Spinning (polymers)

Spinning is a manufacturing process for creating polymer fibers. It is a specialized form of extrusion that uses a spinneret to form multiple continuous filaments. There are many types of spinning: wet, dry, dry jet-wet, melt, gel, and electrospinning.[1]


First, the polymer being spun must be converted into a fluid state. If the polymer is a thermoplastic then it can be simply melted, otherwise it is dissolved in a solvent or chemically treated to form soluble or thermoplastic derivatives. The molten polymer is then forced through the spinneret, then it cools to a rubbery state, and then a solidified state.[1] If a polymer solution is used, then the solvent is removed after being forced through the spinneret.

Wet spinning

Wet spinning is the oldest of the five processes. This process is used for polymers that need to be dissolved in a solvent to be spun. The spinneret is submerged in a chemical bath that causes the fiber to precipitate, and then solidify, as it emerges. The process gets its name from this "wet" bath. Acrylic, rayon, aramid, modacrylic, and spandex are produced via this process.[1]

A variant of wet spinning is dry jet-wet spinning, where the solution is extruded into air and drawn, and then submerged into a liquid bath. This method is used in Lyocell spinning of dissolved cellulose.

Dry spinning

A solution consisting of a fiber-forming material and a solvent is extruded through a spinneret. A stream of hot air impinges on the jets of solution emerging from the spinneret, the solvent evaporates, and solid filaments are left behind. Solution blow spinning is a similar technique where polymer solution is sprayed directly onto a target to produce a nonwoven fiber mat.[2]

Melt spinning

Melt spinning is used for polymers that can be melted. The polymer solidifies by cooling after being extruded from the spinneret. Nylon, olefin, polyester, saran, and sulfar are produced via this process.[1]

Extrusion spinning

Pellets or granules of the solid polymer are fed into an extruder. The pellets are compressed, heated and melted by an extrusion screw, then fed to a spinning pump and into the spinneret.

Direct spinning

The direct spinning process avoids the stage of solid polymer pellets. The polymer melt is produced from the raw materials, and then from the polymer finisher directly pumped to the spinning mill. Direct spinning is mainly applied during production of polyester fibers and filaments and is dedicated to high production capacity (>100 ton/day).

Gel spinning

Gel spinning, also known as dry-wet spinning, is used to obtain high strength or other special properties in the fibers. The polymer is in a "gel" state, only partially liquid, which keeps the polymer chains somewhat bound together. These bonds produce strong inter-chain forces in the fiber, which increase its tensile strength. The polymer chains within the fibers also have a large degree of orientation, which increases strength. The fibers are first air dried, then cooled further in a liquid bath. Some high strength polyethylene and aramid fibers are produced via this process.[1]


Electrospinning uses an electrical charge to draw very fine (typically on the micro or nano scale) fibres from a liquid - either a polymer solution or a polymer melt. Electrospinning shares characteristics of both electrospraying and conventional solution dry spinning[3] of fibers. The process does not require the use of coagulation chemistry or high temperatures to produce solid threads from solution. This makes the process particularly suited to the production of fibers using large and complex molecules. Melt electrospinning is also practiced; this method ensures that no solvent can be carried over into the final product.[4][5]

see also the articles on Electrospinning and Melt electrospinning


Finally, the fibers are drawn to increase strength and orientation. This may be done while the polymer is still solidifying or after it has completely cooled.[1]

See also


  1. Manufacturing: Synthetic and Cellulosic Fiber Formation Technology, archived from the original on 1998-05-26, retrieved 2008-11-19.
  2. Daristotle, John L.; Behrens, Adam M.; Sandler, Anthony D.; Kofinas, Peter (2016-12-28). "A Review of the Fundamental Principles and Applications of Solution Blow Spinning". ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces. 8 (51): 34951–34963. doi:10.1021/acsami.6b12994. ISSN 1944-8252. PMC 5673076. PMID 27966857.
  3. Ziabicki, A. Fundamentals of fiber formation, John Wiley and Sons, London, 1976, ISBN 0-471-98220-2.
  4. Nagy,Z.K.; Balogh,A.; et al. (2012). "Solvent-free melt electrospinning for preparation of fast dissolving drug delivery system and comparison with solvent-based electrospun and melt extruded systems". Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 102 (2): 508–517. doi:10.1002/jps.23374. PMID 23161110.
  5. Hutmacher DW & Dalton PD (2011) Melt Electrospinning. Chem Asian J, 6, 44-5.
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