Socialist Party USA

The Socialist Party USA, officially the Socialist Party of the United States of America (SPUSA),[4] is a democratic socialist multi-tendency socialist party in the United States. The SPUSA was founded in 1973 as a successor to the Socialist Party of America, which had been renamed Social Democrats, USA a year before.

Socialist Party USA
  • Jamie Keesling
  • Pat Noble
Vice Chair
  • Claudia Jughashvili
  • Nicholas Partyka
SecretaryGreg Pason
TreasurerPat Noble
  • Lark Lo
  • John Palmucci Jr.
FoundedMay 30, 1973 (1973-05-30)
Split fromSocial Democrats, USA
Preceded bySocialist Party of America
Headquarters168 Canal Street, 6th Floor New York City, New York 10013
Democratic socialism
Socialist feminism
Political positionLeft-wing to far-left
International affiliationNone
Colors     Red
Seats in the Senate
0 / 100
Seats in the House
0 / 435
0 / 50
State Upper House Seats
0 / 1,972
State Lower House Seats
0 / 5,411
Territorial Upper Chamber Seats
0 / 97
Territorial Lower Chamber Seats
0 / 91
Local Offices1 (2018)[3]

The party is officially committed to multi-tendency democratic socialism. Along with its predecessor, the Socialist Party USA has received varying degrees of support when its candidates have competed against those from the Republican and Democratic parties. The SPUSA advocates for complete independence from the Democratic Party. Self-described as opposing all forms of oppression, specifically capitalism and authoritarian forms of communism, the party advocates for the creation of a "radical democracy that places people's lives under their own control", a "non-racist, classless, feminist, socialist society" in which "the people own and control the means of production and distribution through democratically-controlled public agencies, cooperatives, or other collective groups"; "full employment is realized for everyone who wants to work"; "workers have the right to form unions freely, and to strike and engage in other forms of job actions"; and "production of society is used for the benefit of all humanity, not for the private profit of a few".[5]

Headquartered at the A. J. Muste Institute, the SPUSA's National Office is located at 168 Canal Street in the Chinatown neighborhood of New York City. The party has chartered state organizations in California, Michigan, Maine and New Jersey as well as chartered locals throughout the country.[6]

In October 2019, the Socialist Party nominated Howie Hawkins for President of the United States in the 2020 election. Hawkins is also seeking the Green Party presidential nomination, as well as that of various state-level parties such as the Peace and Freedom Party in California and Liberty Union Party in Vermont, in a bid to unite the "non-sectarian independent Left" behind a single campaign.[7]



In 1958, the Independent Socialist League led by Max Shachtman dissolved to join the Socialist Party of America. Shachtman[8] had written that Soviet communism was a new form of class society, bureaucratic collectivism, in which the ruling class exploited and oppressed the population and therefore he opposed the spread of communism.[9][10] Shachtman also argued that democratic socialists should work with activists from labor unions and civil rights organizations to help build a social democratic "realignment" of the Democratic Party. Though he died on November 4, 1972 and had little involvement with the Socialist Party in the year proceeding his death, his followers, identitified as "Shachmanites", exercised a tremendous amount of influence on the party.[9]

In its 1972 convention, the Socialist Party changed its name to Social Democrats, USA by a vote of 73 to 34.[11] The change of name was supported by the two Co-Chairmen, Bayard Rustin and Charles S. Zimmerman of the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union (ILGWU);[12] and by the First National Vice Chairman James S. Glaser—these three were re-elected by acclamation.[11]

Renaming the party as SDUSA was meant to be "realistic". The New York Times observed that the Socialist Party had last sponsored Darlington Hoopes as its candidate for President in the 1956 election, who received only 2,121 votes, which were cast in only six states. Because the party no longer sponsored candidates in presidential elections, the name "party" had been "misleading"—"party" had hindered the recruiting of activists who participated in the Democratic Party, according to the majority report. The name "Socialist" was replaced by "Social Democrats" because many American associated the word "socialism" with Soviet communism.[11] The party also wished to distinguish itself from two small Marxist parties.[13]

The convention elected a national committee of 33 members, with 22 seats for the majority caucus, 8 seats for Harrington's coalition caucus, 2 for the Debs caucus and one for the "independent" Samuel H. Friedman,[14] who also had opposed the name change.[11] The convention voted on and adopted proposals for its program by a two-one vote, with the majority caucus winning every vote.[14] On foreign policy, the program called for "firmness toward Communist aggression". However, on the Vietnam War the program opposed "any efforts to bomb Hanoi into submission" and to work for a peace agreement that would protect Communist political cadres in South Vietnam from further military or police reprisals. Harrington's proposal for an immediate cease fire and an immediate withdrawal of U.S. forces was defeated.[14] Harrington complained that after its previous convention, the Socialist Party had endorsed George McGovern with a statement of "constructive criticism" and had not mobilized enough support for McGovern.[13]

After their defeat at the convention, members of two minority caucuses helped to found new socialist organizations. At most 200 members of the Coalition Caucus joined Michael Harrington in forming the Democratic Socialist Organizing Committee (DSOC),[15] which later became the Democratic Socialists of America (DSA).[16][17] At its start, DSOC had 840 members, of which 2 percent served on its national board in 1973 when SDUSA stated its membership at 1,800, according to a 1973 profile of Harrington.[15] Second, many members of the Debs Caucus joined David McReynolds in reconstituting the Socialist Party USA also in 1973.[18]


The Debs Caucus formed the Union for Democratic Socialism and on May 30, 1973 incorporated the Socialist Party of the United States of America,[18] usually simplified as the Socialist Party USA.[19] Many activists from the local and state branches of the old Socialist Party, including the party's Wisconsin, California, Illinois, New York City, Philadelphia and Washington, D.C. organizations, participated in the reconstitution of the Socialist Party USA.[17]

After its founding, the party promoted itself as the legitimate heir of the Socialist Party of America.[20] Former Mayor of Milwaukee, Frank Zeidler, was elected the first national chairperson of the party. Zeidler also helped re-organizing the party structure during its early years. He was later nominated as the party's candidacy for the presidential office, with Zeidler believing the party would be able to collaborate with other socialist parties nationwide to spread the message of socialism.[21]

Subsequent history

Since 1976, a member of the party was elected to the city council of Iowa City and several members have won tens of thousands of votes in elections for statewide offices. In 1992, Socialist Iowa City Councilwoman Karen Kubby won her re-election with the highest vote in a contested election in the history of the Iowa City Council and was re-elected until retiring from the Council in 2000.[22] In 2000, Socialist Wendell Harris received 19% of the vote for Mayor of Milwaukee, Wisconsin in the primary.[23] In 2008, Socialist Jon Osborne pulled in 22% of the vote for Rhode Island's 34th District State Senate seat while listed on the ballot under the Socialist Party USA label.[24] During the 2010 United States Senate elections, Dan La Botz of the Socialist Party of Ohio received 25,368 (0.68%) votes in Ohio.[25] In 2011, Socialist Matt Erard was elected to a three-year term on the city of Detroit's Downtown District Citizens' District Council.[26] In 2012, Socialist Pat Noble unseated his incumbent opponent in winning election to the Red Bank Regional High School Board of Education,[27] Socialist John Strinka received 10% of the vote while running with the party's ballot label for Indiana's 39th district State House seat[28] and Socialist Troy Thompson received 27% of the vote for Mayor of Floodwood, Minnesota.[29] Also in 2012, candidate Mary Alice Herbert received 13.1% of the vote for Vermont Secretary of State while running with the dual nomination of both the Socialist and Vermont Liberty Union parties.[30][31]

2016 candidates

For the 2016 general election, the Socialist Party nominated Mimi Soltysik and Angela Nicole Walker to be its presidential ticket. Other party members ran for office as well, including Jarrod Williams for United States Senate in Nevada, Seth Baker for Maine Senate and Michael Anderson for the Michigan House of Representatives.[32]


According to the party's first chairman, Frank Zeidler, the party had around 500 members nationwide in 1975.[21] The Socialist Party experienced substantial growth during the late 1970s and early to mid-1980s, expanding from only around 600 dues-paying members to around 1,700.[33] In 2008, WMNF claimed that the party had around 3,000 paying members.[34] However, a CommonDreams article suggested that the organization had only 1,000 members in 2010, with party members claiming it to be an increase in the number of members.[35] In May 2011, an article from The New York Times stated that the party has "about 1,000 members nationally".[36] In February 2012, an article from The Root stated that the party had a "membership around 1,500".[37]

Current elected officials

Local Boards of Education



While some party members favor a more gradual approach to socialism, most others envision a more sweeping or revolutionary transformation of society from capitalist to socialist through the decisive victory of the working class in the class struggle.[38] Some party members also advocate revolutionary nonviolence or pacifism while some consider armed struggle a possible necessity. The party's Statement of Principles rejects equating socialism with a "welfare state" and calls for democratic social revolution from below.[38] The party is strongly committed to principles of socialist feminism and strives to further embody such commitment in its organizational structure. Its national constitution requires gender parity among its national Co-Chairs and Co-Vice Chairs, its National Committee members and alternates and seated members of its branch- and region-elected delegations to the party's biennial National Conventions.[38][39][40] The Socialist Party also rejected the new healthcare reform law of 2010 approved by the Obama administration, with Socialist Party National Co-Chair Billy Wharton claiming it to be "a corporate restructuring of the health insurance industry created to protect the profit margins of private insurance companies".[41]

During his campaign, 2008 Socialist Party candidate for President Brian Moore was very vocal against the idea that Barack Obama was a socialist of any kind.[42] He further commented on the issue, saying it was "misleading of the Republicans" to spread that message.[43] In a later statement about Obama's policies, Wharton called Obama's 2010 State of the Union Address a "public relations ploy" and concluded saying: "The time for slick public relations campaigns has ended—the time for building our grassroots movements is more urgent than ever. The Socialist Party USA stands ready to join in such a political revitalization".[44]

International affairs

The Party's National Action Committee condemned the Israeli actions during the Gaza War. The party demands that the Federal government of the United States cease providing military aid to Israel as a precondition for peace. The party also seeks to begin an immediate withdrawal of American troops from Afghanistan.[45] During the 2008 presidential election, the Socialist Party continued to place a strong emphasis on its full-scale opposition to American wars abroad, with Brian Moore, the presidential candidate, claiming the war was destroying small communities throughout the country. He also criticized what he called "pressure on the local governments" by the Bush administration.[46] The Socialist Party of Connecticut denounced Obama's troop surge in Afghanistan, claiming that the President wasted needed resources the country needed to get pulled out of the financial crisis. After denouncing him, the state affiliate organized a protest in front of the federal building in Hartford.[47]

In April 2017, the party issued a statement opposing further United States intervention into the Syrian Civil War.[48] Ten days later, the party issued a follow-up statement opposing both the Khan Shaykhun chemical attack and United States' subsequent missile strike.[49] In May 2017, the party condemned the Manchester Arena bombing and stood "against any attempt to turn this tragedy into political capital to further right-wing agendas and target oppressed communities".[50]


Socialist Party candidates, such as New Jersey gubernatorial and senate candidate Greg Pason, have also emphasized immediate public service demands—these reforms include socializing the United States health care system, a steeply graduated income tax, universal rent control and the elimination of all educational debts and tuition fees.[51] In 1997, Pason called auto insurance "a regressive tax against working people".[52] Moore was also vocal of his support for public healthcare and socialized medicine.[53] Moore believes that capitalism is a system based on both exploitation and selfishness, which operates to serve the interests of corporations and the ruling class at the expense of workers and the poor. During his presidential campaign, he claimed that the lack of available remedy to collapsing economic conditions stems from the capitalist system's foundation upon "greed" and advocated its replacement with a new system founded upon economic democracy through social ownership and workers' control of our reigning industrial and financial institutions.[42]

State and local parties

As of August 2017, the Socialist Party had twenty four chartered locals and five chartered state parties.[54]

State parties


  • Socialist Party of Central Alabama
  • Los Angeles Socialist Party
  • Socialist Party of Ventura County
  • Bay Area Socialists (Oakland, California)
  • Front Range Socialist Party (Denver, Colorado)
  • Washington DC Socialist Party
  • Chicago Socialist Party
  • Socialist Party of Greater Springfield (Illinois)
  • Greater Indianapolis Socialist Party
  • Northern Indiana Socialist Party
  • Socialist Party of Central Kentucky
  • Socialist Party of Southern Maine
  • Socialist Party of Eastern Maine
  • Socialist Party of Boston
  • Socialist Party of Twin Cities Metro (Minneapolis, Minnesota)
  • Socialist Party of Northern New Jersey
  • Central New Jersey Socialist Party
  • Capital District Socialist Party of New York
  • Socialist Party of Central New York
  • Socialist Party of New York City
  • Northern Piedmont of North Carolina Local
  • Socialist Party of Philadelphia
  • Socialist Party of Coastal South Carolina

Presidential tickets

Year Results Candidates Ballot
Votes Percent For President For Vice President
1976 6,038 0.01% Frank Zeidler J. Quinn Brisben 7 [55][56]
1980 6,898 0.01% David McReynolds Diane Drufenbrock 10 [57][58]
1984[‡] 72,161 0.08% Sonia Johnson Richard Walton 19 [59][60]
1988 3,882 0.0% Willa Kenoyer Ron Ehrenreich 6 [61][62]
1992 3,057 0.0% J. Quinn Brisben Barbara Garson 4 [63][64]
1996 4,764 0.0% Mary Cal Hollis Eric Chester 5 [65][66]
2000 5,602 0.01% David McReynolds Mary Cal Hollis 7 [67][68]
2004 10,822 0.01% Walt Brown Mary Alice Herbert 8 [69][70]
2008 6,581 0.01% Brian Moore Stewart Alexander 8 [71][72]
2012 4,430 0.0% Stewart Alexander Alejandro Mendoza 3 [73][74]
2016 4,061 0.0% Mimi Soltysik Angela Nicole Walker 3 [75]
2020 TBD TBD Howie Hawkins TBA TBD [76]

† In each line the first note refers to candidates and results, the second (if any) to ballot access
(the number of state + D.C. ballots, out of 51, on which the Socialist Party candidates appeared)
^ Endorsed the Citizens Party's candidates in 1984.

See also


  3. "Socialist WebZine: Green Shoots of Red Electoralism". Retrieved January 30, 2016.
  4. "The article of this organization shall be the Socialist Party of the United States of America, hereinafter called 'the Party'". Art. I of the "Constitution of the Socialist Party USA".
  5. "Socialism As Radical Democracy: Statement of Principles of the Socialist Party USA". Socialist Party USA. Retrieved July 6, 2018.
  6. "States & Locals". Socialist Party USA. Retrieved January 30, 2016.
  7. "Howie Hawkins Wins Socialist Party USA Nomination, Green Candidate Seeks To Build Left Unity With Multiple Nominations". Howie Hawkins Presidential Campaign. Retrieved October 28, 2019.
  8. 2008, p. 63.
  9. Drucker (1994):
    Drucker, Peter (1994). Max Shachtman and his left: A socialist's odyssey through the "American Century". Humanities Press. ISBN 0-391-03816-8.
  10. Beichman, Arnold (July 28, 2002). "Communism to anti-communism in lives of two rival editors (review two ISI books, James Burnham and the struggle for the world: A life by Daniel Kelly and Principles and heresies: Frank S. Meyer and the shaping of the American conservative movement by Kevin J. Smant)". The Washington Times. Retrieved 14 July 2011.
  11. The New York Times reported on the Convention for other days, e.g.
  12. Gerald Sorin, The Prophetic Minority: American Jewish Immigrant Radicals, 1880-1920. Bloomington. Indiana University Press. 1985. p. 155.
  13. Anonymous (December 27, 1972). "Young Socialists open parley; to weigh 'New Politics' split". The New York Times. p. 25. Archived from the original on January 15, 2017.
  14. Anonymous (January 1, 1973). "'Firmness' urged on Communists: Social Democrats reach end of U.S. Convention here" (PDF). The New York Times. p. 11.
  15. O'Rourke (1993, pp. 195–196):
    O'Rourke, William (1993). "L: Michael Harrington". Signs of the literary times: Essays, reviews, profiles, 1970-1992'. The Margins of Literature (SUNY Series). SUNY Press. pp. 192–196. ISBN 0-7914-1681-X.
    Originally: O'Rourke, William (November 13, 1973). "Michael Harrington: Beyond Watergate, Sixties, and reform". SoHo Weekly News. 3 (2): 6–7.
  16. Mitgang, Herbert (August 2, 1989). "Michael Harrington, Socialist and Author, Is Dead". The New York Times. Retrieved November 5, 2009.
  17. Busky 2000, pp. 164.
  18. "Constitution of the Socialist Party of the United States of America". Archived from the original on 2010-05-24.
  19. Busky 2000, pp. 165.
  20. "Socialists Pick '76 candidate". St. Petersburg Times. September 3, 1975. Retrieved February 8, 2010.
  21. "Socialists pick ex-mayor for presidency". The Modesto Bee. September 2, 1975. Retrieved February 8, 2010.
  22. Lowenstein, Adam (May 26, 1999). "Kubby won't run again for City Council". The Gazette. Retrieved February 7, 2010.
  23. "Norquist, Watts Win Mayoral Primary Election in Milwaukee" St. Paul Pioneer Press February 16, 2000; p. 2B.
  24. "2008 General Election Results - Senator in General Assembly District 34". State of Rhode Island: Board of Election. Retrieved February 25, 2010.
  25. "State of Ohio 2010 General Election November 2, 2010 Unofficial Results". Ohio Secretary of State. November 2, 2010. Archived from the original on November 5, 2010. Retrieved November 6, 2010.
  26. "Socialist Candidate Elected To City Of Detroit Downtown Citizens District Council". Detroit's Downtown District Citizens' District Council. April 16, 2011. Retrieved August 11, 2011.
  27. "New Jersey Socialist Party Secretary Elected to Regional High School Board of Education". Ballot Access News. November 7, 2012. Retrieved November 18, 2012.
  28. "Election Results". Courier Journal. November 12, 2012. Retrieved November 18, 2012.
  29. "MN Election Results". November 8, 2012. Retrieved March 28, 2013.
  30. "Official Report of the Canvassing Committee United States and Vermont Statewide Offices General Election, November 6, 2012" (PDF). Vermont Secretary of State Elections Division. November 13, 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 15, 2012. Retrieved November 18, 2012.
  31. "Support a skatepark in Home Depot". The Commons. July 18, 2012. Retrieved November 18, 2012.
  32. "2016 Elections". Socialist Party USA. Retrieved October 13, 2016.
  33. Herbst, Moira (May 22, 2009). "Socialism? Hardly, Say Socialists". Business Week. Retrieved February 7, 2010.
  34. Kinane, Sean (June 13, 2008). "Brian Moore – Socialist Party USA Presidential Candidate". WMNF. Archived from the original on June 18, 2008. Retrieved February 7, 2010.
  35. Kenning, Chris (March 1, 2010). "Socialists Get Newfound Attention as 'Red-Baiting' Draws Interest From Youth". Common Dreams NewsCenter. Retrieved March 24, 2010.
  36. Berger, Joseph (May 22, 2011). "Workers of the world, please see our web site" (membership 1,500). The New York Times.
  37. Gordy, Cynthia (February 28, 2012). "Stewart Alexander Wants Your Vote". The Root. Retrieved February 28, 2012.
  38. "Socialist Party USA: Statement of Principles". Socialist Party USA. Archived from the original on March 15, 2010. Retrieved February 25, 2010.
  39. "2010-2011 Platform". Socialist Party USA. Archived from the original on August 8, 2009. Retrieved February 25, 2010.
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  41. Mcauliff, Michael (March 22, 2010). "Tea Party Head Spinner: Socialists Oppose Health Bill". New York Daily News. Retrieved March 28, 2010.
  42. Harrington, Elizabeth (October 29, 2008). "Socialist Party Candidate Visits U. Tampa". CBS News. Retrieved February 7, 2010.
  43. Frank, John (October 23, 2008). "Top of Socialist Party ticket says Obama's not a believer". Tampa Bay Times. Retrieved July 4, 2012.
  44. Altimari, Daniela (January 28, 2010). "Socialist Party response to Obama's state of the union speech". Hartford Courant. Retrieved February 7, 2010.
  45. "End the Massacre in Gaza – No Solution Through Violence". Indybay. January 1, 2009. Retrieved February 7, 2010.
  46. Jackson, Tom (September 4, 2007). "Likeable Guy Brandishes Loony Ideas". The Tampa Tribune.
  47. Altimari, Daniela (December 1, 2009). "If Obama's a socialist, his comrades aren't happy". Hartford Courant.
  48. "No War In Syria!". Socialist Party USA. Retrieved May 29, 2017.
  49. "Statement On the Khan Sheikhoun Massacre and the US Strike Against the Assad Regime". April 19, 2017. Retrieved May 29, 2017.
  50. "Statement on the Attack in Manchester". Socialist Party USA. May 23, 2017. Retrieved May 29, 2017.
  51. "Voter Guide / Other third-party candidates for governor". The Press of Atlantic City. November 1, 2009. Retrieved February 7, 2010.
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  54. "Socialist Party USA Directory". Socialist Party USA. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
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  56. 1991, p. 150.
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  58. Smallwood 1983, p. 56.
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  62. Freeman 2008, p. 96.
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  66. "President - U.S. - 1996". U.S. Election Retrieved February 7, 2010.
  67. "2000 Presidential General Election Results". U.S. Election Atlas. Retrieved February 7, 2010.
  68. Winger, Richard. "President - U.S. - 2000". Ballot Access News. Retrieved February 13, 2010.
  69. "2004 Presidential General Election Results". U.S. Election Atlas. Retrieved February 7, 2010.
  70. Richardson, Darcy G. (October 14, 2004). "The Other Progressive Candidate: The Lonely Crusade of Walt Brown". CounterPunch. Retrieved February 13, 2010.
  71. "2008 Presidential General Election Results". U.S. Election Atlas. Retrieved February 7, 2010.
  72. "Election 2008: Primary, Caucus, and Convention Phase". The Green Papers. Retrieved August 26, 2013.
  73. "2012 Presidential Election by State Stewart Alexis Alexander". The Green Papers. Retrieved November 22, 2012.
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  75. "Socialist Party USA". Twitter. Retrieved January 30, 2016.
  76. Socialist Party USA [@SPofUSA] (October 26, 2019). "The Socialist Party is excited to announce Howie Hawkins as its presidential nominee for the 2020 election!" (Tweet). Retrieved October 26, 2019 via Twitter.


Further reading

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