Starorussky District (Russian: Старору́сский райо́н) is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the twenty-one in Novgorod Oblast, Russia. It is located in the southwest of the oblast and borders with Parfinsky District in the east, Demyansky and Maryovsky Districts in the southeast, Poddorsky District in the southwest, Volotovsky District in the west, and with Shimsky District in the northwest. From the north, the district is limited by Lake Ilmen. The area of the district is 3,111 square kilometers (1,201 sq mi). Its administrative center is the town of Staraya Russa (which is not administratively a part of the district). Population: 15,063 (2010 Census); 16,214 (2002 Census); 18,505 (1989 Census).
The Kamenka River in Starorussky District, a tributary of the Porusya
Location of Starorussky District in Novgorod Oblast
|Coordinates: 58°16′N 34°07′E|
|Federal subject||Novgorod Oblast|
|Established||October 1, 1927|
|Administrative center||Staraya Russa|
|• Total||3,111 km2 (1,201 sq mi)|
|• Estimate||42,747 (+183.8%)|
|• Density||4.8/km2 (13/sq mi)|
|• Administrative divisions||7 Settlements|
|• Inhabited localities||287 Rural localities|
|• Municipally incorporated as||Starorussky Municipal District|
|• Municipal divisions||1 Urban settlements, 7 Rural settlements|
|Time zone||UTC+3 (MSK |
The whole area of Starorussky District lies in the basin of Lake Ilmen. The two biggest rivers are the Polist with the right tributary the Porusya, and the Lovat, with the left tributary the Redya. The Lovat and the Polist form a joint river delta with the Pola River. The western part of the delta lies within the district. The southern shore of Lake Ilmen is a part of Starorussky District as well.
The Lovat River was a part of the trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks, one of the oldest trading routes passing through Rus'. Staraya Russa was first mentioned in the 1167 chronicle as Rusa. The area belonged to the Novgorod Republic. After the fall of Novgorod in 1483, it was annexed by the Grand Duchy of Moscow. Between 1611 and 1615, during the Ingrian War, it was occupied by Swedish troops.
In the course of the administrative reform carried out in 1708 by Peter the Great, the area was included into Ingermanland Governorate (known since 1710 as Saint Petersburg Governorate). In 1727, separate Novgorod Governorate was split off. In 1776, Staraya Russa became the administrative center of Starorussky Uyezd of Novgorod Viceroyalty. In 1796, the viceroyalty was transformed into Novgorod Governorate. In the 1820s, military settlements were organized in Staraya Russa and around, in accordance with the project designed by Aleksey Arakcheyev, an influential statesman. As it was inconvenient to have both civil and military administration in Staraya Russa, the uyezd was subsequently abolished in 1824. The town of Staraya Russa and some adjacent territories were directly subordinated to the Defense Ministry. The military settlements were proven inefficient, in particular, in 1831, the area participated in the Cholera Riots. They were abolished in 1856. In 1857, Starorussky Uyezd was re-established.
In August 1927, the governorates and uyezds were abolished. Starorussky District, with the administrative center in the town of Staraya Russa, was established within Novgorod Okrug of Leningrad Oblast effective October 1, 1927. It included parts of former Starorussky Uyezd. On July 23, 1930, the okrugs were abolished, and the districts were directly subordinated to the oblast. On September 20, 1931, Podgoshchsky District was abolished and merged into Starorussky District. On January 1, 1932, a part of abolished Volotovsky District was merged into Starorussky District; this was reverted on February 15, 1935. On September 19, 1939, Staraya Russa was elevated in status to that of a town under oblast jurisdiction and thus ceased to be a part of the district. Between August 1941 and February 19, 1944, Starorussky District was occupied by German troops. On July 5, 1944, Starorussky District was transferred to newly established Novgorod Oblast, where it remained ever since. On July 22, 1961, a part of abolished Zaluchsky District was merged into Starorussky District. On February 1, 1963, the district was transformed into Starorussky Rural District in the course of the Nikita Khrushchev's abortive administrative reform. This was reverted on January 12, 1965. On December 13, 1968, Parfinsky District was split from Starorussky District. Also, in the mid-1960s, parts of Volotovsky and Polavsky Districts were transferred to Starorussky District and then back. Polavsky District in the end was split between Parfinsky and Demyansky Districts.
Effective October 1, 1927, Podgoshchsky District with the administrative center in the selo of Podgoshchi was also established, as a part of Novgorod Okrug of Leningrad Oblast. It included parts of Starorussky Uyezd. On September 20, 1931, Podgoshchsky District was abolished and merged into Starorussky District.
Also effective October 1, 1927, Volotovsky District with the administrative center in the settlement of Volot was established, as a part of Novgorod Okrug of Leningrad Oblast. It included parts of Starorussky Uyezd. On January 1, 1932, Volotovsky District was abolished and split between Soletsky, Starorussky, Dnovsky, and Dedovichsky Districts. On February 15, 1935, the district was re-established.
Another district established effective October 1, 1927 as a part of Novgorod Okrug of Leningrad Oblast was Zaluchsky District, with the administrative center in the selo of Zaluchye. It included parts of Starorussky Uyezd. Between August 1941 and February 1943, Zaluchsky District was occupied by German troops. On July 5, 1944, Zaluchsky District was transferred to newly established Novgorod Oblast. On July 22, 1961, Zaluchsky District was abolished and split between Starorussky and Molvotitsky Districts.
Administrative and municipal status
Within the framework of administrative divisions, Starorussky District is one of the twenty-one in the oblast. The town of Staraya Russa serves as its administrative center, despite being incorporated separately as a town of oblast significance—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts (and which, in addition to Staraya Russa, also includes two rural localities).
As a municipal division, the district is incorporated as Starorussky Municipal District, with the town of oblast significance of Staraya Russa being incorporated within it as Staraya Russa Urban Settlement.
Most industrial enterprises are concentrated in the town of Staraya Russa, which is administratively not a part of the district. In the district proper, there are several timber industry enterprises.
Lake Ilmen is navigable; however, there is no passenger navigation.
Culture and recreation
The district contains 8 cultural heritage monuments of federal significance and additionally 130 objects classified as cultural and historical heritage of local significance. The monuments under federal protection include:
- Law #559-OZ
- Snytko et al., p. 85
- Администрация Старорусского муниципального района. Новгородская область. Старорусский муниципальный район (in Russian). Retrieved May 25, 2012.
- Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
- "26. Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2018 года". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
- Resolution #121
- Law #377-OZ
- "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
- Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
- "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 – via Demoscope Weekly.
- Энциклопедия Города России. Moscow: Большая Российская Энциклопедия. 2003. p. 440. ISBN 5-7107-7399-9.
- Snytko et al., p. 28
- Snytko et al., pp. 135–138
- Snytko et al., pp. 87–88
- Snytko et al., pp. 128–129
- Snytko et al., pp. 100–101
- Snytko et al., p. 180
- Snytko et al., pp. 231–233
- Snytko et al., pp. 104–105
- Итоги социально-экономического развития Старорусского муниципального района за 2011 год. admrussa.ru (in Russian). Администрация Старорусского муниципального района. 2012. Retrieved May 25, 2012.
- Памятники истории и культуры народов Российской Федерации (in Russian). Russian Ministry of Culture. Retrieved June 2, 2016.
- Городище "Городок" (in Russian). ФГУП ГИВЦ Минкультуры России. Retrieved May 25, 2012.
- Новгородская областная Дума. Областной закон №559-ОЗ от 11 ноября 2005 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Новгородской области», в ред. Областного закона №730-ОЗ от 26 февраля 2015 г. «О внесении изменений в Областной закон "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Новгородской области"». Вступил в силу 1 января 2006 г. Опубликован: "Новгородские ведомости", №75, 23 ноября 2005 г. (Novgorod Oblast Duma. Oblast Law #559-OZ of November 11, 2005 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Novgorod Oblast, as amended by the Oblast Law #730-OZ of February 26, 2015 On Amending the Oblast Law "On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Novgorod Oblast". Effective as of January 1, 2006.).
- Администрация Новгородской области. Постановление №121 от 8 апреля 2008 г. «Об реестре административно-территориального устройства области», в ред. Постановления №408 от 4 августа 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в реестр административно-территориального устройства области». Опубликован: "Новгородские ведомости", №49–50, 16 апреля 2008 г. (Administration of Novgorod Oblast. Resolution #121 of April 8, 2008 On the Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Novgorod Oblast, as amended by the Resolution #408 of August 4, 2014 On Amending the Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Novgorod Oblast. ).
- Новгородская областная Дума. Областной закон №377-ОЗ от 27 декабря 2004 г. «Об установлении границ муниципальных образований, входящих в состав территории Старорусского муниципального района, наделении их статусом городского и сельских поселений, определении административных центров и перечня населённых пунктов, входящих в состав территорий поселений», в ред. Областного закона №216-ОЗ от 1 марта 2013 г. «О внесении изменений в некоторые областные законы, содержащие перечни населённых пунктов, входящих в состав территорий поселений». Вступил в силу со дня, следующего за днём официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Новгородские ведомости", №6–7, 19 января 2005 г. (Novgorod Oblast Duma. Oblast Law #377-OZ of December 27, 2004 On Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formations Within the Territory of Starorussky Municipal District, on Granting Them the Status of Urban and Rural Settlements, on Establishing Their Administrative Centers, and on Compiling the Lists of Inhabited Localities Within the Settlement Territories, as amended by the Oblast Law #216-OZ of March 1, 2013 On Amending Various Oblast Laws Containing the Lists of Inhabited Localities Within the Settlement Territories. Effective as of the day following the day of the official publication.).
- Снытко, О. В.; et al. (2009). С. Д. Трифонов; Т. Б. Чуйкова; Л. В. Федина; А. Э. Дубоносова (eds.). Административно-территориальное деление Новгородской губернии и области 1727-1995 гг. Справочник (PDF) (in Russian). Saint Petersburg. p. 26. Retrieved May 25, 2012.