The Spit Bridge, a steel and concrete girder bridge with a bascule lift span across the Middle Harbour, is located 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) northeast of the central business district in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. The bridge carries The Spit Road (A8) from a point called The Spit, and connects the suburbs of Mosman, on the south bank and Seaforth, on the north bank.
The Spit Bridge, completed in 1958, is of state significance. It is a substantial landscape feature that has played a crucial role in allowing the development of the northern beaches suburbs to occur over the last 44 years. The Bridge is also extremely rare as it is the only lift bridge still operational on a major arterial road. As such, the Spit Bridge is representative of all the major lift bridges that were once a common sight throughout NSW. The relative lack of modification to the original design of the Bridge also contributes to its level of significance. Historically the Bridge has a high level of significance developed primarily through being part of an important local transport route that has been in operation over a large period of time in several different guises. The Spit Bridge Cultural Landscape also contains the remnant features and locales of the former bridge and punt crossing and the remains of other transportation links such as the tramways. These additional items add to the significance of the Bridge through their ability to add to contextualise the current bridge as a single element of the crossing points colourful history.
The Spit Bridge
|Carries||The Spit Road (A8); (Road traffic, pedestrians, bicycles)|
|Locale||The Spit, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia|
|Owner||Roads & Maritime Services|
|Heritage status||Roads & Maritime Services|
heritage and conservation register
|Preceded by||The Spit Bridge (1924–1958)|
|Design||Girder bridge with a bascule lift span|
|Material||Steel and concrete|
|Total length||745 feet 6 inches (227.23 m)|
|Width||54 feet (16 m)|
|No. of spans||7|
|Designer||NSW Department of Main Roads|
|Constructed by||Cleveland Bridge and Engineering Company|
|Opened||19 November 1958|
|Daily traffic||~33,000 (2012)|
In 1924, The (first) Spit Bridge was completed and opened. By 1927 the timber low–level bridge saw a 60% growth over that of the punt for the year prior to the bridge opening. The amount of traffic using the bridge was higher than expected and the subsequent revenue from tolls providing a financial boon for the government. Various plans were considered to reduce congestion including a high-level bridge and a bridge further upstream, leaving the existing bridge for local traffic; however none were enacted until after World War II. The NSW Government decided to build another low–level bridge at the same site.
The Spit Bridge over Middle Harbour can be described as a steel and concrete girder bridge with a bascule lift span. The Spit Bridge comprises 7 spans of a total length of 745 feet 6 inches (227.23 m), has four traffic lanes with a width of 44 feet (13 m) and a pedestrian walkway of 5 feet (1.5 m) on either side. There are three spans at either end of the opening span. Each of the six fixed spans have four welded plate girders as the main members, with cross girders, but without stringers or horizontal bracing. The concrete deck is dowelled to the steelwork. The opening span (Span 4) is a single-leaf bascule. It has two main girders, with cross girders and stringers, covered by an open mesh steel deck.
The two footways are of concrete on the fixed spans, and steel on the bascule span. The piers either side of the opening span are flanked by fenders, and when the bridge is in the open position a navigation channel of 80 feet (24 m) wide is created. At the Mosman end the slab and two column piers rest on concrete piles driven into the sands of the harbour bed at a depth of between 40 and 50 feet (12 and 15 m). At the Manly end the harbour bottom slopes up steeply to outcropping rock on which the northern abutment sits. Piers 5 and 6 are double cylinder piers sitting on bedrock below the harbour bed. The main pier which supports the bascule span is Pier 4. It rests on four cylinders taken down to sandstone bedrock at a depth of between 45 to 75 feet (14 to 23 m) which is 75 and 105 feet (23 and 32 m) below mean sea level. The pier is box-like and supports all machinery for the operation of the bascule, including the operator's cabin. The approaches and abutments at each end are varied due to the nature of the topography. The southern abutment is built up from the sandy beach level and has a retaining wall faced with stone on either side. The northern abutment is resting directly on the rock on the western side and is built up on the eastern side with a retaining wall. Due to the variation in ground level on each shore there is a grade of 2.68% from south to north. Traffic across the bridge is regulated by traffic lights at either end (located at the end of Spans 2 and 6) and by roadway gates which operate as the bridge is about to open.
The bridge has two traffic lanes in each direction, with a tidal flow system established, while the approaches to it have three lanes in each direction.
Alternative replacement options
The original plans for the Warringah Expressway were for it to be an above-ground freeway that would cross Middle Harbour between Castlecrag and Seaforth, joining the current Warringah Expressway, Wakehurst Parkway (which was to have been upgraded to a dual carriageway road) and the Burnt Bridge Creek Deviation. It was planned by the former Liberal member for Pittwater and Premier Askin and was to have been completed by 1980. The Labor government, led by Neville Wran, shelved these plans with their "No Freeways" policy.
The Spit Bridge forms part of the route from the Sydney central business district and Lower North Shore suburbs to Manly and the Northern Beaches. The next crossing is some distance upstream (north-west) at Roseville Bridge. The Roads and Traffic Authority announced in August 2006 that tenders had been called for widening of the bridge to six lanes, with two extra traffic lanes and a pedestrian/cycleway being added on the western side, and upgrades to the lifting mechanism. Construction was to have begun in 2007, however, the project was scrapped in May of that year. According to the government this was due to technical and engineering difficulties, according to the opposition it was because of political considerations. The increased cost estimates to $115m were deemed to be not justifiable by the Minister for Roads Eric Roozendaal and the five–year plan was abandoned. Traffic delays either side of The Spit Bridge have been a problem for many years, not only on the approaches to the bridge itself, but also far up the hills on either side. Proposals to ameliorate delays have included widening the bridge, a tunnel linking the Warringah Expressway and the Burnt Bridge Creek Deviation, and a high-level bridge in place of the existing one. David Barr, the member for Manly, claimed in 2002 that the latter two were too expensive with $200 million estimated for a high-level bridge, and $1 billion for the tunnel.
In 2007, the Roads and Traffic Authority found that traffic either side of the bridge doesn't return to normal for 15 minutes after the bridge is opened and reduced the number of bridge opening times.
In 2014, Premier Mike Baird, also the member for Manly, announced plans to bypass Mosman and The Spit Bridge by constructing a $2–3 billion tunnel from Seaforth to Neutral Bay that would run underground beneath Military Road.
- "Spit Bridge, The". Heritage and conservation register, Roads and Traffic Authority, NSW. Government of New South Wales. 24 November 2003. Retrieved 26 October 2006.
- "Average Daily Traffic Volumes" (PDF). NSW Roads & Maritime Services (PDF). Government of New South Wales. 2012. p. 18. Retrieved 16 January 2015.
- "Spit Bridge widening". Roads and Traffic Authority, NSW. Government of New South Wales. Retrieved 26 October 2006.
- "Working group to mull Spit Bridge ideas". The Sydney Morning Herald. 1 May 2007.
- Barr, David; Stewart, Tony (4 September 2002). "Spit Bridge Widening". Hansard, Legislative Assembly of New South Wales. Parliament of New South Wales. Retrieved 16 January 2015.
- "Spit spat leaves yachties fearing harbour crush". The Sydney Morning Herald. 21 January 2007.
- Westbrook, Tom (26 November 2014). "Beaches Link tunnel to bypass Mosman and cut cross-Sydney travel time". Manly Daily. Retrieved 16 January 2015.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Spit Bridge.|
- The Spit Bridge opening times
- Live traffic camera - Manly Road
- Kass, Terry (February 2006). "RTA Thematic History: A component of the RTA Heritage and Conservation Register" (PDF). NSW Roads & Maritime Services (PDF) (2nd ed.). Government of New South Wales. Retrieved 12 January 2015.
- Wotherspoon, Garry (2010). "Spit Bridge". Dictionary of Sydney. Retrieved 8 October 2015. [CC-By-SA]