Spelman College

Spelman College is a private, liberal arts, women's college in Atlanta, Georgia, United States. The college is part of the Atlanta University Center academic consortium in Atlanta.[2] Founded in 1881 as the Atlanta Baptist Female Seminary, Spelman received its collegiate charter in 1924, making it America's oldest private historically black liberal arts college for women.[2]

Spelman College
Former names
Atlanta Baptist Female Seminary
MottoOur Whole School for Christ
TypePrivate women's college
EstablishedApril 11, 1881 (1881-04-11)[2][3]
Endowment$389.2 million (2018)[4]
Budget$98.4 million (2018)[5]
PresidentMary Schmidt Campbell
Students2,536 (Fall 2018)
Location, ,
United States

33.746°N 84.411°W / 33.746; -84.411
ColorsColumbia Blue and White[6]
Formerly NCAA Division III GSAC
NicknameJaguars (former)
AffiliationsAnnapolis Group



The Atlanta Baptist Female Seminary was established on April 11, 1881 (1881-04-11) in the basement of Friendship Baptist Church in Atlanta, Georgia, by two teachers from the Oread Institute of Worcester, Massachusetts: Harriet E. Giles and Sophia B. Packard.[2][8] Giles and Packard had met while Giles was a student, and Packard the preceptress, of the New Salem Academy in New Salem, Massachusetts, and fostered a lifelong friendship there.[9] The two of them traveled to Atlanta specifically to found a school for black freedwomen, and found support from Frank Quarles, the pastor of Friendship Baptist Church.

Giles and Packard began the school with 11 African-American women and $100 given to them by the First Baptist Church in Medford, Massachusetts.,[2] and a promise of further support from the Women's American Baptist Home Missionary Society (WABHMS), a group with which they were both affiliated in Boston.[9] Although their first students were mostly illiterate, they envisioned their school to be a liberal arts institution - the first circular of the college stated that they planned to offer "algebra, physiology, essays, Latin, rhetoric, geometry, political economy, mental philosophy (psychology), chemistry, botany, Constitution of the United States, astronomy, zoology, geology, moral philosophy, and evidences of Christianity".[9] Over time, they attracted more students; by the time the first term ended, they had enrolled 80 students in the seminary.[9] The WABHMS made a down payment on a nine-acre (36,000 m²) site in Atlanta relatively close to the church they began in, which originally had five buildings left from a Union Civil War encampment, to support classroom and residence hall needs.[10]

In 1882 the two women returned to Massachusetts to bid for more money and were introduced to wealthy Northern Baptist businessman John D. Rockefeller at a church conference in Ohio.[2] Rockefeller was impressed by Packard's vision. In April 1884, Rockefeller visited the school. By this time, the seminary had 600 students and 16 faculty members. It was surviving on generous donations by the black community in Atlanta, the efforts of volunteer teachers, and gifts of supplies; many Atlanta black churches, philanthropists, and black community groups raised and donated money to settle the debt on the property that had been acquired.[9] Rockefeller was so impressed that he settled the debt on the property.[10] Rockefeller's wife, Laura Spelman Rockefeller; her sister, Lucy Spelman; and their parents, Harvey Buel and Lucy Henry Spelman, were also supportive of the school. The Spelmans were longtime activists in the abolitionist movement. Thus, in 1884 the name of the school was changed to the Spelman Seminary in honor of Laura Spelman, John D. Rockefeller's wife,[2] and her parents, who were longtime activists in the anti-slavery movement. Rockefeller also donated the funds for what is currently the oldest building on campus, Rockefeller Hall, which was constructed in 1886.

Packard was appointed as Spelman's first president in 1888, after the charter for the seminary was granted. Packard died in 1891, and Giles assumed the presidency until her death in 1909.


The years 1910 to 1953 saw great growth and transition for the seminary.[11] Upon Giles' death, Lucy Hale Tapley became president. Although the college was a stride in and of itself, at the time, neither the founders nor the current administration had interest in challenging the status quo of young women as primarily responsible for the family and the home.[9] Tapley declared: "Any course of study which fails to cultivate a taste and fitness for practical and efficient work in some part of the field of the world's needs is unpopular at Spelman and finds no place in our curriculum." [11] The nursing curriculum was strengthened; a teachers' dormitory and a home economics building were constructed, and Tapley Hall, the science building, was completed in 1925.[11] The Granddaughters' Club, a club for students whose mothers and aunts had attended Spelman was also created, and this club is still in existence today.

In 1927, Spelman Baptist Seminary officially became Spelman College. Florence Matilda Read assumed the presidency in 1927. Shortly thereafter, Spelman entered into an "agreement of affiliation" with nearby Morehouse College and Atlanta University by chartering the Atlanta University Center in 1929.[12] Atlanta University was to provide graduate education for students, whereas Morehouse and Spelman were responsible for the undergraduate education. At a time during which black students were often denied access to graduate studies at predominantly white southern research universities, access to Atlanta University allowed the undergraduate students at Morehouse and Spelman immediate access to graduate training.

In 1927, one of the most important buildings on campus, Sisters Chapel, was dedicated. The chapel was named for its primary benefactors, sisters Laura Spelman Rockefeller and Lucy Maria Spelman. The college had also begun to see an improvement in extracurricular investment in the arts, with the organization of the Spelman College Glee Club in 1925,[13] inauguration of the much-loved Atlanta tradition of the annual Spelman-Morehouse Christmas Carol Concert and smaller events such as the spring orchestra and chorus concert, the Atlanta University Summer Theater, and the University Players, a drama organization for AUC students. The school also began to see more of a focus on collegiate education, as it discontinued its elementary and high school divisions. In 1930 the Spelman Nursery School was created as a training center for mothers and a practice arena for students who planned careers in education and child development. Spelman celebrated its 50th anniversary in April 1931. This milestone as accompanied by the construction of a university library that was shared amongst the Atlanta University Center institutions, and the center continues to share a library to this day.

The school continued to expand, building and acquiring more property to accommodate the growing student body. IN 1947, Spelman joined the list of "approved institutions" of the Association of American Universities.[14] In 1953, Florence Read retired, and Albert E. Manley became the first black and first male president of college. Under his presidency and the presidency of his successor, Donald Stewart, Spelman saw significant growth. The college established its study abroad program, the Merrill Foreign Travel-Study Program.[12] Stewart's administration tripled the college's endowment and oversaw the establishment of the Comprehensive Writing Program, an across-the-curriculum writing program that requires students to submit portfolios of their written work; the Ethel Waddell Githii College Honors Program; and the Women's Research and Resource Center.[12] In 1958, the college received accreditation from the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools.

Civil rights involvement

Going into the 1960s, the Spelman College students became involved in the heated civil rights actions going on in Atlanta. In 1962, the first Spelman students were arrested for participating in sit-ins in the Atlanta community. Noted American historian Howard Zinn was a professor of history at Spelman during this era, and served as an adviser to the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee chapter at the college. Zinn mentored many of Spelman's students fighting for civil rights at the time, including Alice Walker and Marian Wright Edelman[15] Zinn was dismissed from the college in 1963 for supporting Spelman students in their efforts to fight segregation; at the time, Spelman was focused on turning out "refined young ladies." Edelman herself writes that Spelman had a reputation as "a tea-pouring, very strict school designed to turn black girls into refined ladies and teachers."[16]


Stewart retired in 1986, and the following year, Johnnetta Betsch Cole became the first black female president of Spelman College. During this time, the college became noted for its commitment to community service and its ties to the local community. Cole also led the college's most successful capital campaign; between 1986 and 1996, the college raised $113.8 million, including a $20 million gift from Bill Cosby and his wife, Camille Hanks Cosby, whose daughter graduated from Spelman.[12] In honor of this gift, the Cosby Academic Center was constructed.[17] In July 2015 the remainder of the funds were returned and an endowed professorship named for the Cosby couple discontinued as allegations of sexual assault by Bill Cosby grew more prominent.[18][19]

In 1997, Cole stepped down and Audrey Forbes Manley became Spelman's first alumna president. After her retirement, in 2002, Beverly Daniel Tatum, the college's president until 2015, took the post. The campus now comprises 26 buildings on 39 acres (160,000 m2) in Atlanta.[3]

In 2011, First Lady Michelle Obama served as the keynote commencement speaker.[20]

In 2012, Oprah Winfrey served as the keynote commencement speaker.[20]

In March 2015, Mary Schmidt Campbell was named the 10th president of Spelman College.[21] She began her presidency August 2015.

In 2017, Spelman's leadership voted to allow transgender women to enroll in the institution.[22]

In 2018, Spelman received $30 million from Spelman trustee Ronda Stryker for a new state-of-the-art building on campus. Stryker's gift is the second-largest single donation from a living donor to a HBCU and largest in Spelman's history.[23][24]


Since its inception Spelman has had ten presidents:

  • Sophia B. Packard, (1888) founded women's seminary with Giles in a basement of the historic Friendship Baptist Church (Atlanta) and cultivated Rockefeller support for the school
  • Harriet E. Giles, (1891) under whom the school granted its first college degrees
  • Lucy Hale Tapley, (1910) under whom the school decided to focus on higher education, the school officially became Spelman College (1927), and Sisters Chapel, one of the main buildings on campus, was erected.
  • Florence M. Read, (1927) a Mount Holyoke College graduate, under whom the school established an endowment fund of over $3 million, the school came into agreement with Atlanta University and Morehouse College to form the Atlanta University Center (later Clark-Atlanta University, Morris Brown College, Morehouse School of Medicine, and the Interdenominational Theological Center were added), the Arnett Library was built, and Spelman earned approval from the American Association of Universities;
  • Albert E. Manley (1953) (the first black and first male president of Spelman), under whom study abroad programs were established, the fine arts center was built, and three new residence halls and several classroom buildings were renovated. According to Howard Zinn, Manley tried to suppress the student civil rights movement that was taking place on campus during his tenure.
  • Donald M. Stewart (1976) under whom the departments of women's studies and chemistry were founded, and three strategic programs were formed: the Comprehensive Writing Program, the Women's Research and Resource Center, and the Ethel Waddell Githii Honors Program, and a continuing education department and a computer literacy program were established;
  • Johnnetta B. Cole (1987) (the first African-American woman president of Spelman), under whom the college received $20 million from Drs. William and Camille Cosby for the construction of the Cosby Academic Center and instituted the Cole Institute for Community Service;
  • Audrey F. Manley (1997) (the first alumna president of Spelman), under which Spelman gained a Phi Beta Kappa chapter, Spelman was accepted as a provisional member of NCAA Division III athletics, a Science Center was finished;
  • Beverly Daniel Tatum, (2002) who was appointed in 2002 after teaching and serving as an administrator for a number of years at Mount Holyoke College, and under whom the renovation of Sisters Chapel was begun. Also during her tenure, she established the Wellness Revolution which is a holistic initiative to empower and educate Spelman women;
  • Mary Schmidt Campbell, (2015) a President Obama appointee that served as vice chair of the President's committee on the Arts and Humanities, also formerly served as dean emerita of the Tisch School of the Arts and Associate Provost for the Arts at New York University;

Museum of Fine Art

The Spelman College Museum of Fine Art claims it is the only museum in the United States that emphasizes art by and about women of the African Diaspora. Some Black Women artists the museum has featured include Amy Sherald, Mickalene Thomas, and Reneé Stout.[25] Each semester, the museum features a new exhibit; past exhibits have included artists Beverly Buchanan (2017)[26] and Zanele Muholi.

In 2016, the museum collaborated with Spelman's Department of Art and Art History to start a two-year curatorial studies program to increase diversity in the museum industry.[27]


University rankings
Forbes[28] 468
Times/WSJ[29] 150
Liberal arts colleges
U.S. News & World Report[30] 57
Washington Monthly[31] 92

Spelman is ranked 57th among national liberal arts colleges and 1st among historically black colleges in the United States by U.S. News & World Report; additionally, it ranked Spelman 6th for "Social Mobility", tied for 6th "Most Innovative", and tied for 22nd "Best Undergraduate Teaching" among liberal arts colleges.[32] The college is also ranked among the top 50 four-year colleges and universities for producing Fulbright and Truman Scholars, and was ranked the second-largest producer of African-American college graduates who attend medical school. Spelman ranks first among baccalaureate origin institutions of African-American women who earned science, engineering, and mathematics doctoral degrees.[33][34] The Princeton Review ranked Spelman among the Best 373 Colleges and Universities in America in 2017.[35]

Spelman is accredited by the Commission on Colleges of the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools (SACS). Spelman is a member of the Coalition of Women's Colleges, National Association of Schools of Music (NASM), National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE), Southern Association of Colleges and Schools, The College Fund/UNCF, National Association for College Admissions Counseling, and State of Georgia Professional Standards Commission (PSC).[3]

Spelman offers bachelor's degrees in over 30 academic majors. Spelman also has strategic partnerships with over 30 different universities to help students more efficiently complete degree programs not offered on campus in healthcare, law, and engineering.[36][37]

Spelman has well-established domestic exchange and study abroad programs.[36]

The Ethel Waddell Githii Honors Program is a four-year comprehensive academic program available to select students who satisfy the highly competitive performance criteria.[38]

Spelman houses several pre-professional and research programs primarily designed to make students more competitive for admissions into highly selective graduate school programs.[39] Approximately two-thirds of Spelman graduates have earned advanced degrees.[40]

Spelman has the highest graduation rate among HBCUs.[41] It also has a student:faculty ratio of 9:1.[42]

Honor societies

Registered academic honor societies include Phi Beta Kappa, Alpha Epsilon Delta, Alpha Lambda Delta, Alpha Sigma Lambda, Beta Kappa Chi, Golden Key International Honour Society, Kappa Delta Epsilon, Mortar Board Senior Honor Society, National Society of Collegiate Scholars, Pi Sigma Alpha, Psi Chi, Sigma Tau Delta, and the Upsilon Pi Epsilon.[43]


Spelman is a selective institution with an acceptance rate of 40 percent.[44] Spelman evaluates all applicants holistically which includes vetting their community service involvement, recommendation letters, personal statement, extracurricular activities, academic transcripts, and standardized test scores.[45]

Student body

Students are all women and predominantly African-American.[3] Approximately 30% come from Georgia, 69% from the rest of the United States, and 1% are international. Of the incoming class, 99% applied for need-based financial aid, and such aid was awarded to 97% of the first-year class.[3] In 2007-08, a total of $44,399,221 in financial aid was awarded.[3]

Student life

Spelman offers organized and informal activities. The college's over 80 student organizations include community service organizations, special interest groups, Morehouse cheerleaders, choral groups, music ensembles, dance groups, drama/theater groups, a jazz band, club, intramural sports, and student government.[43]

Spelman's gated campus near downtown Atlanta consists of over 25 buildings on 39 acres.

New Student Orientation

All new Spelman students are required to attend a six-day new student orientation (NSO) in August immediately before the fall semester begins. The orientation includes events, workshops, and sessions designed to teach new Spelmanites about the mission, history, culture, traditions, and sisterhood of Spelman College; students are also given information on how to be a successful college student, such as registration, advisement, placement, and planning class schedules. Orientation is led by student leaders who apply for the positions and Spelman alumnae. During orientation, new students are required to remain on campus at all times; any leave must be approved by orientation leaders.[46]

White dress tradition

One of Spelman's oldest traditions are students wearing "respectable and conservative" white dresses to designated formal events on campus. The tradition began in the early 1900s when it was customary for women to wear such dresses when attending formal events. White dresses are worn to the annual NSO induction ceremony, Founders Day Convocation, Alumnae March, and graduating seniors wear white dresses underneath their graduation gowns for Class Day and Commencement.[47]

Student publications and media

Spelman offers a literary magazine (Aunt Chloe: A Journal of Candor), a student newspaper, The BluePrint, and student government association newsletter (Jaguar Print).[43] The yearbook is called Reflections.

Religious organizations

Religious organizations currently registered on campus include: Baha'i Club, Al-Nissa, Alabaster Box, Atlanta Adventist Collegiate Society, Campus Crusade for Christ, Crossfire International Campus Ministry, Happiness In Praise for His Overflowing Presence, InterVarsity Christian Fellowship, Movements of Praise Dance Team, The Newman Organization, The Outlet and The Pre-Theology Society Minority.[43]

International student and social organizations

NAACP and Sister Steps are registered campus organizations.[43] Spelman also has chapters of Colleges Against Cancer, Circle K, Feminist Majority Leadership Alliance, Habitat for Humanity, National Council of Negro Women, National Society of Black Engineers, Operation Smile, United Way, and Young Democrats of America. Spelman is also the first HBCU to charter a chapter of Amnesty International on its campus.

Spelman has all four National Pan-Hellenic Council sororities on campus: Alpha Kappa Alpha, Delta Sigma Theta, Zeta Phi Beta, and Sigma Gamma Rho. In addition, Spelman has a chapter of the Tau Beta Sigma National Honorary Band Sorority and a chapter of Gamma Sigma Sigma, a national service sorority.

Residential life

Spelman College has 11 residence halls on campus with approximately 1,400 students occupying them.[48] Each one has unique features and identities. There are three first-year students only residence halls, an honors residence hall (mixed with first-year students and upperclassmen), and seven upperclassmen only residence halls.[49] All first-year students and sophomores are required to live on campus and it is a Spelman tradition for first-year students to engage in friendly residence hall competitions (i.e. stroll-offs, chant-offs, pranks, fundraising, etc.) throughout the school year.


From 2003 to 2013 the Spelman Jaguars were a member of the Great South Athletic Conference (GSAC) of NCAA's Division III. The school sponsored seven varsity sports: basketball, cross country, golf, soccer, softball, tennis and volleyball. In 2013, Spelman College decided to drop varsity athletics and leave the National Collegiate Athletic Association. Using money originally budgeted to the sports programs, they created wellness programs available for all students.[50]

Notable alumnae

Spelman is the alma mater of thousands of notable African descendant women including the first African-American COO of Starbucks and CEO of Sam's Club Rosalind Brewer, Pulitzer Prize winner Alice Walker, former Dean of Harvard College Evelynn M. Hammonds, activist and Children's Defense Fund founder Marian Wright Edelman, musician, activist and historian Bernice Johnson Reagon, political activist Stacey Abrams, writer Pearl Cleage, TV personality Rolonda Watts, opera singer Mattiwilda Dobbs, actresses Cassi Davis, LaTanya Richardson, Adrienne-Joi Johnson, and Keshia Knight Pulliam, and many others in the arts, education, sciences, business, and the armed forces.

Name Class year Notability Reference(s)
Stacey Abrams 1995 Politician, House Minority Leader for the Georgia General Assembly and State Representative for the 89th House District. First African-American woman in the U.S. to win a major party's nomination for governor.
Tina McElroy Ansa 1971 Author, Baby of the Family, Ugly Ways, The Hand I Fan With, and You Know Better [2]
Blanche Armwood 1906 Educator, activist; the first African-American woman in the state of Florida to graduate from an accredited law school; Armwood High School in Tampa, FL is named in her honor
Mary Barksdale 1942 Past President, Jack and Jill (organization)
Loretta Copeland Biggs 1976 Judge of the United States District Court for the Middle District of North Carolina
Janet Bragg 1931 Aviation pioneer; first African-American female to obtain a commercial pilot license
Rosalind G. Brewer 1984 Chief Operating Officer, Starbucks; Executive Vice President, Walmart Stores, Inc. and President Walmart Stores South, USA; Board of Directors, Lockheed Martin
Linda Goode Bryant 1981 Documentary filmmaker, Flag Wars; Peabody Award winner and 2004 Guggenheim Fellow
Selena Sloan Butler 1888 Founder first black Parent-Teacher organization, the National Congress for Colored Parents & Teachers; co-founder the National Parent-Teacher Association
Sheila L. Chamberlain 1981 Pilot, lawyer
Pearl Cleage 1971 Novelist, playwright, poet, essayist, and journalist [2]
Cassi Davis 1988 actress House of Payne
Ruth A. Davis 1966 24th Director General of the United States Foreign Service; Director, Foreign Service Institute and two-time recipient of the President's Award for Distinguished Federal Civilian Service
Phire Dawson 2008 "Barker's Beauty" on The Price Is Right
Mattiwilda Dobbs 1937 Opera singer; served on the Board of Directors for the Metropolitan Opera and the National Endowment for the Arts [2]
Marian Wright Edelman 1960 Founder of the Children's Defense Fund; MacArthur Fellow; Heinz Award; Presidential Medal of Freedom [2]
Christine King Farris 1948 Public speaker and educator who teaches at Spelman College, she is the eldest and only living sibling of the late Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr.
Tia Fuller 1998 Saxophonist, composer, and educator
Nora A. Gordon 1888 Began the tradition of Spelman missionary work to Africa[51]
Beverly Guy-Sheftall Author, feminist scholar, founder of Women's Research and Resource Center at Spelman College
Evelynn M. Hammonds 1976 Dean of Harvard College, Professor of the History of Science and of African and African American Studies at Harvard University
Marcelite J. Harris 1964 First African-American female to obtain the rank of General in the United States Air Force
Paula Hicks-Hudson 1973 First African-American female mayor of Toledo, Ohio
Varnette Honeywood 1972 Creator of the Little Bill character [2]
Clara Ann Howard 1887 Baptist missionary in Africa, longtime Spelman staff
Alexine Clement Jackson 1956 Chair, Susan G. Komen for the Cure and former National President of the YWCA
Adrienne-Joi Johnson 1988 Actress "House Party", "Baby Boy"
Bernette Joshua Johnson 1964 First African-American and second female Chief Justice of the Louisiana Supreme Court [52]
Clara Stanton Jones 1934 First African-American President of the American Library Association
Tayari Jones 1991 Author of Leaving Atlanta and The Untelling
Bettina Judd 2005 Artist and poet [53]
Alberta Williams King (high school) Mother of Martin Luther King, Jr.
Bernice King 1986 President, SCLC, daughter of Martin Luther King, Jr.
Audrey F. Manley 1955 President Emerita of Spelman College, former Assistant Surgeon General of the United States, former Acting Surgeon General of the United States
Harriet Mitchell Murphy 1949 First African-American female judge in Texas [54]
Tanya Walton Pratt 1981 Judge, United States District Court for the Southern District of Indiana
Deborah Prothrow-Stith 1975 First female Commissioner of Public Health for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts; Associate Dean for Faculty Development and Professor at Harvard School of Public Health [2]
Keshia Knight Pulliam 2001 Actress The Cosby Show, House of Payne
Tanika Ray 1994 Actress and television personality
Bernice Johnson Reagon 1970 Founder of Sweet Honey in the Rock; MacArthur Fellow; Professor Emeritus American University Curator Emeritus, Smithsonian Institution National Museum American History; National Humanities Medal; Heinz Award [2]
LaTanya Richardson 1971 Actress (The Fighting Temptations, Losing Isaiah, Malcolm X) and wife of actor Samuel L. Jackson [2]
Rubye Robinson 1963 Civil Rights activist, Executive Secretary of SNCC
Shaun Robinson 1984 Co-anchor, Access Hollywood; former host, TV One Access
Esther Rolle attended Actress, Good Times
Dovey Johnson Roundtree 1937 Trial attorney, military veteran and civil rights pioneer; landmark case: Sarah Keys v. Carolina Coach Company
Eva Rutland 1937 Author, When We Were Colored: A Mother's Story; Winner of the 2000 Golden Pen Lifetime Achievement Award, and author of more than 20 Romance novels
Brenda V. Smith 1980 Law professor, American University; appointed by Nancy Pelosi to the National Prison Rape Elimination Commission
Maxine Smith 1949 Academic, civil rights activist, and school board official [55]
Sharmell Sullivan 1990 Miss Black America 1991, "TNA Knockout", and wife of professional wrestler Booker T
Sue Bailey Thurman 1920 Founder and first chairperson, National Council of Negro Women's National Library
Alice Walker attended Pulitzer Prize–winning novelist, The Color Purple [2]
Talitha Washington 1996 African-American mathematician and STEM activist
Rolonda Watts 1980 Journalist, actor, writer, former talk show host
Denise Nicole White known as "AverySunshine" 1998 Singer and pianist
Ella Gaines Yates 1949 First African-American director of the Atlanta-Fulton Public Library System

Notable faculty

See also


  1. "List of HBCUs -- White House Initiative on Historically Black Colleges and Universities". August 16, 2007. Archived from the original on December 23, 2007. Retrieved January 3, 2008.
  2. "Spelman College". The New Georgia Encyclopedia. Georgia Humanities Council and the University of Georgia Press. Retrieved January 30, 2008.
  3. "Fact Book: Spelman College" (PDF). November 30, 2008. Retrieved November 28, 2009.
  4. As of June 30, 2018. "U.S. and Canadian Institutions Listed by Fiscal Year (FY) 2018 Endowment Market Value and Change in Endowment Market Value from FY 2017 to FY 2018" (PDF). National Association of College and University Business Officers and Commonfund Institute. 2018. Retrieved July 23, 2019.
  5. "Financial statements" (PDF). www.spelman.edu. 2018. Retrieved July 19, 2019.
  6. Spelman College Visual Identity Standards (PDF). Retrieved March 8, 2018.
  7. "Spelman eliminates athletics in favor of campus-wide wellness initiative". Inside Higher Ed. November 1, 2012. Retrieved November 4, 2012.
  8. Wallace Putnam Reed, ed. (1889). History of Atlanta, Georgia: With Illustrations and Biographical Sketches of Some of Its Prominent Men and Pioneers. D. Mason & Company. pp. 367–370.
  9. Lefever, Harry G. (2005), "The Early Origins of Spelman College". The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, No. 47, pp. 60-63.
  10. "Sophia B. Packard", Encyclopædia Britannica.
  11. "College History". Spelman.edu. Spelman College. Archived from the original on September 25, 2008. Retrieved July 2, 2008.
  12. Spencer, Taronda (February 1, 2004). "Spelman College". New Georgia Encyclopedia.
  13. "Spelman College Glee Club". Spelman.edu. Spelman College. Retrieved February 26, 2017.
  14. "History in Brief". Spelman.edu. Spelman College.
  15. Alice Walker remembers Howard Zinn, in the Boston Globe, January 31, 2010.
  16. Edelman, Marian Wright (2000), "Spelman College: A Safe Haven for a Young Black Woman". The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, No. 27, pp. 118-123.
  17. "Campus Map - Spelman College". Spelman.edu. Retrieved July 11, 2018.
  18. "Atlanta's Spelman College ends Bill Cosby professorship". BBC. July 25, 2015. Retrieved July 27, 2015.
  19. "Spelman Discontinues Cosby Professorship". Inside Higher Ed. July 27, 2015. Retrieved July 27, 2015.
  20. "Spelman left spellbound by Michelle Obama". Ajc.com. Retrieved July 11, 2018.
  21. "Dr. Mary Schmidt Campbell Named President-elect of Spelman College". Spelman.edu. Retrieved July 11, 2018.
  22. Stirgus, Eric. "Spelman College to admit transgender female students". AJC. Retrieved May 20, 2019.
  23. "Spelman College Receives $30 Million Gift From Trustee Ronda Stryker and Spouse, William Johnston, to Support New Center for Innovation & the Arts". www.Spelman.edu. December 2018. Retrieved May 20, 2019.
  24. Harris, Adam (May 19, 2019). "What Happens When a Billionaire Swoops In to Solve the Student-Debt Crisis". The Atlantic. Retrieved May 20, 2019.
  25. "PAST EXHIBITIONS". Spelman College Museum of Fine Art. Retrieved December 10, 2019.
  26. "Spelman College; Spelman College Museum of Fine Art Launches its 2017 Season with a Solo Exhibition Featuring Acclaimed Artist Beverly Buchanan." Health & Medicine Week, Sep 29, 2017, pp. 5897. ProQuest, https://login.ezproxy.auctr.edu:2050/login?url=https://search-proquest-com.ezproxy.auctr.edu/docview/1944379135?accountid=8422.
  27. https://www.spelman.edu/about-us/news-and-events/news-releases/2016/04/06/spelman-s-new-curatorial-studies-program-addresses-critical-museum-industry-diversity-gap
  28. "America's Top Colleges 2019". Forbes. Retrieved August 15, 2019.
  29. "U.S. College Rankings 2020". Wall Street Journal/Times Higher Education. Retrieved September 26, 2019.
  30. "Best Colleges 2020: National Liberal Arts Colleges Rankings". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved September 8, 2019.
  31. "2019 Liberal Arts Rankings". Washington Monthly. Retrieved September 8, 2019.
  32. "Spelman College Rankings". U.S. News & World Report. 2020. Retrieved September 16, 2019.
  33. "Robust 2016 Funding Fuels Spelman's Rigorous Research, Programs, and Initiatives Focused on STEM". Spelman.edu. Retrieved July 11, 2018.
  34. "Mathematics - Spelman College". Spelman.edu. Retrieved July 11, 2018.
  35. "Learn about the Top Women's Colleges in the U.S." Collegeapps.about.com. Retrieved July 11, 2018.
  36. "Strategic Partnerships | Spelman College". www.spelman.edu.
  37. "College of Law Enters into 3+3 Admissions Agreements with Three Historically Black Colleges, Universities".
  38. "Admissions - SPELMAN COLLEGE". Sites.spelman.edu. Retrieved July 11, 2018.
  39. "Research Programs - Spelman College". Spelman.edu. Retrieved July 11, 2018.
  40. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on September 19, 2017. Retrieved September 19, 2017.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  41. "Error Page - Spelman College" (PDF). Spelman.edu. Retrieved July 11, 2018.
  42. "The Spelman Promise" (PDF). Spelman.edu. Retrieved February 28, 2019.
  43. "USNews.com:America's Best Colleges 2008:Spelman College:Extracurriculars". USNews.com. U.S.News & World Report, L.P. Retrieved January 30, 2008.
  44. "Spelman College Rankings". US News & World Report. Retrieved July 18, 2019.
  45. "Google". Google.com. Retrieved July 11, 2018.
  46. "New Student FAQs". Spelman.edu. Retrieved July 11, 2018.
  47. "The White Attire Tradition - Spelman College". Spelman.edu. Retrieved July 11, 2018.
  48. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on November 9, 2017. Retrieved November 8, 2017.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  49. "Residence Halls - Spelman College". Spelman.edu. Retrieved July 11, 2018.
  50. Luke Cyphers, "A Different World", SB Nation, April 16, 2013.
  51. Weisenfeld, Judith; Newman, Richard (April 23, 2014). This Far By Faith: Readings in African-American Women's Religious Biography. New York, New York: Routledge. p. 224. ISBN 978-1-136-66351-2.
  52. "Bernette Joshua Johnson". intelius.com. Retrieved July 19, 2015.
  53. "Bettina Judd — Department of Women's Studies at Univ. of Maryland". wmst.umd.edu. Retrieved March 5, 2016.
  54. "Harriet Murphy". diversity.utexas.edu. Retrieved July 11, 2018.
  55. "Maxine A. Smith NAACP Collection". Digital Library of Georgia. Retrieved June 3, 2016.

Further reading

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