Solvothermal synthesis

Solvothermal synthesis is a method of producing chemical compounds. It is very similar to the hydrothermal route (where the synthesis is conducted in a stainless steel autoclave), the only difference being that the precursor solution is usually non-aqueous (however, this is not always the case in all uses of the expression in the scientific literature). Using the solvothermal route gains one the benefits of both the sol-gel[1] and hydrothermal routes.[2] Thus, solvothermal synthesis allows for the precise control over the size, shape distribution, and crystallinity of metal oxide nanoparticles or nanostructure products. These characteristics can be altered by changing certain experimental parameters, including reaction temperature, reaction time, solvent type, surfactant type, and precursor type.

Solvothermal synthesis has been used in laboratory to make nanostructured titanium dioxide,[3] graphene,[4] carbon spheres[5], chalcogenides[6] and other materials.


  1. Oliveira, Marcela M.; Schnitzler, Danielle C.; Zarbin, Aldo J. G. (2003). "(Ti,Sn)O2Mixed Oxides Nanoparticles Obtained by the Sol−Gel Route". Chemistry of Materials. 15 (9): 1903–1909. doi:10.1021/cm0210344.
  2. Andersson, Martin; Österlund, Lars; Ljungström, Sten; Palmqvist, Anders (2002). "Preparation of Nanosize Anatase and Rutile TiO2 by Hydrothermal Treatment of Microemulsions and Their Activity for Photocatalytic Wet Oxidation of Phenol". The Journal of Physical Chemistry B. 106 (41): 10674–10679. doi:10.1021/jp025715y.
  3. Xie, Rong-Cai; Shang, Jian Ku (2007). "Morphological control in solvothermal synthesis of titanium oxide". Journal of Materials Science. 42 (16): 6583–6589. Bibcode:2007JMatS..42.6583X. doi:10.1007/s10853-007-1506-0.
  4. Choucair, Mohammad; Thordarson, Pall; Stride, John A. (2008). "Gram-scale production of graphene based on solvothermal synthesis and sonication". Nature Nanotechnology. 4 (1): 30–3. Bibcode:2009NatNa...4...30C. doi:10.1038/nnano.2008.365. PMID 19119279.
  5. Hu, Gang; Ma, Ding; Cheng, Mojie; Liu, Lin; Bao, Xinhe (2002). "Direct synthesis of uniform hollow carbon spheres by a self-assembly template approach". Chemical Communications (17): 1948–1949. doi:10.1039/B205723A.
  6. Li, J., Chen, Z., Wang, R. J., & Proserpio, D. M. (1999). Low temperature route towards new materials: solvothermal synthesis of metal chalcogenides in ethylenediamine. Coordination Chemistry Reviews, 190, 707-735.
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