Spaceflight before 1951

This is a list of known spaceflights launched before 1951.

Spaceflight before 1951
Launch of a V-2 from Peenemünde.
National firsts
Spaceflight Germany (1944)
 United States (1946)
 Soviet Union (1948)

Launches

Date and time (UTC) Rocket Flight number Launch site LSP
Payload
(⚀ = CubeSat)
Operator Orbit Function Decay (UTC) Outcome
Remarks

1944

June V-2 Greifswalder Oie Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht Suborbital Missile testSame dayMixed
A number of vertical test launches were done to attempt to solve the airburst problem with the V-2. Rockets launched during these tests reached a peak apogee of 176 kilometres (109 mi).[1]
20 June V-2 Greifswalder Oie Wehrmacht
MW 18014 Wehrmacht Suborbital Missile test20 JuneSuccessful
First man-made object to cross what would later be defined as the Kármán line and hence first spaceflight.
Vertical test, apogee: 174.6 kilometres (108.5 mi)
14 September V-2 Peenemünde Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht Suborbital Missile test14 SeptemberSuccessful
First spaceflight with recorded date, vertical test, apogee: 175 kilometres (109 mi)
7 December
17:00
V-2 Peenemünde Wehrmacht
Ma-333 Wehrmacht Suborbital Missile test7 DecemberSuccessful
Vertical test, apogee: 104 kilometres (65 mi)
9 December
17:10
V-2 Peenemünde Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht Suborbital Missile test9 DecemberSuccessful
Vertical test, apogee: 106 kilometres (66 mi)

1946

16 April
21:47
V-2 White SandsLaunch Complex 33 General Electric/US Army
WSPG[2] Suborbital Cosmic Radiation (Applied Physics Laboratory)[3]16 AprilGuidance failure[2]
First launch of Project Hermes, apogee: 8 kilometres (5.0 mi)
10 May
21:15
V-2 White Sands LC-33 G.E./U.S. Army
WSPG[2] Suborbital Cosmic Radiation (APL),[3] Chemical Release?*[4]10 MaySuccessful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 112 kilometres (70 mi), First US spaceflight
29 May
21:12
V-2 White Sands LC-33 G.E./U.S. Army
G.E.[2] Suborbital Cosmic Radiation (APL),[3] Chemical Release?*[4]29 MaySuccessful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 112 kilometres (70 mi)
13 June
23:40
V-2 White Sands LC-33 G.E./U.S. Army
G.E.[2] Suborbital Solar Radiation, Ionosphere (Naval Radiation Laboratory)[3]13 JuneSuccessful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 117 kilometres (73 mi)
28 June
19:25
V-2 White Sands LC-33 G.E./U.S. Army
Naval Radiation Laboratory[2] Suborbital Cosmic Radiation, Solar Radiation, Pressure, Temperature. Ionosphere[5]28 JuneSuccessful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 108 kilometres (67 mi)
9 July
19:25
V-2 White Sands LC-33 G.E./U.S. Army
G.E.[2] Suborbital Cosmic Radiation, Ionosphere (Naval Radiation Laboratory), Biological (Harvard University)[6]9 JulySuccessful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 134 kilometres (83 mi)
19 July
19:11
V-2 White Sands LC-33 G.E./U.S. Army
G.E.[2] Suborbital Ionospheric (NRL)[3]19 JulyExplosion at 28.5 seconds[2]
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 5 kilometres (3.1 mi)
30 July
19:36
V-2 White Sands LC-33 G.E./U.S. Army
Applied Physics Laboratory[2] Suborbital Cosmic Radiation, Ionosphere (NRL)[7]30 JulySuccessful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 167 kilometres (104 mi)
15 August
18:00
V-2 White Sands LC-33 G.E./U.S. Army
Princeton University[2] Suborbital Cosmic Radiation, Ionosphere[8]15 AugustGuidance Failure at 13.9 seconds[2]
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 3 kilometres (1.9 mi)
22 August
17:15
V-2 White Sands LC-33 G.E./U.S. Army
University of Michigan,[2] ARDC?[9] Suborbital Pressure, Density, Ionosphere Aeronomy, Sky Brightness[3]22 AugustGuidance Failure immediately after lift off[2]
Project Hermes launch
10 October
18:02
V-2 White Sands LC-33 G.E./U.S. Army
NRL[2] Suborbital Cosmic Ray, Ionosphere, Pressure-Temperature, Solar Spectroscopy, Ejection of Cosmic Ray Recording Camera[10] Selected seeds (Harvard), Cross jet attenuation transmitter & receiver[11]10 OctoberSuccessful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 164 kilometres (102 mi)
24 October
19:15
V-2 White Sands LC-33 G.E./U.S. Army
APL[2] Suborbital Cosmic & Solar radiation, winds, photography[3]24 OctoberSuccessful, Short burning time (59 sec)[12]
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 105 kilometres (65 mi), First photo of Earth from space
7 November
20:31
V-2 White Sands LC-33 G.E./U.S. Army
Princeton University[2] Suborbital Cosmic Radiation,[3]7 NovemberGuidance Failure at 2 seconds, missile turned sideways, flew horizontal and was destroyed[13]
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 0.39 kilometres (0.24 mi)
21 November
16:55
V-2 White Sands LC-33 G.E./US Army
Watson Laboratories, University of Michigan,[14] ARDC?[9] Suborbital Pressure, Temperature, Ionosphere, Sky Brightness,Voltage breakdown[15]21 NovemberSuccessful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 102 kilometres (63 mi)
5 December
20:08
V-2 White Sands LC-33 G.E./U.S. Army
NRL [2] Suborbital Cosmic & Solar Radiation, Pressure, Temperature, Photography[3]5 DecemberSuccessful, Guidance Problems
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 167 kilometres (104 mi)
18 December
05:12
V-2 White Sands LC-33 G.E./U.S. Army
GRENADES APL[2] Suborbital Cosmic Radiation, Meteor research, Biological (National Institute of Health),[3] Chemical release*[4]18 DecemberSuccessful, extraordinary range due to guidance failure[16]
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 187 kilometres (116 mi)

1947

10 January
21:13
V-2 White Sands LC-33 G.E./U.S. Army
NRL[2] Suborbital Cosmic Radiation,[3] "Daughter Canister Release (Air Material Command)[17]10 JanuarySuccessful, Roll at 40 seconds[2]
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 116 kilometres (72 mi)
24 January
00:22
V-2 White Sands LC-33 G.E./U.S. Army
G.E.[2] Suborbital Test Guidance System,[2] Hermes A-2 Telemetry System Test[18]24 JanuarySuccessful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 49.88 kilometres (30.99 mi).
20 February
18:16
V-2 White Sands LC-33 G.E./U.S. Army
Blossom I Air Materiel Command[2] Suborbital Pressure-temperature (University of Michigan), Ionosphere (Air Force Cambridge Research Center, UoM), Sky brightness, Voltage Breakdown measurements (AFCRC), Biological rye, cotton seeds and fruit flies, first animals in space,[19] Blossom parachute recovery of canister (Cambridge Field Station)[20]20 FebruarySuccessful, Guidance disturbance at 27 sec, Roll at 37.5 sec[2]
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 109 kilometres (68 mi).
7 March
18:23
V-2 White Sands LC-33 G.E./U.S. Army
NRL[2] Suborbital Cosmic Radiation, Pressure-temperature, Solar Radiation, Ionosphere (NRL), Biological rye, cotton seeds and fruit flies (Harvard)[21]7 MarchSuccessful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 161 kilometres (100 mi).
1 April
20:10
V-2 White Sands LC-33 G.E./U.S. Army
APL[2] Suborbital Cosmic Radiation, Solar Radiation (APL & Yerkes Observatory), High altitude photography (Gun Sight Aiming Point camera)[22]1 AprilSuccessful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 129 kilometres (80 mi)
9 April
00:10
V-2 White Sands LC-33 G.E./U.S. Army
APL[2] Suborbital Cosmic Radiation, Solar Radiation, High altitude photography.[23]9 AprilSuccessful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 103 kilometres (64 mi)
17 April
23:22
V-2 White Sands LC-33 G.E./U.S. Army
GRENADES G.E.[2] Suborbital Pressure-Temperature: 9 Grenades (Signal Corps Engineering Laboratories)[24]17 AprilSuccessful, Roll at 57.5 seconds[2]
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 140 kilometres (87 mi)
15 May
23:08
V-2 White Sands LC-33 G.E./U.S. Army
NRL[2] Suborbital Density-pressure-temperature grenades (SCEL), (Michigan University), Composition, Cosmic Radiation, Solar Radiation (NRL)[25]15 MaySuccessful, Steering trouble from lift[2]
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 122 kilometres (76 mi)
29 May[26] Hermes B-1 White Sands LC-33 G.E./U.S. Army
Hermes II G.E. Suborbital Missile test of ramjet diffusers called "Organ."[27]29 MayMissile went South instead of North, landed in Mexico[28]
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 50 kilometres (31 mi), maiden flight of Hermes II, aka Hermes B-1
10 July
19:18
V-2 White Sands LC-33 G.E./U.S. Army
NRL[2] Suborbital Density-pressure-temperature, Cosmic Radiation, Ionosphere, Simulant agent experiment - Camp Detrick, Indiana, seed containers in control chamber (Harvard College Observatory)[29]10 JulyLaunch failure, Steering trouble from lift[2]
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 16 kilometres (9.9 mi)
29 July
12:55
V-2 White Sands LC-33 G.E./U.S. Army
APL[2] Suborbital Cosmic Radiation, Solar Radiation, High altitude photography (APL)[30]29 JulySuccessful, Vane #4 ceased to operate at 27 sec[2]
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 159 kilometres (99 mi)
6 September V-2 USS Midway, AO-10 US Navy
US Navy Suborbital Missile test6 SeptemberLaunch failure
Operation Sandy, first shipboard missile launch, apogee: 1 kilometre (0.62 mi)
9 October
19:15
V-2 White Sands LC-33 G.E./U.S. Army
G.E.[2] Suborbital Density-pressure-temperature, Skin temperature, Composition (University of Michigan), Solar radiation (NRL)[31]9 OctoberSuccessful, Steering disturbance at 48.4 sec. Roll at 52 sec.[2]
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 156 kilometres (97 mi)
20 November
23:47
V-2 White Sands LC-33 G.E./U.S. Army
G.E.[2] Suborbital Technology development flight for GE.[32]20 NovemberLaunch failure, Propulsion trouble at 36 sec.[2]
Apogee: 21 kilometres (13 mi)
24 November
17:20
Aerobee RTV-N-8 White Sands LC-35 US Navy
Applied Physics Laboratory[33] Suborbital Cosmic Radiation[34]24 NovemberLaunch failure, off course, flight terminated.[35]
Apogee: 56 kilometres (35 mi)
8 December
21:42
V-2 White Sands LC-33 G.E./U.S. Army
Blossom II AMC[2] Suborbital Density-pressure-temperature (Michigan University), Skin temperature (Boston University), Solar soft X-rays,Vertical incidence ionosphere propagation, Oblique incidence ionosphere propagation, Aspect project (cameras to be lowered by parachute) (Wright Air Development Center), Sky brightness (AFCRC)[36]8 DecemberSuccessful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 105 kilometres (65 mi)

1948

22 January
20:12
V-2 White Sands LC-33 G.E./US Army
NRL Suborbital 22 JanuarySuccessful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 159 kilometres (99 mi)
6 February
17:17
V-2 White Sands LC-33 G.E./US Army
G.E. Suborbital 6 FebruarySuccessful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 113 kilometres (70 mi)
5 March
22:51
Aerobee RTV-N-8 White Sands LC-35 US Navy
APL Suborbital Chemical release5 MarchSuccessful
Apogee: 118 kilometres (73 mi)
19 March
23:10
V-2 White Sands LC-33 G.E./US Army
Blossom IIA G.E. Suborbital 19 MarchLaunch failure
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 5 kilometres (3.1 mi)
2 April
13:47
V-2 White Sands LC-33 G.E./US Army
US Army Signal Corps Suborbital 2 AprilSuccessful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 144 kilometres (89 mi)
13 April
21:41
Aerobee RTV-N-8 White Sands LC-35 US Navy
APL Suborbital 13 AprilSuccessful
Apogee: 114 kilometres (71 mi)
19 April
19:54
V-2 White Sands LC-33 G.E./US Army
NRL Suborbital 19 AprilGuidance Failure
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 56 kilometres (35 mi)
13 May
13:43
Bumper White Sands LC-33 G.E./US Army
Bumper 1 G.E. Suborbital 13 MaySuccessful
Maiden flight of Bumper, apogee: 113 kilometres (70 mi)
27 May
14:15
V-2 White Sands LC-33 G.E./US Army
APL Suborbital 27 MaySuccessful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 140 kilometres (87 mi)
11 June
10:22
V-2 White Sands LC-33 G.E./US Army
AMC Suborbital 11 JuneLaunch Failure, Premature Valve Closure
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 63 kilometres (39 mi)
26 July
16:47
Aerobee RTV-N-8 White Sands LC-35 US Navy
APL Suborbital 26 JulySuccessful
Apogee: 113 kilometres (70 mi)
26 July
18:03
V-2 White Sands LC-33 G.E./US Army
APL Suborbital 26 JulySuccessful, Propulsion issues at 45.2s
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 97 kilometres (60 mi)
5 August
12:07
V-2 White Sands LC-33 G.E./US Army
NRL Suborbital UV Astronomy
Solar X-ray
5 AugustSuccessful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 167 kilometres (104 mi)
19 August
14:45
Bumper White Sands LC-33 G.E./US Army
Bumper 2 G.E. Suborbital 19 AugustLaunch failure
Apogee: 13 kilometres (8.1 mi)
3 September
01:00
V-2 White Sands LC-33 G.E./US Army
GRENADES USASC Suborbital 3 SeptemberSuccessful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 151 kilometres (94 mi)
17 September R-1 Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test17 SeptemberLaunch failure
Maiden flight of R-1
30 September
15:30
Bumper White Sands LC-33 G.E./US Army
Bumper 3 G.E. Suborbital 30 September2nd Stage Failure
Apogee: 150 kilometres (93 mi)
10 October R-1 Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test10 OctoberSuccessful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi), first Soviet spaceflight
13 October R-1 Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test13 OctoberSuccessful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
21 October R-1 Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test21 OctoberSuccessful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
23 October R-1 Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test23 OctoberSuccessful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
1 November
14:24
Bumper White Sands LC-33 G.E./US Army
Bumper 4 G.E. Suborbital 1 NovemberTail explosion at 28.5s
Apogee: 5 kilometres (3.1 mi)
1 November R-1 Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test1 NovemberSuccessful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
3 November R-1 Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test3 NovemberSuccessful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
4 November R-1 Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test4 NovemberSuccessful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
5 November R-1 Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test5 NovemberSuccessful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
18 November
22:35
V-2 White Sands LC-33 G.E./US Army
G.E. Suborbital Ramjet research18 NovemberSuccessful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 145 kilometres (90 mi)
9 December
16:08
V-2 White Sands LC-33 G.E./US Army
USASC Suborbital 9 DecemberSuccessful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 108 kilometres (67 mi)

1949

14 January
20:26
Hermes B-1 White Sands LC-33 US Army
Hermes II US Army Suborbital Missile test14 JanuaryLaunch failure
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 1 kilometre (0.62 mi)
28 January
17:20
V-2 White Sands LC-33 G.E./U.S. Army
NRL Suborbital 28 JanuaryLaunch failure
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 60 kilometres (37 mi)
17 February
17:00
V-2 White Sands LC-33 G.E./U.S. Army
APL Suborbital 17 FebruarySuccessful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 127 kilometres (79 mi)
24 February
22:14
Bumper White Sands LC-33 G.E./U.S. Army
Bumper 5 G.E. Suborbital 24 FebruarySuccessful
Apogee: 393 kilometres (244 mi). The new altitude record.
17 March
23:20
Aerobee RTV-N-8 USS Norton Sound, PO-22 LP-1 US Navy
APL Suborbital Ionospheric17 MarchSuccessful
Apogee: 105 kilometres (65 mi)
22 March
06:43
V-2 White Sands LC-33 G.E./U.S. Army
Blossom IVA AMC Suborbital 22 MarchSuccessful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 129 kilometres (80 mi)
22 March
17:20
Aerobee RTV-N-8 USS Norton Sound, PO-22 LP-1 US Navy
APL Suborbital Ionospheric22 MarchSuccessful
Apogee: 105 kilometres (65 mi)
24 March
15:14
Aerobee RTV-N-8 USS Norton Sound, PO-22 LP-1 US Navy
APL Suborbital Ionospheric24 MarchLaunch failure
Apogee: 5 kilometres (3.1 mi), pressure valve malfunction, booster separated on ignition
11 April
22:05
V-2 White Sands LC-33 G.E./U.S. Army
USASC Suborbital 11 AprilSuccessful, Thrust issues starting at 43.4s
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 85 kilometres (53 mi)
22 April
00:17
Bumper White Sands LC-33 G.E./U.S. Army
Bumper 6 G.E. Suborbital 22 AprilLaunch failure
Apogee: 50 kilometres (31 mi)
5 May
15:15
V-2 White Sands LC-33 G.E./U.S. Army
G.E. Suborbital 5 MayLaunch failure
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 8 kilometres (5.0 mi)
7 May
03:12
R-1A Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test7 MaySuccessful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi), maiden flight of R-1A
10 May
15:57
R-1A Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test10 MaySuccessful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
15 May
02:48
R-1A Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test15 MaySuccessful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
16 May
21:55
R-1A Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test16 MaySuccessful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
24 May
01:40
R-1A Kapustin Yar OKB-1
FIAR-1 OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test24 MaySuccessful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
28 May
01:50
R-1A Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test28 MaySuccessful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
14 June
22:35
V-2 White Sands LC-33 G.E./U.S. Army
Blossom IVB AMC Suborbital Biological
Atmospheric
14 JuneSuccessful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 134 kilometres (83 mi), carried Albert II, first monkey in space[19][37]
15 June
02:03
Aerobee RTV-N-8 White Sands LC-35 US Navy
NRL Suborbital Ozone research15 JuneSuccessful
Apogee: 109 kilometres (68 mi)
6 September
16:57
Viking White Sands ALA-1 US Navy
Viking 2 NRL Suborbital Aeronomy
Imaging
6 SeptemberLaunch failure
Apogee: 57 kilometres (35 mi)
10 September R-1 Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test10 SeptemberSuccessful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
11 September R-1 Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test11 SeptemberSuccessful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
13 September R-1 Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test13 SeptemberSuccessful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
14 September R-1 Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test14 SeptemberSuccessful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
16 September
23:19
V-2 White Sands LC-33 G.E./U.S. Army
Blossom IVC AMC Suborbital Biological16 SeptemberLaunch Failure, Tail explosion at 10.7s
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 5 kilometres (3.1 mi), carried Albert III
17 September R-1 Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test17 SeptemberSuccessful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
19 September R-1 Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test19 SeptemberSuccessful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
20 September R-1 Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test20 SeptemberSuccessful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
23 September R-1 Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test23 SeptemberSuccessful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
25 September
11:16
R-2E Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test25 SeptemberSuccessful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi), maiden flight of R-2E
28 September R-1 Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test28 SeptemberSuccessful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
29 September
16:58
V-2 White Sands LC-33 G.E./U.S. Army
NRL Suborbital 29 SeptemberSuccessful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 151 kilometres (94 mi)
30 September
11:49
R-2E Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test30 SeptemberSuccessful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
2 October
11:00
R-2E Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test2 OctoberLaunch failure
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
3 October R-1 Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test3 OctoberSuccessful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
6 October Hermes B-1 White Sands LC-33 US Army
Hermes II US Army Suborbital Missile test6 OctoberLaunch failure
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 4 kilometres (2.5 mi)
8 October
06:05
R-2E Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test8 OctoberSuccessful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
8 October R-1 Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test8 OctoberSuccessful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
10 October R-1 Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test10 OctoberSuccessful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
11 October
12:45
R-2E Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test11 OctoberLaunch failure
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
12 October R-1 Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test12 OctoberSuccessful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
13 October R-1 Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test13 OctoberSuccessful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
13 October R-1 Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test13 OctoberSuccessful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
15 October R-1 Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test15 OctoberSuccessful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
18 October R-1 Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test18 OctoberSuccessful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
19 October R-1 Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test19 OctoberSuccessful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
22 October R-1 Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test22 OctoberSuccessful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
23 October R-1 Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test23 OctoberSuccessful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
18 November
16:03
V-2 White Sands LC-33 G.E./US Army
GRENADES USASC Suborbital 18 NovemberSuccessful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 124 kilometres (77 mi)
6 December Aerobee XASR-SC-1 White Sands LC-35 US Army
US Army Suborbital Air sampling aironomy mission6 DecemberLaunch failure
Doesn't reach Karman line; Apogee: 64.9 kilometres (40.3 mi)
8 December
19:15
V-2 White Sands LC-33 G.E./US Army
Blossom IVD AMC Suborbital Biological8 DecemberSuccessful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 127 kilometres (79 mi), carried Albert IV

1950

9 February
21:44
Viking White Sands ALA-1 US Navy
Viking 3 NRL Suborbital Solar
Imaging
9 FebruaryLaunch failure
Veered off-course, failed to reach space, apogee: 80.5 kilometres (50.0 mi)
17 February
18:00
V-2 White Sands LC-33 G.E./US Army
NRL Suborbital 17 FebruarySuccessful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 148 kilometres (92 mi)
26 April
01:11
Aerobee XASR-SC-2 White Sands LC-35 US Navy
US Army Suborbital Atmospheric26 AprilSuccessful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
12 May
03:08
Viking USS Norton Sound, PO-8 US Navy
Viking 4 US Navy Suborbital Ionospheric
Aeronomy
12 MaySuccessful
Apogee: 171 kilometres (106 mi)
17 August
15:45
Aerobee RTV-N-10 White Sands LC-35 US Navy
APL Suborbital Spectrometry17 AugustSuccessful
Apogee: 101 kilometres (63 mi)
31 August
17:09
V-2 White Sands LC-33 G.E./US Army
Blossom IVG AMC Suborbital Biological31 AugustSuccessful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 137 kilometres (85 mi), carried a mouse
21 October R-2 Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test21 OctoberSuccessful
Apogee: 150 kilometres (93 mi), maiden flight of R-2
26 October
23:02
V-2 White Sands LC-33 G.E./US Army
Ballistic Research Laboratory Suborbital 26 OctoberLaunch Failure
Project Hermes launch
1 November R-2 Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test1 NovemberSuccessful
Apogee: 150 kilometres (93 mi)
1 November R-2 Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test1 NovemberSuccessful
Apogee: 150 kilometres (93 mi)
1 November R-2 Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test1 NovemberSuccessful
Apogee: 150 kilometres (93 mi)
1 November R-2 Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test1 NovemberSuccessful
Apogee: 150 kilometres (93 mi)
1 November R-2 Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test1 NovemberSuccessful
Apogee: 150 kilometres (93 mi)
9 November Hermes B-1 White Sands LC-33 US Army
Hermes II US Army Suborbital Missile test9 NovemberPartial Success[38]
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 150 kilometres (93 mi)
21 November
17:18
Viking White Sands ALA-1 US Navy
Viking 5 NRL Suborbital Solar
Ionospheric
21 NovemberSuccessful
Apogee: 174 kilometres (108 mi)
1 December R-2 Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test1 DecemberSuccessful
Apogee: 150 kilometres (93 mi)
1 December R-2 Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test1 DecemberSuccessful
Apogee: 150 kilometres (93 mi)
1 December R-2 Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test1 DecemberSuccessful
Apogee: 150 kilometres (93 mi)
12 December
07:04
Viking White Sands ALA-1 US Navy
Viking 6 US Navy Suborbital 12 DecemberLaunch failure
Apogee: 64 kilometres (40 mi)
12 December
18:26
Aerobee RTV-A-1 Holloman LC-A ARDC
ARDC Suborbital 12 DecemberSuccessful
Apogee: 106 kilometres (66 mi)
20 December R-2 Kapustin Yar OKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test20 DecemberLaunch failure
Apogee: 150 kilometres (93 mi)

References

  • Bergin, Chris. "NASASpaceFlight.com".
  • Clark, Stephen. "Spaceflight Now".
  • Kelso, T.S. "Satellite Catalog (SATCAT)". CelesTrak.
  • Krebs, Gunter. "Chronology of Space Launches".
  • Kyle, Ed. "Space Launch Report".
  • McDowell, Jonathan. "Jonathan's Space Report".
  • Pietrobon, Steven. "Steven Pietrobon's Space Archive".
  • Wade, Mark. "Encyclopedia Astronautica".
  • Webb, Brian. "Southwest Space Archive".
  • Zak, Anatoly. "Russian Space Web".
  • "ISS Calendar". Spaceflight 101.
  • "NSSDCA Master Catalog". NASA Space Science Data Coordinated Archive. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
  • "Space Calendar". NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
  • "Space Information Center". JAXA.
  • "Хроника освоения космоса" [Chronicle of space exploration]. CosmoWorld (in Russian).
Generic references:

Footnotes

  1. Neufeld, Michael J (1995). The Rocket and the Reich: Peenemünde and the Coming of the Ballistic Missile Era. New York: The Free Press. pp. 221.
  2. White,, L. D. (September 1952). Final Report,Project Hermes V-2 Missile Program. Schnectady, New York: Guided Missile Department, Aeronautic and Ordnance Systems Division, Defense Products Group, General Electric. p. Table I.CS1 maint: extra punctuation (link)
  3. Kennedy, Gregory P. (2009). The Rockets and Missiles of White Sands Proving Ground. Atglen, PA.: Schiffer Publishing, Ltd. p. 159. ISBN 978-0-7643-3251-7.
  4. I have found no evidence that a chemical release experiment was flown. Chemical release is usually done to conduct aeronomy or wind studies.
  5. Smith, Charles P. Jr. (February 1958). Naval Research Laboratory Report No. 4276 Upper Atmospheric Research Report Number XXI, Summary of Upper Atmosphere Rocket Research Firings (pdf). Washington D.C.: Naval Research Loboratory. pp. 336–337 (V-2 NO. 6). Retrieved 9 March 2016.
  6. Smith, Charles P. Jr. (February 1958). Naval Research Laboratory Report No. 4276 Upper Atmospheric Research Report Number XXI, Summary of Upper Atmosphere Rocket Research Firings (pdf). Washington D.C.: Naval Research Loboratory. pp. 338–339 (V-2 NO. 7). Retrieved 9 March 2016.
  7. Smith, Charles P. Jr. (February 1958). Naval Research Laboratory Report No. 4276 Upper Atmospheric Research Report Number XXI, Summary of Upper Atmosphere Rocket Research Firings (pdf). Washington D.C.: Naval Research Loboratory. pp. 342–343 (V-2 NO. 9). Retrieved 9 March 2016.
  8. Smith, Charles P. Jr. (February 1958). Naval Research Laboratory Report No. 4276 Upper Atmospheric Research Report Number XXI, Summary of Upper Atmosphere Rocket Research Firings (pdf). Washington D.C.: Naval Research Loboratory. pp. 344 (V-2 NO. 10). Retrieved 9 March 2016.
  9. Kennedy list the Agency for this flight as ARDC while White does not as the Air Research and Development Command did not exist until 1950 kennedy may have confused ARDC with the AAF Technical Service Command, the Air Technical Service Command, or the Air Materiel Command.
  10. Newell,, H. E. Jr.; Siry,, J. W. (30 December 1946). Naval Research Laboratory Report No. R-3030 (pdf). Washington D.C.: Naval Research Laboratory. pp. 11, 91.CS1 maint: extra punctuation (link)
  11. Smith, Charles P. Jr. (February 1958). Naval Research Laboratory Report No. 4276 Upper Atmospheric Research Report Number XXI, Summary of Upper Atmosphere Rocket Research Firings (pdf). Washington D.C.: Naval Research Loboratory. pp. 346–347 (V-2 NO. 12). Retrieved 9 March 2016.
  12. Newell,, H. E. Jr.; Siry,, J. W. (30 December 1946). Naval Research Laboratory Report No. R-3030 (pdf). Washington D.C.: Naval Research Laboratory. p. Table I.CS1 maint: extra punctuation (link)
  13. Smith, Charles P. Jr. (February 1958). Naval Research Laboratory Report No. 4276 Upper Atmospheric Research Report Number XXI, Summary of Upper Atmosphere Rocket Research Firings (pdf). Washington D.C.: Naval Research Loboratory. pp. 350 (V-2 NO. 14). Retrieved 9 March 2016.
  14. Newell,, H. E. Jr.; Siry,, J. W. (30 December 1946). Naval Research Laboratory Report No. R-3030 Upper Atmospheric Research Report Number II (pdf). Washington D.C.: Naval Research Laboratory. pp. Table I. Retrieved 8 March 2016.CS1 maint: extra punctuation (link)
  15. Smith, Charles P. Jr. (February 1958). Naval Research Laboratory Report No. 4276 Upper Atmospheric Research Report Number XXI, Summary of Upper Atmosphere Rocket Research Firings (pdf). Washington D.C.: Naval Research Loboratory. pp. 351–352 (V-2 NO. 15). Retrieved 9 March 2016.
  16. Smith, Charles P. Jr. (February 1958). Naval Research Laboratory Report No. 4276 Upper Atmospheric Research Report Number XXI, Summary of Upper Atmosphere Rocket Research Firings (pdf). Washington D.C.: Naval Research Loboratory. pp. 354 (V-2 NO. 16). Retrieved 9 March 2016.
  17. Smith, Charles P. Jr. (February 1958). Naval Research Laboratory Report No. 4276 Upper Atmospheric Research Report Number XXI, Summary of Upper Atmosphere Rocket Research Firings (pdf). Washington D.C.: Naval Research Laboratory. pp. 357–358 (V-2 NO. 18). Retrieved 9 March 2016.
  18. Smith, Charles P. Jr. (February 1958). Naval Research Laboratory Report No. 4276 Upper Atmospheric Research Report Number XXI, Summary of Upper Atmosphere Rocket Research Firings (pdf). Washington D.C.: Naval Research Laboratory. pp. 359–360 (V-2 NO. 19). Retrieved 9 March 2016.
  19. "Part 1: 1900 – 1950". Chronology of Human Space Exploration. I-Spy Space.
  20. Smith, Charles P. Jr. (February 1958). Naval Research Laboratory Report No. 4276 Upper Atmospheric Research Report Number XXI, Summary of Upper Atmosphere Rocket Research Firings (pdf). Washington D.C.: Naval Research Laboratory. pp. 361–362 (V-2 NO. 20). Retrieved 9 March 2016.
  21. Smith, Charles P. Jr. (February 1958). Naval Research Laboratory Report No. 4276 Upper Atmospheric Research Report Number XXI, Summary of Upper Atmosphere Rocket Research Firings (pdf). Washington D.C.: Naval Research Laboratory. pp. 363–365 (V-2 NO. 21). Retrieved 9 March 2016.
  22. Smith, Charles P. Jr. (February 1958). Naval Research Laboratory Report No. 4276 Upper Atmospheric Research Report Number XXI, Summary of Upper Atmosphere Rocket Research Firings (pdf). Washington D.C.: Naval Research Laboratory. pp. 366–367 (V-2 NO. 22). Retrieved 9 March 2016.
  23. Smith, Charles P. Jr. (February 1958). Naval Research Laboratory Report No. 4276 Upper Atmospheric Research Report Number XXI, Summary of Upper Atmosphere Rocket Research Firings (pdf). Washington D.C.: Naval Research Laboratory. pp. 368–369 (V-23 NO. 20). Retrieved 9 March 2016.
  24. Smith, Charles P. Jr. (February 1958). Naval Research Laboratory Report No. 4276 Upper Atmospheric Research Report Number XXI, Summary of Upper Atmosphere Rocket Research Firings (pdf). Washington D.C.: Naval Research Laboratory. pp. 370–371 (V-2 NO. 24). Retrieved 9 March 2016.
  25. Smith, Charles P. Jr. (February 1958). Naval Research Laboratory Report No. 4276 Upper Atmospheric Research Report Number XXI, Summary of Upper Atmosphere Rocket Research Firings (pdf). Washington D.C.: Naval Research Laboratory. pp. 374–375 (V-2 NO. 26). Retrieved 9 March 2016.
  26. Newell & Siry, Neufeld, and Kennedy agree that the launch was on 29 May.
  27. Neufeld, Michael J. (2007). Von Braun, Dreamer of Space, Engineer of War. New York: Vintage Books. p. 239. ISBN 978-0-307-38937-4.
  28. Kennedy, Gregory P. (2009). The Rockets and Missiles of White Sands Proving Ground. Atglen, PA.: Schiffer Publishing, Ltd. p. 57. ISBN 978-0-7643-3251-7.
  29. Smith, Charles P. Jr. (February 1958). Naval Research Laboratory Report No. 4276 Upper Atmospheric Research Report Number XXI, Summary of Upper Atmosphere Rocket Research Firings (pdf). Washington D.C.: Naval Research Laboratory. pp. 363–364 (V-2 NO. 29). Retrieved 9 March 2016.
  30. Smith, Charles P. Jr. (February 1958). Naval Research Laboratory Report No. 4276 Upper Atmospheric Research Report Number XXI, Summary of Upper Atmosphere Rocket Research Firings (pdf). Washington D.C.: Naval Research Laboratory. pp. 386–387 (V-2 NO. 30). Retrieved 9 March 2016.
  31. Smith, Charles P. Jr. (February 1958). Naval Research Laboratory Report No. 4276 Upper Atmospheric Research Report Number XXI, Summary of Upper Atmosphere Rocket Research Firings (pdf). Washington D.C.: Naval Research Laboratory. pp. 376–378 (V-2 NO. 27). Retrieved 9 March 2016.
  32. Wade, Mark. "1947". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Archived from the original on 8 November 2013. Retrieved 3 March 2016.
  33. Smith, Charles P. Jr. (February 1958). Naval Research Laboratory Report No. 4276 Upper Atmospheric Research Report Number XXI (pdf). Washington D.C.: Naval Research Laboratory. pp. Table I. Retrieved 9 March 2016.
  34. Smith, Charles P. Jr. (February 1958). Naval Research Laboratory Report No. 4276 Upper Atmospheric Research Report Number XXI (pdf). Washington D.C.: Naval Research Laboratory. pp. Table 7.3. Retrieved 9 March 2016.
  35. Van Allen, James A. & Townsend, Jr. (1959). "Chapter 4:The Aerobee Rocket". In Newell,, Homer E. (ed.). Sounding Rockets. McGraw-Hill Book Company. pp. 61–62.CS1 maint: extra punctuation (link)
  36. Smith, Charles P. Jr. (February 1958). Naval Research Laboratory Report No. 4276 Upper Atmospheric Research Report Number XXI, Summary of Upper Atmosphere Rocket Research Firings (pdf). Washington D.C.: Naval Research Laboratory. pp. 379–382 (V-2 NO. 28). Retrieved 9 March 2016.
  37. Wade, Mark. "V-2 Chronology". Encyclopedia Astronautica.
  38. Neufeld, Michael J. (2007). Von Braun, Dreamer of Space, Engineer of War. New York: Vintage Books. p. 249. ISBN 978-0-307-38937-4.

See also

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