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Traditionally, spirituality referred to a religious process of re-formation which "aims to recover the original shape of man", oriented at "the image of God" as exemplified by the founders and sacred texts of the religions of the world. The term was used within early Christianity to refer to a life oriented toward the Holy Spirit and broadened during the Late Middle Ages to include mental aspects of life.
In modern times, the term both spread to other religious traditions and broadened to refer to a wider range of experience, including a range of esoteric traditions and religious traditions. Modern usages tend to refer to a subjective experience of a sacred dimension and the "deepest values and meanings by which people live", often in a context separate from organized religious institutions, such as a belief in a supernatural (beyond the known and observable) realm, personal growth, a quest for an ultimate or sacred meaning, religious experience, or an encounter with one's own "inner dimension".
The term spirit means "animating or vital principle in man and animals". It is derived from the Old French espirit, which comes from the Latin word spiritus (soul, courage, vigor, breath) and is related to spirare (to breathe). In the Vulgate the Latin word spiritus is used to translate the Greek pneuma and Hebrew ruach.
There is no single, widely agreed upon definition of spirituality. Surveys of the definition of the term, as used in scholarly research, show a broad range of definitions with limited overlap. A survey of reviews by McCarroll each dealing with the topic of spirituality gave twenty-seven explicit definitions, among which "there was little agreement." This impedes the systematic study of spirituality and the capacity to communicate findings meaningfully. Furthermore, many of spirituality's core features are not unique to spirituality; for example self-transcendence, asceticism and the recognition of one's connection to all were regarded by the atheist Arthur Schopenhauer as key to ethical life.
According to Kees Waaijman, the traditional meaning of spirituality is a process of re-formation which "aims to recover the original shape of man, the image of God. To accomplish this, the re-formation is oriented at a mold, which represents the original shape: in Judaism the Torah, in Christianity there is Christ, for Buddhism, Buddha, and in Islam, Muhammad." Houtman and Aupers suggest that modern spirituality is a blend of humanistic psychology, mystical and esoteric traditions and Eastern religions.
In modern times the emphasis is on subjective experience and the "deepest values and meanings by which people live," incorporating personal growth or transformation, usually in a context separate from organized religious institutions.
Development of the meaning of spirituality
Classical, medieval and early modern periods
Bergomi detects "an enlightened form of non-religious spirituality" in Late Antiquity.
Words translatable as "spirituality" first began to arise in the 5th century and only entered common use toward the end of the Middle Ages. In a Biblical context the term means being animated by God. The New Testament offers the concept of being driven by the Holy Spirit, as opposed to living a life in which one rejects this influence.
In the 11th century this meaning changed. "Spirituality" began to denote the mental aspect of life, as opposed to the material and sensual aspects of life, "the ecclesiastical sphere of light against the dark world of matter". In the 13th century "spirituality" acquired a social and psychological meaning. Socially it denoted the territory of the clergy: "The ecclesiastical against the temporary possessions, the ecclesiastical against the secular authority, the clerical class against the secular class" Psychologically, it denoted the realm of the inner life: "The purity of motives, affections, intentions, inner dispositions, the psychology of the spiritual life, the analysis of the feelings".
In the 17th and 18th centuries a distinction was made between higher and lower forms of spirituality: "A spiritual man is one who is Christian 'more abundantly and deeper than others'." The word was also associated with mysticism and quietism, and acquired a negative meaning.
Modern notions of spirituality developed throughout the 19th and 20th century, mixing Christian ideas with Western esoteric traditions and elements of Asian, especially Indian, religions. Spirituality became increasingly disconnected from traditional religious organisations and institutions. It is sometimes associated today with philosophical, social, or political movements such as liberalism, feminist theology, and green politics.
Transcendentalism and Unitarian Universalism
Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803–1882) was a pioneer of the idea of spirituality as a distinct field. He was one of the major figures in Transcendentalism, an early 19th-century liberal Protestant movement, which was rooted in English and German Romanticism, the Biblical criticism of Johann Gottfried Herder and Friedrich Schleiermacher, the skepticism of Hume, and Neo-Platonism. The Transcendentalists emphasised an intuitive, experiential approach of religion. Following Schleiermacher, an individual's intuition of truth was taken as the criterion for truth. In the late 18th and early 19th century, the first translations of Hindu texts appeared, which were also read by the Transcendentalists, and influenced their thinking. They also endorsed universalist and Unitarianist ideas, leading to Unitarian Universalism, the idea that there must be truth in other religions as well, since a loving God would redeem all living beings, not just Christians.
Theosophy, anthroposophy, and the perennial philosophy
A major influence on modern spirituality was the Theosophical Society, which searched for 'secret teachings' in Asian religions. It has been influential on modernist streams in several Asian religions, notably Neo-Vedanta, the revival of Theravada Buddhism, and Buddhist modernism, which have taken over modern western notions of personal experience and universalism and integrated them in their religious concepts. A second, related influence was Anthroposophy, whose founder, Rudolf Steiner, was particularly interested in developing a genuine Western spirituality, and in the ways that such a spirituality could transform practical institutions such as education, agriculture, and medicine.
The influence of Asian traditions on western modern spirituality was also furthered by the perennial philosophy, whose main proponent Aldous Huxley was deeply influenced by Swami Vivekananda's Neo-Vedanta and universalism, and the spread of social welfare, education and mass travel after World War II.
An important influence on western spirituality was Neo-Vedanta, also called neo-Hinduism and Hindu Universalism, a modern interpretation of Hinduism which developed in response to western colonialism and orientalism. It aims to present Hinduism as a "homogenized ideal of Hinduism" with Advaita Vedanta as its central doctrine. Due to the colonisation of Asia by the western world, since the 19th century an exchange of ideas has been taking place between the western world and Asia, which also influenced western religiosity. Unitarianism, and the idea of Universalism, was brought to India by missionaries, and had a major influence on neo-Hinduism via Ram Mohan Roy's Brahmo Samaj and Brahmoism. Roy attempted to modernise and reform Hinduism, from the idea of Universalism. This universalism was further popularised, and brought back to the west as neo-Vedanta, by Swami Vivekananda.
"Spiritual but not religious"
After the Second World War, spirituality and theistic religion became increasingly disconnected, and spirituality became more oriented on subjective experience, instead of "attempts to place the self within a broader ontological context." A new discourse developed, in which (humanistic) psychology, mystical and esoteric traditions and eastern religions are being blended, to reach the true self by self-disclosure, free expression and meditation.
The distinction between the spiritual and the religious became more common in the popular mind during the late 20th century with the rise of secularism and the advent of the New Age movement. Authors such as Chris Griscom and Shirley MacLaine explored it in numerous ways in their books. Paul Heelas noted the development within New Age circles of what he called "seminar spirituality": structured offerings complementing consumer choice with spiritual options.
Among other factors, declining membership of organized religions and the growth of secularism in the western world have given rise to this broader view of spirituality. The term "spiritual" is now frequently used in contexts in which the term "religious" was formerly employed. Both theists and atheists have criticized this development.
Rabbinic Judaism (or in some Christian traditions, Rabbinism) (Hebrew: "Yahadut Rabanit" – יהדות רבנית) has been the mainstream form of Judaism since the 6th century CE, after the codification of the Talmud. It is characterised by the belief that the Written Torah ("Law" or "Instruction") cannot be correctly interpreted without reference to the Oral Torah and by the voluminous literature specifying what behavior is sanctioned by the law (called halakha, "the way").
Kabbalah (literally "receiving"), is an esoteric method, discipline and school of thought of Judaism. Its definition varies according to the tradition and aims of those following it, from its religious origin as an integral part of Judaism, to its later Christian, New Age, or Occultist syncretic adaptations. Kabbalah is a set of esoteric teachings meant to explain the relationship between an unchanging, eternal and mysterious Ein Sof (no end) and the mortal and finite universe (his creation). While it is heavily used by some denominations, it is not a religious denomination in itself.
Hasidic Judaism, meaning "piety" (or "loving kindness"), is a branch of Orthodox Judaism that promotes spirituality through the popularisation and internalisation of Jewish mysticism as the fundamental aspect of the faith. It was founded in 18th-century Eastern Europe by Rabbi Israel Baal Shem Tov. Hasidism emphased the Immanent Divine presence in everything and has often focused on optimism, encouragement, and daily fervour. This populist emotional revival accompanied the elite ideal of nullification to paradoxical Divine Panentheism, through intellectual articulation of inner dimensions of mystical thought.
The Musar movement is a Jewish spiritual movement that has focused on developing character traits such as faith, humility, and love. The Musar movement, first founded in the 19th century by Israel Salanter and developed in the 21st century by Alan Morinis and Ira F. Stone, has encouraged spiritual practices of Jewish meditation, Jewish prayer, Jewish ethics, tzedakah, teshuvah, and the study of musar (ethical) literature.
Catholic spirituality is the spiritual practice of living out a personal act of faith (fides qua creditur) following the acceptance of faith (fides quae creditur). Although all Catholics are expected to pray together at Mass, there are many different forms of spirituality and private prayer which have developed over the centuries. Each of the major religious orders of the Catholic Church and other lay groupings have their own unique spirituality – its own way of approaching God in prayer and in living out the Gospel.
Christian mysticism refers to the development of mystical practices and theory within Christianity. It has often been connected to mystical theology, especially in the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox traditions. The attributes and means by which Christian mysticism is studied and practiced are varied and range from ecstatic visions of the soul's mystical union with God to simple prayerful contemplation of Holy Scripture (i.e., Lectio Divina).
Progressive Christianity is a contemporary movement which seeks to remove the supernatural claims of the faith and replace them with a post-critical understanding of biblical spirituality based on historical and scientific research. It focuses on the lived experience of spirituality over historical dogmatic claims, and accepts that the faith is both true and a human construction, and that spiritual experiences are psychologically and neurally real and useful.
The Pillars of Islam (arkan al-Islam; also arkan ad-din, "pillars of religion") are five basic acts in Islam, considered obligatory for all believers. The Quran presents them as a framework for worship and a sign of commitment to the faith. They are (1) the creed (shahadah), (2) daily prayers (salat), (3) almsgiving (zakah), (4) fasting during Ramadan and (5) the pilgrimage to Mecca (hajj) at least once-in-a-lifetime. The Shia and Sunni sects both agree on the essential details for the performance of these acts.
Sufism or taṣawwuf (Arabic: تصوّف) is defined by its adherents as the inner, mystical dimension of Islam. A practitioner of this tradition is generally known as a ṣūfī (صُوفِيّ). Sufis believe they are practicing ihsan (perfection of worship) as revealed by Gabriel to Muhammad,
Worship and serve Allah as you are seeing Him and while you see Him not yet truly He sees you.
Sufis consider themselves as the original true proponents of this pure original form of Islam. They are strong adherents to the principal of tolerance, peace and against any form of violence. The Sufi have suffered severe persecution by more rigid and fundamentalist groups such as the Wahhabi and Salafi movement. In 1843 the Senussi Sufi were forced to flee Mecca and Medina and head to Sudan and Libya.
Classical Sufi scholars have defined Sufism as "a science whose objective is the reparation of the heart and turning it away from all else but God". Alternatively, in the words of the Darqawi Sufi teacher Ahmad ibn Ajiba, "a science through which one can know how to travel into the presence of the Divine, purify one's inner self from filth, and beautify it with a variety of praiseworthy traits".
Jihad is a religious duty of Muslims. In Arabic, the word jihād translates as a noun meaning "struggle". There are two commonly accepted meanings of jihad: an inner spiritual struggle and an outer physical struggle. The "greater jihad" is the inner struggle by a believer to fulfill his religious duties. This non-violent meaning is stressed by both Muslim and non-Muslim authors.
The Prophet ... returned from one of his battles, and thereupon told us, 'You have arrived with an excellent arrival, you have come from the Lesser Jihad to the Greater Jihad – the striving of a servant (of Allah) against his desires (holy war)."
Buddhist practices are known as Bhavana, which literally means "development" or "cultivating" or "producing" in the sense of "calling into existence." It is an important concept in Buddhist praxis (Patipatti). The word bhavana normally appears in conjunction with another word forming a compound phrase such as citta-bhavana (the development or cultivation of the heart/mind) or metta-bhavana (the development/cultivation of loving kindness). When used on its own bhavana signifies 'spiritual cultivation' generally.
Hinduism has no traditional ecclesiastical order, no centralized religious authorities, no governing body, no prophet(s) nor any binding holy book; Hindus can choose to be polytheistic, pantheistic, monistic, or atheistic. Within this diffuse and open structure, spirituality in Hindu philosophy is an individual experience, and referred to as ksaitrajña (Sanskrit: क्षैत्रज्ञ). It defines spiritual practice as one's journey towards moksha, awareness of self, the discovery of higher truths, true nature of reality, and a consciousness that is liberated and content.
Traditionally, Hinduism identifies three mārga (ways) of spiritual practice, namely Jñāna, the way of knowledge; Bhakti, the way of devotion; and Karma yoga, the way of selfless action. In the 19th century Vivekananda, in his neo-Vedanta synthesis of Hinduism, added Rāja yoga, the way of contemplation and meditation, as a fourth way, calling all of them "yoga."
Jñāna marga is a path often assisted by a guru (teacher) in one's spiritual practice. Bhakti marga is a path of faith and devotion to deity or deities; the spiritual practice often includes chanting, singing and music – such as in kirtans – in front of idols, or images of one or more deity, or a devotional symbol of the holy. Karma marga is the path of one's work, where diligent practical work or vartta (Sanskrit: वार्त्ता, profession) becomes in itself a spiritual practice, and work in daily life is perfected as a form of spiritual liberation and not for its material rewards. Rāja marga is the path of cultivating necessary virtues, self-discipline, tapas (meditation), contemplation and self-reflection sometimes with isolation and renunciation of the world, to a pinnacle state called samādhi. This state of samādhi has been compared to peak experience.
There is a rigorous debate in Indian literature on relative merits of these theoretical spiritual practices. For example, Chandogyopanishad suggests that those who engage in ritualistic offerings to gods and priests will fail in their spiritual practice, while those who engage in tapas will succeed; Svetasvataropanishad suggests that a successful spiritual practice requires a longing for truth, but warns of becoming 'false ascetic' who go through the mechanics of spiritual practice without meditating on the nature of Self and universal Truths. In the practice of Hinduism, suggest modern era scholars such as Vivekananda, the choice between the paths is up to the individual and a person's proclivities. Other scholars suggest that these Hindu spiritual practices are not mutually exclusive, but overlapping. These four paths of spirituality are also known in Hinduism outside India, such as in Balinese Hinduism, where it is called Catur Marga (literally: four paths).
Schools and spirituality
Different schools of Hinduism encourage different spiritual practices. In Tantric school for example, the spiritual practice has been referred to as sādhanā. It involves initiation into the school, undergoing rituals, and achieving moksha liberation by experiencing union of cosmic polarities. The Hare Krishna school emphasizes bhakti yoga as spiritual practice. In Advaita Vedanta school, the spiritual practice emphasizes jñāna yoga in stages: samnyasa (cultivate virtues), sravana (hear, study), manana (reflect) and dhyana (nididhyasana, contemplate).
Sikhism considers spiritual life and secular life to be intertwined: "In the Sikh Weltanschauung...the temporal world is part of the Infinite Reality and partakes of its characteristics." Guru Nanak described living an "active, creative, and practical life" of "truthfulness, fidelity, self-control and purity" as being higher than a purely contemplative life.
The 6th Sikh Guru Guru Hargobind re-affirmed that the political/temporal (Miri) and spiritual (Piri) realms are mutually coexistent. According to the 9th Sikh Guru, Tegh Bahadhur, the ideal Sikh should have both Shakti (power that resides in the temporal), and Bhakti (spiritual meditative qualities). This was developed into the concept of the Saint Soldier by the 10th Sikh Guru, Gobind Singh.
According to Guru Nanak, the goal is to attain the "attendant balance of separation-fusion, self-other, action-inaction, attachment-detachment, in the course of daily life", the polar opposite to a self-centered existence. Nanak talks further about the one God or akal (timelessness) that permeates all life). and which must be seen with 'the inward eye', or the 'heart', of a human being.
In some African contexts, spirituality is considered a belief system that guides the welfare of society and the people therein, and eradicates sources of unhappiness occasioned by evil.
The term "spiritual" has frequently become used in contexts in which the term "religious" was formerly employed. Contemporary spirituality is also called "post-traditional spirituality" and "New Age spirituality". Hanegraaf makes a distinction between two "New Age" movements: New Age in a restricted sense, which originated primarily in mid-twentieth century England and had its roots in Theosophy and Anthroposophy, and "New Age" in a general sense, which emerged in the later 1970s
Those who speak of spirituality outside of religion often define themselves as spiritual but not religious and generally believe in the existence of different "spiritual paths", emphasizing the importance of finding one's own individual path to spirituality. According to one 2005 poll, about 24% of the United States population identifies itself as "spiritual but not religious".
Lockwood draws attention to the variety of spiritual experience in the contemporary West:
The new Western spiritual landscape, characterised by consumerism and choice abundance, is scattered with novel religious manifestations based in psychology and the Human Potential Movement, each offering participants a pathway to the Self.
Modern spirituality centers on the "deepest values and meanings by which people live". It often embraces the idea of an ultimate or an alleged immaterial reality. It envisions an inner path enabling a person to discover the essence of his/her being.
Not all modern notions of spirituality embrace transcendental ideas. Secular spirituality emphasizes humanistic ideas on moral character (qualities such as love, compassion, patience, tolerance, forgiveness, contentment, responsibility, harmony, and a concern for others).:22 These are aspects of life and human experience which go beyond a purely materialist view of the world without necessarily accepting belief in a supernatural reality or any divine being. Nevertheless, many humanists (e.g. Bertrand Russell, Jean-Paul Sartre) who clearly value the non-material, communal and virtuous aspects of life reject this usage of the term "spirituality" as being overly-broad (i.e. it effectively amounts to saying "everything and anything that is good and virtuous is necessarily spiritual"). In 1930 Russell, a self-described agnostic renowned as an atheist, wrote "... one's ego is no very large part of the world. The man [sic] who can centre his thoughts and hopes upon something transcending self can find a certain peace in the ordinary troubles of life which is impossible to the pure egoist." Similarly, Aristotle – one of the first known Western thinkers to demonstrate that morality, virtue and goodness can be derived without appealing to supernatural forces – argued that "men create Gods in their own image" (not the other way around). Moreover, theistic and atheistic critics alike dismiss the need for the "secular spirituality" label on the basis that it appears to be nothing more than obscurantism in that:
- the term "spirit" is commonly taken as denoting the existence of unseen / otherworldly / life-giving forces; and
- words such as "morality", "philanthropy" and "humanism" already efficiently and succinctly describe the prosocial-orientation and civility that the phrase "secular spirituality" is meant to convey but without risk of potential confusion that one is referring to something supernatural.
Although personal well-being, both physical and psychological, is said to be an important aspect of modern spirituality, this does not imply spirituality is essential to achieving happiness (e.g. see). Free-thinkers who reject notions that the numinous/non-material is important to living well can be just as happy as more spiritually-oriented individuals (see)
Contemporary spirituality-theorists may suggest that spirituality develops inner peace and forms a foundation for happiness. For example, meditation and similar practices are suggested to help the practitioner cultivate her/his inner life and character. Ellison and Fan (2008) assert that spirituality causes a wide array of positive health outcomes, including "morale, happiness, and life satisfaction.". However, Schuurmans-Stekhoven (2013) actively attempted to replicate this research and found more "mixed" results. Nevertheless, spirituality has played a central role in some self-help movements such as Alcoholics Anonymous:
"Spiritual experience" plays a central role in modern spirituality. Both western and Asian authors have popularised this notion. Important early-20th century western writers who studied the phenomenon of spirituality, and their works, include:
- William James, The Varieties of Religious Experience (1902)
- Rudolph Otto, especially The Idea of the Holy (1917)
William James popularized the use of the term "religious experience" in his The Varieties of Religious Experience. He has also influenced the understanding of mysticism as a distinctive experience which allegedly grants knowledge.
Wayne Proudfoot traces the roots of the notion of "religious experience" further back to the German theologian Friedrich Schleiermacher (1768–1834), who argued that religion is based on a feeling of the infinite. Schleiermacher used the idea of "religious experience" to defend religion against the growing scientific and secular critique. Many scholars of religion, of whom William James was the most influential, adopted the concept.
Major Asian influences on contemporary spirituality have included Vivekananda (1863-1902) and D.T. Suzuki (1870-1966). Swami Vivekananda popularised a modern syncretitistic Hinduism, in which an emphasis on personal experience replaced the authority of scriptures. D.T. Suzuki had a major influence on the popularisation of Zen in the west and popularized the idea of enlightenment as insight into a timeless, transcendent reality. Other influences came through Paul Brunton's A Search in Secret India (1934), which introduced Ramana Maharshi (1879-1950) and Meher Baba (1894-1969) to a western audience.
Spiritual experiences can include being connected to a larger reality, yielding a more comprehensive self; joining with other individuals or the human community; with nature or the cosmos; or with the divine realm.
- Somatic practices, especially deprivation and diminishment. Deprivation aims to purify the body. Diminishment concerns the repulsement of ego-oriented impulses. Examples include fasting and poverty.
- Psychological practices, for example meditation.
- Social practices. Examples include the practice of obedience and communal ownership, reforming ego-orientedness into other-orientedness.
- Spiritual. All practices aim at purifying ego-centeredness, and direct the abilities at the divine reality.
Spiritual practices may include meditation, mindfulness, prayer, the contemplation of sacred texts, ethical development, and spiritual retreats in a convent. Love and/or compassion are often described as the mainstay of spiritual development.
Within spirituality is also found "a common emphasis on the value of thoughtfulness, tolerance for breadth and practices and beliefs, and appreciation for the insights of other religious communities, as well as other sources of authority within the social sciences."
Relation to science
Since the scientific revolution of the 18th-century Enlightenment, the relationship of science to religion and to spirituality has developed in complex ways. Historian John Hedley Brooke describes wide variations:
Brooke has proposed that the currently held popular notion of antagonisms between science and religion has historically originated with "thinkers with a social or political axe to grind" rather than with the natural philosophers themselves. Though physical and biological scientists today see no need for supernatural explanations to describe reality, some scientists continue to regard science and spirituality as complementary, not contradictory, and are willing to debate, rather than simply classifying spirituality and science as non-overlapping magisteria.
A few religious leaders have shown openness to modern science and its methods. The 14th Dalai Lama, for example, has proposed that if a scientific analysis conclusively showed certain claims in Buddhism to be false, then the claims must be abandoned and the findings of science accepted.
During the twentieth century the relationship between science and spirituality has been influenced both by Freudian psychology, which has accentuated the boundaries between the two areas by accentuating individualism and secularism, and by developments in particle physics, which reopened the debate about complementarity between scientific and religious discourse and rekindled for many an interest in holistic conceptions of reality.:322 These holistic conceptions were championed by New Age spiritualists in a type of quantum mysticism that they claim justifies their spiritual beliefs, though quantum physicists themselves on the whole reject such attempts as being pseudoscientific.
Health and well-being
Various studies (most originating from North America) have reported a positive correlation between spirituality and mental well-being in both healthy people and those encountering a range of physical illnesses or psychological disorders. Although spiritual individuals tend to be optimistic, report greater social support, and experience higher intrinsic meaning in life, strength, and inner peace, whether the correlation represents a causal link remains contentious. Both supporters and opponents of this claim agree that past statistical findings are difficult to interpret, in large part because of the ongoing disagreement over how spirituality should be defined and measured. There is also evidence that an agreeable / positive temperament and/or a tendency toward sociability (which all correlate with spirituality) might actually be the key psychological features that predispose people to subsequently adopt a spiritual orientation and that these characteristics, not spiritually per se, add to well-being. There is also some suggestion that the benefits associated with spirituality and religiosity might arise from being a member of a close-knit community. Social bonds available via secular sources (i.e., not unique to spirituality or faith-based groups) might just as effectively raise well-being. In sum, spirituality may not be the "active ingredient" (i.e. past association with psychological well-being measures might reflect a reverse causation or effects from other variables that correlate with spirituality), and that the effects of agreeableness, conscientiousness, or virtue – personality traits common in many non-spiritual people yet known to be slightly more common among the spiritual – may better account for spirituality's apparent correlation with mental health and social support.
Masters and Spielmans conducted a meta-analysis of all the available and reputable research examining the effects of distant intercessory prayer. They found no discernible health effects from being prayed for by others. In fact, one large and scientifically rigorous study by Herbert Benson and colleagues revealed that intercessory prayer had no effect on recovery from cardiac arrest, but patients told people were praying for them actually had an increased risk of medical complications. Knowing others are praying for you could actually be medically detrimental.
Spiritual care in health care professions
In the health-care professions there is growing interest in "spiritual care", to complement the medical-technical approaches and to improve the outcomes of medical treatments. Puchalski et al. argue for "compassionate systems of care" in a spiritual context.
Neuroscientists have examined brain functioning during reported spiritual experiences finding that certain neurotransmitters and specific areas of the brain are involved. Moreover, experimenters have also successfully induced spiritual experiences in individuals by administering psychoactive agents known to elicit euphoria and perceptual distortions. Conversely, religiosity and spirituality can also be dampened by electromagnetic stimulation of the brain. These results have motivated some leading theorists to speculate that spirituality may be a benign subtype of psychosis (see). Benign in the sense that the same aberrant sensory perceptions that those suffering clinical psychoses evaluate as distressingly in-congruent and inexplicable are instead interpreted by spiritual individuals as positive – as personal and meaningful transcendent experiences.
- Glossary of spirituality terms
- New Age
- Outline of spirituality
- Perennial philosophy
- Relationship between religion and science
- Sacred–profane dichotomy
- Secular spirituality
- Spiritual but not religious
- Sublime (philosophy)
* Koenig e.a.: "There is no widely agreed on definition of spirituality today".
* Cobb e.a.: "The spiritual dimension is deeply subjective and there is no authoritative definition of spirituality".
- Waaijman uses the word "omvorming", "to change the form". Different translations are possible: transformation, re-formation, trans-mutation.
- In Dutch: "de hemelse lichtsfeer tegenover de duistere wereld van de materie".
- In Dutch: "de kerkelijke tegenover de tijdelijke goederen, het kerkelijk tegenover het wereldlijk gezag, de geestelijke stand tegenover de lekenstand".
- In Dutch: "Zuiverheid van motieven, affecties, wilsintenties, innerlijke disposities, de psychologie van het geestelijk leven, de analyse van de gevoelens".
- In Dutch: "Een spiritueel mens is iemand die 'overvloediger en dieper dan de anderen' christen is".
- This reference gave rise to the distinguishing of two forms of jihad: "greater" and "lesser". Some Islamic scholars dispute the authenticity of this reference and consider the meaning of jihad as a holy war to be more important.
- See also Bhagavad Gita (The Celestial Song), Chapters 2:56–57, 12, 13:1–28
- George Feuerstein: "Yoga is not easy to define. In most general terms, the Sanskrit word yoga stands for spiritual discipline in Hinduism, Jainism, and certain schools of Buddhism. (...). Yoga is the equivalent of Christian mysticism, Moslem Sufism, or the Jewish Kabbalah. A spiritual practitioner is known as a yogin (if male) or a yogini (if female)."
- See naturalism
- McCarroll 2005, p. 44.
- Koenig 2012, p. 36.
- Cobb 2012, p. 213.
- Waaijman 2000, p. 460.
- Waaijman 2002.
- Wong 2009.
- Gorsuch 1999.
- Saucier 2006, p. 1259.
- Sheldrake 2007, pp. 1–2.
- Griffin 1988.
- Wong 2008.
- Schuurmans-Stekhoven 2014.
- Houtman 2007.
- Snyder 2007, p. 261.
- Sharf 2000.
- Waaijman 2002, p. 315.
- The Academy of Ideas, The Ethics of Schopenhauer
Bergomi, Mariapaola (2018). "Non-religious Spirituality in the Greek Age of Anxiety". In Salazar, Heather; Nicholls, Roderick (eds.). The Philosophy of Spirituality: Analytic, Continental and Multicultural Approaches to a New Field of Philosophy. Philosophy and Religion. Leiden: Brill. p. 143. ISBN 9789004376311. Retrieved 2019-04-29.
My aim is to show that [...] an enlightened form of non-religious spirituality did exist.
- Jones, L.G., "A thirst for god or consumer spirituality? Cultivating disciplined practices of being engaged by god," in L. Gregory Jones and James J. Buckley eds., Spirituality and Social Embodiment, Oxford: Blackwell, 1997, 3–28 [4, n. 4].
- Waaijman 2000, pp. 359–60.
- Waaijman 2000, p. 360.
- Waaijman 2000, pp. 360–61.
- Waaijman 2000, p. 361.
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- McDermott, Robert (2007). The Essential Steiner. Lindisfarne. ISBN 978-1-58420-051-2.
- William James and Rudolf Steiner, Robert A. McDermott, 1991, in ReVision, vol. 13 no. 4 Archived 2015-09-23 at the Wayback Machine
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- King 2002, p. 93.
- Yelle 2012, p. 338.
- King 2002, p. 135.
- King 2002.
- Saucier 2007, p. 1259.
- Paul Heelas, The New Age Movement: The Celebration of the Self and the Sacralization of Modernity. Oxford: Blackwell, 1996, p. 60. Cited in Anthony Giddens: Sociology. Cambridge: Polity, 2001, p. 554.
- Michael Hogan (2010). The Culture of Our Thinking in Relation to Spirituality. Nova Science Publishers: New York.
- Hollywood, Amy (Winter–Spring 2010). "Spiritual but Not Religious: The Vital Interplay between Submission and Freedom". Harvard Divinity Bulletin. Harvard Divinity School. 38 (1 and 2). Retrieved 2 December 2019.
- David, Rabbi (2013-03-21). "Viewpoint: The Limitations of Being 'Spiritual but Not Religious'". Ideas.time.com. Retrieved 2014-01-04.
- Kabbalah: A very short introduction, Joseph Dan, Oxford University Press, Chapter 1 "The term and its uses"
- Claussen, Geoffrey (2012). "The Practice of Musar". Conservative Judaism. 63 (2): 3–26. doi:10.1353/coj.2012.0002.
- Pillars of Islam, Oxford Islamic Studies Online
- Azeemi, K.S., "Muraqaba: The Art and Science of Sufi Meditation". Houston: Plato, 2005. (ISBN 0-9758875-4-8), p. xi
- Alan Godlas, University of Georgia, Sufism's Many Paths, 2000, University of Georgia
- Nuh Ha Mim Keller, "How would you respond to the claim that Sufism is Bid'a?", 1995. Fatwa accessible at: Masud.co.uk
- Zubair Fattani, "The meaning of Tasawwuf", Islamic Academy. Islamicacademy.org
- Hawting, Gerald R. (2000). The first dynasty of Islam: The Umayyad Caliphate AD 661–750. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-24073-4. See Google book search.
- Ahmed Zarruq, Zaineb Istrabadi, Hamza Yusuf Hanson – "The Principles of Sufism". Amal Press. 2008.
- An English translation of Ahmad ibn Ajiba's biography has been published by Fons Vitae.
- Morgan, 2010 & 87.
- "Jihad". Retrieved 20 February 2012.
- Jihad and the Islamic Law of War Archived August 18, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
- Rudolph Peters, Islam and Colonialism. The doctrine of Jihad in Modern History (Mouton Publishers, 1979), p. 118
- "Jihad". BBC. 2009-08-03.
- Fayd al-Qadir vol. 4, p. 511
- Matthieu Ricard has said this in a talk.
- "Rhys Davids & Stede (1921–25), p. 503, entry for "Bhāvanā," retrieved 9 December 2008 from University Chicago". Dsal.uchicago.edu. Archived from the original on 2012-07-11. Retrieved 2014-01-04.
- Monier-Williams (1899), p. 755, see "Bhāvana" and "Bhāvanā," retrieved 9 December 2008 from University of Cologne (PDF)
- Nyanatiloka (1980), p. 67.
- Julius J. Lipner, Hindus: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices, 2nd Edition, Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-45677-7, p. 8; Quote: "(...) one need not be religious in the minimal sense described to be accepted as a Hindu by Hindus, or describe oneself perfectly validly as Hindu. One may be polytheistic or monotheistic, monistic or pantheistic, even an agnostic, humanist or atheist, and still be considered a Hindu.";
- Lester Kurtz (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Violence, Peace and Conflict, ISBN 978-0-12-369503-1, Academic Press, 2008;
- MK Gandhi, The Essence of Hinduism, Editor: VB Kher, Navajivan Publishing, see p. 3; According to Gandhi, "a man may not believe in God and still call himself a Hindu."
- Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary, क्षैत्रज्ञ Jim Funderburk and Peter Scharf (2012); Quote:
- क्षैत्रज्ञ [ kṣaitrajña ] [ kṣaitrajña ] n. (fr. [ kṣetra-jñá ] g. [ yuvādi ], spirituality, nature of the soul Lit. W.; the knowledge of the soul Lit. W.
- See the following two in Ewert Cousins series on World Spirituality:
- Bhavasar and Kiem, Spirituality and Health, in Hindu Spirituality, Editor: Ewert Cousins (1989), ISBN 0-8245-0755-X, Crossroads Publishing New York, pp. 319–37;
- John Arapura, Spirit and Spiritual Knowledge in the Upanishads, in Hindu Spirituality, Editor: Ewert Cousins (1989), ISBN 0-8245-0755-X, Crossroads Publishing New York, pp. 64–85
- Gavin Flood, Brill's Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Editor: Knut Jacobsen (2010), Volume II, Brill, ISBN 978-90-04-17893-9, see Article on Wisdom and Knowledge, pp. 881–84
- John Lochtefeld (2002), The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Rosen Publishing New York, ISBN 0-8239-2287-1
- D. Bhawuk (2011), Spirituality and Cultural Psychology, in Anthony Marsella (Series Editor), International and Cultural Psychology, Springer New York, ISBN 978-1-4419-8109-7, pp. 93–140
- Michelis 2005.
- Feuerstein, Georg (2003), The deeper dimension of yoga: Theory and practice, Shambhala, ISBN 1-57062-935-8, p. 3
- Feuerstein, Georg (2003), The deeper dimension of yoga: Theory and practice, Shambhala, ISBN 1-57062-935-8, Chapter 55
- Jean Varenne (1976), Yoga and the Hindu Tradition, University of Chicago Press, ISBN 0-226-85116-8, pp. 97–130
- See discussion of Hinduism and karma yoga in two different professions in these journal articles:
- McCormick, Donald W. (1994). "Spirituality and Management". Journal of Managerial Psychology. 9 (6): 5–8. doi:10.1108/02683949410070142.;
- Macrae, Janet (1995). "Nightingale's spiritual philosophy and its significance for modern nursing". Journal of Nursing Scholarship. 27 (1): 8–10. doi:10.1111/j.1547-5069.1995.tb00806.x. PMID 7721325.
- Klaus Klostermaier, Spirituality and Nature, in Hindu Spirituality, Editor: Ewert Cousins (1989), ISBN 0-8245-0755-X, Crossroads Publishing New York, pp. 319–37;
- Klostermaier discusses examples from Bhagavata Purana, another ancient Hindu scripture, where a forest worker discovers observing mother nature is a spiritual practice, to wisdom and liberating knowledge. The Purana suggests that "true knowledge of nature" leads to "true knowledge of Self and God." It illustrates 24 gurus that nature provides. For example, earth teaches steadfastness and the wisdom that all things while pursuing their own activities, do nothing but follow the divine laws that are universally established; another wisdom from earth is her example of accepting the good and bad from everyone. Another guru, the honeybee teaches that one must make effort to gain knowledge, a willingness and flexibility to examine, pick and collect essence from different scriptures and sources. And so on. Nature is a mirror image of spirit, perceptive awareness of nature can be spirituality.
- Vivekananda, S. (1980), Raja Yoga, Ramakrishna Vivekanada Center, ISBN 978-0-911206-23-4
- Richard King (1999), Indian philosophy: An introduction to Hindu and Buddhist thought, Edinburgh University Press, ISBN 0-7486-0954-7, pp. 69–71
- Harung, Harald (2012). "Illustrations of Peak Experiences during Optimal Performance in World-class Performers Integrating Eastern and Western Insights". Journal of Human Values. 18 (1): 33–52. doi:10.1177/097168581101800104.
- Levin, Jeff (2010). "Religion and mental health: Theory and research". International Journal of Applied Psychoanalytic Studies. 7 (2): 102–15.;
- Meyer-Dinkgräfe, Daniel (2011). "Opera and spirituality". Performance and Spirituality. 2 (1): 38–59.
- CR Prasad, Brill's Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Editor: Knut Jacobsen (2010), Volume II, Brill, ISBN 978-90-04-17893-9, see Article on Brahman, pp. 724–29
- David Carpenter, Brill's Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Editor: Knut Jacobsen (2010), Volume II, Brill, ISBN 978-90-04-17893-9, see Article on Tapas, pp. 865–69
- Klaus Klostermaier (2007), A Survey of Hinduism, 3rd Edition, SUNY Press, ISBN 978-0-7914-7081-7, pp. 119–260
- Mikel Burley (2000), Hatha-Yoga: Its context, theory and practice, Motilal Banarsidass Publications, ISBN 81-208-1706-0, pp. 97–98; Quote: "When, for example, in the Bhagavad-Gita Lord Krsna speaks of jnana-, bhakti- and karma-yoga, he is not talking about three entirely separate ways of carrying out one's spiritual practice, but, rather, about three aspects of the ideal life".
- Murdana, I. Ketut (2008), Balinese Arts and Culture: A flash understanding of Concept and Behavior, Mudra – Jurnal Seni Budaya, Indonesia; Volume 22, p. 5
- Gavin Flood (1996), An Introduction to Hinduism, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-43878-0
- Rochford, E.B. (1985), Hare Krishna in America, Rutgers University Press; ISBN 978-0-8135-1114-6, p. 12
- Ramakrishna Puligandla (1985), Jñâna-Yoga – The Way of Knowledge (An Analytical Interpretation), University Press of America New York, ISBN 0-8191-4531-9;
- Fort, A.O. (1998), Jīvanmukti in Transformation: Embodied Liberation in Advaita and Neo-Vedanta, State University of New York Press, ISBN 0-7914-3903-8;
- Richard King (1999), Indian philosophy: An introduction to Hindu and Buddhist thought, Edinburgh University Press, ISBN 0-7486-0954-7, p. 223;
- Sawai, Y. (1987), The Nature of Faith in the Śaṅkaran Vedānta Tradition, Numen, 34(1), pp. 18–44
- Nayar, Kamal Elizabeth & Sandhu, Jaswinder Singh (2007). The Socially Involved Renunciate – Guru Nanaks Discourse to Nath Yogi's. United States: State University of New York Press. p. 106. ISBN 978-0-7914-7950-6.
- Kaur Singh; Nikky Guninder (2004). Hindu spirituality: Postclassical and modern. English: Motilal Banarsidass. p. 530. ISBN 978-81-208-1937-5.
- Marwha, Sonali Bhatt (2006). Colors of Truth, Religion Self and Emotions. New Delhi: Concept Publishing Company. p. 205. ISBN 978-81-8069-268-0.
- E. Marty, Martin & Appleby R. Scott (1996). Fundamentalisms and the State: Remaking Polities, Economies, and Militance. English: University of Chicago Press. p. 278. ISBN 978-0-226-50884-9.
- Singh Gandhi, Surjit (2008). History of Sikh Gurus Retold: 1606–708. English: Atlantic Publishers & Distributors Pvt Ltd. pp. 676–77. ISBN 978-81-269-0857-8.
- Mandair, Arvind-Pal Singh (October 22, 2009). Religion and the Specter of the West – Sikhism, India, Postcoloniality and the Politics of Translation. United States: University of Columbia. pp. 372 onwards. ISBN 978-0-231-14724-8.
- Singh, Nirbhai (1990). Philosophy of Sikhism: Reality and Its Manifestations. New Delhi: South Asia Books. pp. 111–12.
- Philpott, Chris (2011). Green Spirituality: One Answer to Global Environmental Problems and World Poverty. AuthorHouse. ISBN 978-1-4670-0528-9.
- Singh Kalsi; Sewa Singh (2005). Sikhism. United States: Chelsea House Publishers. p. 49. ISBN 978-0-7910-8098-6.
- Hayer, Tara (1988). "The Sikh Impact: Economic History of Sikhs in Canada" Volume 1. Surrey, Canada: Indo-Canadian Publishers. p. 14.
- Lebron, Robyn (2012). Searching for Spiritual Unity...can There be Common Ground?: A Basic Internet Guide to Forty World Religions & Spiritual Practices. CrossBooks. p. 399. ISBN 978-1-4627-1261-8.
- Singh, Nikky-Guninder (1993). The Feminine Principle in the Sikh Vision of the Transcendent. Cambridge University Press. p. 172. ISBN 978-0-521-43287-0.
- Otterloo 2012, pp. 239–40.
- Hanegraaff 1996, p. 97.
Lockwood, Renee D. (June 2012). "Pilgrimages to the Self: Exploring the Topography of Western Consumer Spirituality through 'the Journey'". Literature and Aesthetics. 22 (1): 108. Retrieved 19 September 2019.
The new Western spiritual landscape, characterised by consumerism and choice abundance, is scattered with novel religious manifestations based in psychology and the Human Potential Movement, each offering participants a pathway to the Self.
- Philip Sheldrake, A Brief History of Spirituality, Wiley-Blackwell 2007 pp. 1–2
- Ewert Cousins, preface to Antoine Faivre and Jacob Needleman, Modern Esoteric Spirituality, Crossroad Publishing 1992.
- Dalai Lama, Ethics for the New Millennium, NY: Riverhead Books, 1999.
- Schuurmans-Stekhoven, J.B. (2011). "Is it God or just the data that moves in mysterious ways? How well-being research might be mistaking faith for virtue?". Social Indicators Research. 100 (2): 313–30. doi:10.1007/s11205-010-9630-7.
Russell, Bertrand (1930). The Conquest of Happiness (published 2018). ISBN 9781329522206. Retrieved 19 September 2019.
The man who can centre his thoughts and hopes upon something transcending self can find a certain peace in the ordinary troubles of life which is impossible to the pure egoist.
- Maisel, Eric (2009). The Atheist's Way: Living Well Without Gods. Novato, California: New World Library (published 2010). ISBN 9781577318422. Retrieved 19 September 2019.
- Wilkinson, Tony (2007). The lost art of being happy : spirituality for sceptics. Findhorn Press. ISBN 978-1-84409-116-4.
- Browner, Matthieu Ricard; translated by Jesse (2003). Happiness: A guide to developing life's most important skill (1st pbk. ed.). New York: Little Brown. ISBN 978-0-316-16725-3.
- Ellison, Christopher G.; Daisy Fan (Sep 2008). "Daily Spiritual Experiences and Psychological Well-Being among US Adults". Social Indicators Research. 88 (2): 247–71. doi:10.1007/s11205-007-9187-2. JSTOR 27734699.
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- Anonymous (2009). Alcoholics Anonymous: By the Anonymous Press. The Anonymous Press. pp. 14–15. ISBN 978-1-892959-16-4. Retrieved 5 March 2013.
Ross, Colin A.; Pam, Alvin, eds. (1995). Pseudoscience in biological psychiatry: blaming the body. Wiley Series in General and Clinical Psychiatry. 10. Wiley & Sons. p. 96. ISBN 9780471007760. Retrieved 19 September 2019.
This doctrine [that alcoholism is a disease] has been adopted throughout the chemical dependency field including Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), despite the fact that it has no scientific foundation and is logically incorrect.
- Sharf & 1995-B.
- Hori 1999, p. 47.
- Rambachan 1994.
- Sharf 2000, p. 271.
- Renard 2010, p. 191.
- Sinari 2000.
- Comans 1993.
- A Search in Secret India
- Margaret A. Burkhardt and Mary Gail Nagai-Jacobson, Spirituality: living our connectedness, Delmar Cengage Learning, p. xiii
- Waaijman 2000, pp. 644–45.
- Waaijman 2000, p. 645.
- Seybold, Kevin S.; Peter C. Hill (Feb 2001). "The Role of Religion and Spirituality in Mental and Physical Health". Current Directions in Psychological Science. 10 (1): 21–24. doi:10.1111/1467-8721.00106.
- Gascoigne, John (1988). Cambridge in the Age of the Enlightenment: Science, Religion and Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 300.
The 'holy alliance' between Newtonian natural philosophy and Anglican latitudinarianism had, by the end of the eighteenth century, proved a fruitful marriage. Confident assertions that science and religion were allies remained part of the intellectual landscape in the first half of the nineteenth century and natural theology continued to be one of the most influential vehicles for the dissemination of new scientific theories [...].
- Brooke, John Hedley (1991). Science and religion: some historical perspectives. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Brooke, John Hedley (2014). Science and religion: some historical perspectives. The Cambridge History of Science series (reprint ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 22. ISBN 978-1-107-66446-3. Retrieved 2018-03-03.
- Applebaum, Wilbur. Encyclopedia of the scientific revolution: from Copernicus to Newton Volume 1800 of Garland reference library of the humanities. Psychology Press, 2000 ISBN 0-8153-1503-1, 978-0-8153-1503-2
- R. Cruz Begay, MPH, DrPH, Science And Spirituality March 2003, Vol. 93, No. 3 | American Journal of Public Health 363 American Public Health Association
- Brooke, John Hedley (2014). Science and religion: some historical perspectives. The Cambridge History of Science series (reprint ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 18. ISBN 978-1-107-66446-3. Retrieved 2018-03-03.
- Clarke, Steve (2009). "Naturalism, Science and the Supernatural". Sophia. 48 (2): 127–142. doi:10.1007/s11841-009-0099-2.
There is overwhelming agreement amongst naturalists that a naturalistic ontology should not allow for the possibility of supernatural entities.
- Dawkins, Richard (1986). The Blind Watchmaker: Why the Evidence of Evolution Reveals a Universe without Design. W.W. Norton & Company (published 2015). ISBN 978-0-393-35309-9. Retrieved 2018-03-03.
There is nothing supernatural, no 'life force' to rival the fundamental forces of physics. [...] My thesis will be that events that we commonly call miracles are not supernatural, but are part of a spectrum of more-or-less improbable natural events.
- Stroud, Barry. (2004). "The charm of naturalism". In: M. De Caro & D. Macarthur (Eds.), Naturalism in question (pp. 21–35). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. "Most philosophers for at least one hundred years have been naturalists in the nonsupernaturalist sense. They have taken it for granted that any satisfactory account of how human belief and knowledge in general are possible will involve only processes and events of the intelligible natural world, without the intervention or reassurance of any supernatural agent."
- Richardson, W. Mark. Science and the spiritual quest: new essays by leading scientists Psychology Press, 2002 ISBN 0-415-25767-0, 978-0-415-25767-1
- Giniger, Kenneth Seeman & Templeton, John. Spiritual evolution: scientists discuss their beliefs. Templeton Foundation Press, 1998. ISBN 1-890151-16-5, ISBN 978-1-890151-16-4
- Elaine Howard Ecklund, Science vs Religion: What Scientists Really Think. Oxford University Press, 2010. ISBN 978-0-19-539298-2
- Dalai Lama, The universe in a single atom: the convergence of science and spirituality. Broadway Books, 2006. ISBN 0-7679-2081-3.
- Capra, Fritjof (1975). The Tao of Physics: an exploration of the parallels between modern physics and Eastern mysticism (1991 3rd ed.). Boston: Shambhala Publications. ISBN 978-0-87773-594-6.
- Laszlo, Ervin, "CosMos:A Co-creator's Guide to the Whole World", Hay House, Inc, 2008, ISBN 1-4019-1891-3, pp. 53–58
- Sheremer, Michael (2005). "Quantum Quackery". Scientific American. 292 (1): 34. Bibcode:2005SciAm.292a..34S. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0105-34.
- Silverman, Mark P. Quantum superposition: counterintuitive consequences of coherence, entanglement, and interference Frontiers collection. Springer, 2008 ISBN 3-540-71883-4, 978-3-540-71883-3. p. 25
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- Koenig, H.G. (2008) Research on religion, spirituality, and mental health: A review. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry.
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- Emmons, R.A. (2005). Emotion and religion. In R.F. Paloutzian, & C.L. Park (Eds.), Handbook of the psychology of religion and spirituality (pp. 235–52). New York: Guilford Press.
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