Spring steel is a name given to a wide range of steels used in the manufacture of springs, prominently in automotive and industrial suspension applications. These steels are generally low-alloy manganese, medium-carbon steel or high-carbon steel with a very high yield strength. This allows objects made of spring steel to return to their original shape despite significant deflection or twisting.
|Steels and other iron–carbon alloy phases|
|Other iron-based materials|
Many grades of steel can be hardened and tempered to suit application as a spring; however, some steels exhibit more desirable characteristics for spring applications.
|Composition||Yield strength||Hardness (HRC)||Comments|
|1070||0.65-0.75% C, 0.60-0.90% Mn, max .050% S, max .040% P||Normally supplied annealed||165vpn||180vpn||CS70, CK67, C70E|
|1074/1075||0.70–0.80% C, 0.50–0.80% Mn, max. 0.030% P, max. 0.035% S||62–78 ksi (430–530 MPa)||44–50||50||Scaleless blue,or Polished Bright|
|1080 (A228)||0.7–1.0% C, 0.2–0.6% Mn, 0.1–0.3% Si||Piano wire, music wire, springs, clutch discs|
|1095 (A684)||0.90–1.03% C, 0.30–0.50% Mn, max. 0.030% P, max. 0.035% S||60–75 ksi (413–517 MPa), annealed||48–51||59||Blue, or polished bright spring steel|
|5160 (A689)||0.55–0.65% C, 0.75–1.00% Mn, 0.70–0.90% Cr||97 ksi (669 MPa)||63||Chrome-silicon spring steel; fatigue-resistant|
|50CrV4 (EN 10277)||0.47–0.55% C, max. 1.10% Mn, 0.90–1.20% Cr, 0.10–0.20% V, max. 0.40% Si||1200 MPa||Old British 735 H1steel, SAE 6150, 735A51|
|9255||0.50–0.60% C, 0.70–0.95% Mn, 1.80–2.20% Si|
|0.08–0.15% C, max. 2.00% Mn, 16.00–18.00% Cr, 6.00–8.00% Ni||147 ksi (1014 MPa)||42||Equivalents EN 10088-2 1.4310, X10CrNi18-8|
|A more comprehensive range of spring grades can be found here|
- Applications include piano wire (also known as music wire) such as ASTM A228 (0.80–0.95% carbon), spring clamps, antennas, springs, and vehicle coil springs, leaf springs, and s-tines.
- Spring steel is also commonly used in the manufacture of metal swords for stage combat due to its resistance to bending, snapping or shattering.
- Spring steel is one of the most popular materials used in the fabrication of lockpicks due to its pliability and resilience.
- Tubular spring steel is used in the landing gear of some small aircraft due to its ability to absorb the impact of landing.
- It is also commonly used in the making of knives, especially for the Nepalese kukri.
- It is used in binder clips.
- Used extensively in shims due to its resistance to deformation in low thicknesses.
- Engineering.com (23 October 2006). "Springs".
- McMaster-Carr catalog (116th ed.), McMaster-Carr, p. 3630, retrieved 3 September 2010.
- "74-75 Carbon Spring Steel". Precision Steel Warehouse. Retrieved 5 December 2013.
- "SAE-AISI 1074 (G10740) Carbon Steel". MakeItFrom.com. Retrieved 21 August 2015.
- "ASTM A228 (SWP-A, K08500) Music Wire". MakeItFrom.com. Retrieved 21 August 2015.
- "95 Carbon Spring Steel". Precision Steel Warehouse. Retrieved 5 December 2013.
- McMaster-Carr catalog (116th ed.), McMaster-Carr, p. 3632, retrieved 3 September 2010.
- Oberg, Erik, and F D. Jones. Machinery's Handbook. 15th ed. New York: The Industrial Press, 1956. 1546–1551. Print.
- McMaster-Carr catalog (116th ed.), McMaster-Carr, p. 3662, retrieved 3 September 2010.
- "Steel Strip Resources".
- Oberg et al. 2000, p. 286.