2015 Norfolk Island was a self-governing external territory with its own legislature, the Norfolk Legislative Assembly, until this was abolished by the Commonwealth Parliament.

Governors and administrators of states and territories

Post Incumbent Appointed
Governor of Queensland His Excellency Paul de Jersey 29 July 2014
Governor of South Australia His Excellency Hieu Van Le 1 September 2014
Governor of Tasmania Her Excellency Kate Warner 10 December 2014
Governor of Victoria Her Excellency Linda Dessau 1 July 2015
Governor of Western Australia His Excellency Kim Beazley 1 May 2018
Governor of New South Wales Her Excellency Margaret Beazley 2 May 2019
Administrator of the Northern Territory Her Honour Vicki O'Halloran 31 October 2017
Administrator of Norfolk Island His Honour Eric Hutchinson 1 April 2017
Administrator of Australian Indian Ocean Territories
(Christmas Island and Cocos (Keeling) Islands)
Her Honour Natasha Griggs 5 October 2017

Premiers and chief ministers of states and territories

Post Incumbent Political party Appointed
Premier of New South Wales Gladys Berejiklian MP Liberal 23 January 2017
Premier of Queensland Annastacia Palaszczuk MP Labor 14 February 2015
Premier of South Australia Steven Marshall MHA Liberal 19 March 2018
Premier of Tasmania Will Hodgman MP Liberal 31 March 2014
Premier of Victoria Daniel Andrews MP Labor 4 December 2014
Premier of Western Australia Mark McGowan MLA Labor 17 March 2017
Chief Minister of the Australian Capital Territory Andrew Barr MLA Labor 11 December 2014
Chief Minister of the Northern Territory Michael Gunner MLA Labor 31 August 2016
Mayor of Norfolk Island Council Councillor Robin Adams 6 July 2016
Presidents of Australian Indian Ocean Territories:
President of the Shire of Christmas Island
President of the Shire of Cocos Council

Councillor Foo Kee Heng
Councillor Balmut Pirus

18 October 2011
May 2013

State and territorial parliaments

State and territory supreme courts

State and territory police forces

State and territory borders


State / territory Abbreviation Land area[4][20]
Population density
  • % of population
  • in capital
km2sq miRank NumberRank /km2/sq miRank %Rank
 Australian Capital Territory ACT2,358 9108395,2007167.6 434199.6%1[21]
 New South WalesNSW801,150 309,33057,704,30019.62 24.9363.0%5[22]
 Northern TerritoryNT1,347,791 520,3853244,00080.18 0.47854.0%6[23]
 QueenslandQLD1,729,742 667,85724,827,00032.79 7.2546.0%7[24]
 South AustraliaSA984,321 380,04841,706,50051.74 4.5673.5%2[25]
 TasmaniaTAS68,401 26,4107518,50067.58 19.6441.0%8[26]
 VictoriaVIC227,444 87,81766,039,100226.56 68.8271.0%4[27]
 Western AustraliaWA2,527,013 975,68512,613,70041.03 2.7773.4%3[28]

State and territory codes

State/territory Abbrev. Call signs Postal Telephone numbers in Australia Time zone
AM/FM TV Amateur Abbrev. Postcode Std Summer
Australian Capital Territory ACT 1xx(x)[nb 1]xx(x)Cn[nb 1]VK1xx[nb 1] ACT 02nn,[nb 2] 26nn, 29nn+61 2 62xx xxxx
+61 2 61xx xxxx
New South Wales NSW 2xx(x)xx(x)NnVK2xx NSW 1nnn,[nb 2] 2nnn+61 2 xxxx xxxx[nb 3]+10 (+9 12)[nb 4]+11
Victoria Vic 3xx(x)xx(x)VnVK3xx VIC 3nnn, 8nnn[nb 2]+61 3 xxxx xxxx[nb 3]+10+11
Queensland Qld 4xx(x)xx(x)QnVK4xx QLD 4nnn, 9nnn[nb 2]+61 7 xxxx xxxx+10
South Australia SA 5xx(x)xx(x)SnVK5xx SA 5nnn+61 8 8xxx xxxx
+61 8 7xxx xxxx
+9 12+10 12
Western Australia WA 6xx(x)xx(x)WnVK6xx WA 6nnn+61 8 9xxx xxxx
+61 8 6xxx xxxx
Tasmania Tas 7xx(x)xx(x)TnVK7xx TAS 7nnn+61 3 6xxx xxxx+10+11
Northern Territory NT 8xx(x)xx(x)DnVK8xx NT 08nn+61 8 89xx xxxx+9 12
External territories
Norfolk Island 2xx(x)xx(x)NnVK2xx NSW 2899+672 3 xx xxx+11
Christmas Island 6xx(x)xx(x)WnVK9xx WA 6798+61 8 9164 xxxx+7
Cocos Island 6xx(x)xx(x)WnVK9xx WA 6799+61 8 9162 xxxx+6 12
Australian Antarctic Territory AAT none VK0xx TAS +672 1 +6 to +8
  1. A number of broadcast stations in the ACT have call signs allocated as if ACT were part of New South Wales.
  2. This is used for some PO box and large users only.
  3. Some exceptions apply to numbers in this state's number range.
  4. The state of New South Wales observes Australian Eastern Standard Time except for Broken Hill and the surrounding region, which observes Australian Central Standard Time.

See also


  1. Unless provided, references and details on data provided in the table can be found within the individual state and territory articles.
  2. Perth was defined as the capital by statute in 2016: City of Perth Act 2016 (WA) in AustLII.
  3. Unless provided, references and details on data provided in the table can be found within the individual state and territory articles.
  4. Unless provided, references and details on data provided in the table can be found within the individual state and territory articles.
  5. Under the definitions in ISO 3166-1, the AAT is covered by the Antarctican ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 code "AQ".
  6. No permanent population, research station with fluctuating staff numbers.
  7. No permanent population, weather monitoring station generally with four staff.


  1. Pink, Brian (2010). "Definition of Australia". Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC) (Report). Australian Bureau of Statistics. p. 5.
  2. ISO 3166-2:AU (ISO 3166-2 codes for the states and territories of Australia)
  3. "3101.0 – Australian Demographic Statistics, Mar 2019". Australian Bureau of Statistics. 19 September 2019. Retrieved 19 September 2019.
  4. "Area of Australia – States and Territories". Geoscience Australia: National Location Information. Geoscience Australia. Retrieved 2 November 2016.
  5. Crown represented by Governor-General of Australia.
  6. Administered by the Commonwealth.
  7. "Ashmore and Cartier Islands Acceptance Act 1933". Federal Register of Legislation.
  8. "10. External territories". 15 July 2010.
  9. "Frequently asked questions".
  10. "Australian Antarctic Territory".
  11. Davey, Melissa (21 May 2015). "'We're not Australian': Norfolk Islanders adjust to shock of takeover by mainland". The Guardian.
  12. Ling, Ted. "Dividing the Territory, 1926–31". Commonwealth Government Records about the Northern Territory. National Archives of Australia. Retrieved 28 September 2018.
  13. A.H. McLintock (ed), An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand, 3 vols, Wellington, NZ:R.E. Owen, Government Printer, 1966, vol 3 p. 526.'
  14. Constitution of Australia, section 122
  15. Jervis Bay Territory Acceptance Act 1915 (Cth).
  16. "Jervis Bay Territory Governance and Administration". The Department of Regional Australia, Local Government, Arts and Sport. Retrieved 17 January 2013. Although the Jervis Bay Territory is not part of the Australian Capital Territory, the laws of the ACT apply, insofar as they are applicable and, providing they are not inconsistent with an Ordinance, in the Territory by virtue of the 'Jervis Bay Acceptance Act 1915'
  17. "Interstate-registered vehicles". Government of South Australia. Retrieved 18 August 2019.
  18. "Interstate travel". Public Transport Victoria. Retrieved 18 August 2019.
  19. "Applying interstate". VTAC. Retrieved 18 August 2019.
  20. "Area of Australia - States and Territories". 15 May 2014.
  21. Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "Australian Capital Territory". 2016 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 2 July 2017.
  22. Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "New South Wales". 2016 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 2 July 2017.
  23. Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "Northern Territory". 2016 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 2 July 2017.
  24. Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "Queensland". 2016 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 2 July 2017.
  25. Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "South Australia". 2016 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 2 July 2017.
  26. Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "Tasmania". 2016 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 2 July 2017.
  27. Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "Victoria". 2016 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 2 July 2017.
  28. Australian Bureau of Statistics (31 October 2012). "Western Australia". 2011 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 12 February 2013.
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