Solomon in Islam
Sulaymān ibn Dāwūd (Arabic: سُلَيْمَان بْن دَاوُوْد, Solomon son of David) was, according to the Quran, a Malik (Arabic: مَـلِـك, King) and Nabī (Prophet) of the Israelites. Islamic tradition generally holds that he was the third King of Jewish people, and a just and wise ruler for the nation.
Jerusalem, the Levant
|Resting place||Al-Ḥaram Ash-Sharīf ("The Noble Sanctuary"), Jerusalem|
|Other names||Shlomoh (Hebrew: שְׁלֹמֹה) |
Shlemun (Syriac: ܫܠܝܡܘܢ)
Solomon (Greek: Σολομών)
|Known for||Being a Prophet and King of Israel|
|Title||King of Israel|
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Islam views Solomon as one of the elect of God, who was bestowed upon with many God-given gifts, including the ability to speak to animals and rule jinn. Muslims further maintain that he remained faithful to a one and only God throughout his life; and reigned justly over the whole of the Israelites; was blessed with a level of Kingship which was given to none after him and before him; and fulfilled all of his commandments, being promised nearness to God in Paradise at the end of his life. Arab historians regarded Solomon as one of the greatest rulers around the world.
Narrative in the Quran
Judgment on the field
In the earliest narrative involving Solomon, the Qur'an says that Solomon was in the company of his father, when two men came to ask David to judge between them regarding a ḥarth (Arabic: حَـرث, field). The first of the two men said that he owned a vineyard of which he took great care the whole year through. But one day, when he was absent, the other man's sheep had strayed into the vineyard and devoured the grapes. He asked to be compensated for this damage. Upon hearing the man's complaint, Solomon suggested that the owner of the sheep take the other man's vineyard to repair and cultivate until the vines returned to their former state, whereupon he should return it to its owner. At the same time, the owner of the vineyard would care for the sheep and benefit from their wool and milk until his land was returned to him, at which point he would return the sheep to their owner. Solomon's level of judgment, which the Qur'an says in this particular incident surpassed that of David, would characterize Solomon throughout his life. Ḥikmah (Wisdom), according to Muslim tradition, would always be associated with Solomon, who would later even be referred to as Sulaimān al-Ḥakīm (Arabic: سُلَيْمَان ٱلْحَكِيْم, "Solomon the Wise").
When David died, Solomon inherited his position as the Prophetic King of the Israelites. He prayed to God to grant him a Kingdom which would be unlike any after him. God accepted Solomon's prayer and gave him what he pleased. It was at this stage that Solomon began to acquire the many gifts that God would bestow upon him throughout his life. The Qur'an narrates that the wind was made subservient to Solomon, and he could control it of his own will, and that the jinn also came under Solomon's control. The jinn helped strengthen Solomon's reign, and the unbelievers among them along with the Shayāṭīn were forced building for him monuments. God also caused a miraculous ʿayn (Arabic: عَيْن, 'fount' or 'spring') of molten qiṭr (Arabic: قِطْر, 'brass' or 'copper') to flow for Solomon, to be used by the jinn in their construction.
Solomon was even taught the languages of various animals, such as ants. The Quran recounts that, one day, Solomon and his army entered a wadin-naml (Arabic: وَادِ ٱلْنَّمْل, valley of the ant) On seeing Solomon and his army, a namlah (Arabic: نَمْلَة, female ant) warned all the others to "... get into your habitations, lest Solomon and his hosts crush you (under foot) without knowing it." Immediately understanding what the ant said, Solomon, as always, prayed to God, thanking Him for bestowing upon him such gifts and further avoided trampling over the ant colonies. Solomon's wisdom, however, was yet another of the gifts he received from God, and Muslims maintain that Solomon never forgot his daily prayer, which was more important to him than any of his gifts.
Conquest of Saba'
Another important aspect of Solomon's kingship was the size of his army, which consisted of both men and jinn. Solomon would frequently assess his troops and warriors as well as the jinn and all the animals who worked under him. One day, when inspecting his troops, Solomon found the Hud-hud (Arabic: هُدْهُد, Green peafowl or Hoopoe) missing from the assembly. Shortly later, however, the Hud-hud arrived to Solomon's court, saying "I have compassed (territory) which thou hast not compassed, and I have come to thee from Saba' with tidings true." The Hud-hud further told Solomon that the people of Sheba worshiped the Sun, but that the woman who ruled the Kingdom was highly intelligent and powerful. Solomon, who listened closely, chose to write a letter to the land of Sheba, through which he would try to convince the people of Sheba to cease in worshiping the Sun, and to come to the worship of God. Solomon ordered the Hud-hud to give the letter to the Queen of Sheba, and then to hide and observe her reaction. The Hud-hud accepted Solomon's orders, and flew to give the letter to her. The Queen then called her ministers in the court and announced the letter of Solomon stating to the people of Sheba: "In the name of Allah the Compassionate the Merciful, I warned you to stop worshiping the sun, and accept Allah as the only God, with Solomon as His Messenger." She asked for suggestions from her minister and administration stating that "O my people, I know that you all are powerful and brave warriors, and no one on the face of the Earth can defeat our army, but still I want your opinion." The people of the court replied: "You have all the power, and whatever order you deliver, you will find us obedient." Eventually, however, the Queen came to Solomon, announcing Islām (Submission) to God.
According to the Qur'an, the death of Solomon was a lesson to be learned:
Then, when We decreed (Solomon's) death, nothing showed them his death except a little worm of the earth, which kept (slowly) gnawing away at his staff: so when he fell down, the Jinn saw plainly that if they had known the unseen, they would not have tarried in the humiliating Penalty (of their Task).
Mahammaddim in the Song of Solomon
Muslims would imply that Muhammad ibn Abdullah is mentioned in the Song of Songs, Chapter 5, noting the consonantal similarity between Muhammad's Arabic name (Arabic: مُـحَـمَّـد, consonant letters: m-ħ-m-d) and the Hebrew word in the 16th Verse which was translated as "Altogether lovely," that is 'Mahammaddim' (Hebrew: מַחֲמַדִּים, consonant letters: m-ħ-m-d-y-m).
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References to Solomon in the Quran
- Appraisals for Solomon: 2:102, 6:84, 21:81–82, 27:15–16, 27:18–23, 27:36–39, 27:44, 34:12–13, 38:30–31, 38:35–40
- Solomon's preaching: 4:163, 27:25, 27:31, 27:44
- Solomon judged: 21:78–79
- Fitnah to Solomon: 38:32–34
- Solomon and the Queen of Sheba: 27:28–31, 27:34–44
- The Kingdom of Sheba: 27:23, 34:15, 34:18
- Solomon's death: 34:14
- Concise Encyclopedia of Islam - Page 374, Cyril Glasse - 1988
- Quran 27:16
- Quran 34:12
- Quran 27:15
- Quran 38:35
- Quran 38:40
- Walker, J. and Fenton, P. (2012). "Sulaymān b. Dāwūd". In P. Bearman; Th. Bianquis; C.E. Bosworth; E. van Donzel; W.P. Heinrichs (eds.). Encyclopaedia of Islam (2nd ed.). Brill. doi:10.1163/1573-3912_islam_SIM_7158.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
- Quran 21:78
- Lives of the Prophets, L. Azzam, David and Solomon, pg. 62, Suhail Academy
- Quran 21:79
- Robert Lebling Legends of the Fire Spirits: Jinn and Genies from Arabia to Zanzibar I.B.Tauris 2010 ISBN 978-0-857-73063-3
- Quran 34:13
- Quran 27:18
- Quran 27:19
- Lives of the Prophets, L. Azzam, David and Solomon, pg. 63, Suhail Academy
- Deen, Mawil Y. Izzi (1990). "Islamic Environmental Ethics, Law, and Society" (PDF). In Engel JR; JG Engel (eds.). Ethics of Environment and Development. Bellhaven Press, London. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-14.
- "Qur'an, 27: 15 – 19".
- Quran 27:22
- Lives of the Prophets, L. Azzam, David and Solomon, pg. 64, Suhail Academy
- "Qur'an, 27: 15 – 44".
- Quran 34:14
- Richard S. Hess; Gordon J. Wenham (1998). Make the Old Testament Live: From Curriculum to Classroom. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8028-4427-9. Retrieved 4 April 2013.