Solenoid (mathematics)
In mathematics, a solenoid is a compact connected topological space (i.e. a continuum) that may be obtained as the inverse limit of an inverse system of topological groups and continuous homomorphisms
 (S_{i}, f_{i}), f_{i}: S_{i+1} → S_{i}, i ≥ 0,
 This page discusses a class of topological groups. For the wrapped loop of wire, see Solenoid.
Algebraic structure → Group theory Group theory 



Infinite dimensional Lie group

where each S_{i} is a circle and f_{i} is the map that uniformly wraps the circle S_{i+1} n_{i} times (n_{i} ≥ 2) around the circle S_{i}. This construction can be carried out geometrically in the threedimensional Euclidean space R^{3}. A solenoid is a onedimensional homogeneous indecomposable continuum that has the structure of a compact topological group.
In the special case where all n_{i} have the same value n, so that the inverse system is determined by the multiplication by n self map of the circle, solenoids were first introduced by Vietoris for n = 2 and by van Dantzig for an arbitrary n. Such a solenoid arises as a onedimensional expanding attractor, or Smale–Williams attractor, and forms an important example in the theory of hyperbolic dynamical systems.
Geometric construction and the Smale–Williams attractor
Each solenoid may be constructed as the intersection of a nested system of embedded solid tori in R^{3}.
Fix a sequence of natural numbers {n_{i}}, n_{i} ≥ 2. Let T_{0} = S^{1} × D be a solid torus. For each i ≥ 0, choose a solid torus T_{i+1} that is wrapped longitudinally n_{i} times inside the solid torus T_{i}. Then their intersection
is homeomorphic to the solenoid constructed as the inverse limit of the system of circles with the maps determined by the sequence {n_{i}}.
Here is a variant of this construction isolated by Stephen Smale as an example of an expanding attractor in the theory of smooth dynamical systems. Denote the angular coordinate on the circle S^{1} by t (it is defined mod 2π) and consider the complex coordinate z on the twodimensional unit disk D. Let f be the map of the solid torus T = S^{1} × D into itself given by the explicit formula
This map is a smooth embedding of T into itself that preserves the foliation by meridional disks (the constants 1/2 and 1/4 are somewhat arbitrary, but it is essential that 1/4 < 1/2 and 1/4 + 1/2 < 1). If T is imagined as a rubber tube, the map f stretches it in the longitudinal direction, contracts each meridional disk, and wraps the deformed tube twice inside T with twisting, but without selfintersections. The hyperbolic set Λ of the discrete dynamical system (T, f) is the intersection of the sequence of nested solid tori described above, where T_{i} is the image of T under the ith iteration of the map f. This set is a onedimensional (in the sense of topological dimension) attractor, and the dynamics of f on Λ has the following interesting properties:
 meridional disks are the stable manifolds, each of which intersects Λ over a Cantor set
 periodic points of f are dense in Λ
 the map f is topologically transitive on Λ
General theory of solenoids and expanding attractors, not necessarily onedimensional, was developed by R. F. Williams and involves a projective system of infinitely many copies of a compact branched manifold in place of the circle, together with an expanding selfimmersion.
Pathological properties
Solenoids are compact metrizable spaces that are connected, but not locally connected or path connected. This is reflected in their pathological behavior with respect to various homology theories, in contrast with the standard properties of homology for simplicial complexes. In Čech homology, one can construct a nonexact long homology sequence using a solenoid. In Steenrodstyle homology theories,[1] the 0th homology group of a solenoid may have a fairly complicated structure, even though a solenoid is a connected space.
See also
 Protorus, a class of topological groups that includes the solenoids
 Pontryagin duality
References
 D. van Dantzig, Ueber topologisch homogene Kontinua, Fund. Math. 15 (1930), pp. 102–125
 Hazewinkel, Michiel, ed. (2001) [1994], "Solenoid", Encyclopedia of Mathematics, Springer Science+Business Media B.V. / Kluwer Academic Publishers, ISBN 9781556080104
 Clark Robinson, Dynamical systems: Stability, Symbolic Dynamics and Chaos, 2nd edition, CRC Press, 1998 ISBN 9780849384950
 S. Smale, Differentiable dynamical systems, Bull. of the AMS, 73 (1967), 747 – 817.
 L. Vietoris, Über den höheren Zusammenhang kompakter Räume und eine Klasse von zusammenhangstreuen Abbildungen, Math. Ann. 97 (1927), pp. 454–472
 Robert F. Williams, Expanding attractors, Publ. Math. IHES, t. 43 (1974), p. 169–203
Further reading
 Semmes, Stephen (12 January 2012), Some remarks about solenoids, arXiv:1201.2647, Bibcode:2012arXiv1201.2647S