The Snake War (1864–1868) was an irregular war fought by the United States of America against the "Snake Indians," the settlers' term for Northern Paiute, Bannock and Western Shoshone bands who lived along the Snake River. Fighting took place in the states of Oregon, Nevada, and California, and in Idaho Territory. Total casualties from both sides of the conflict numbered 1,762 dead, wounded, or captured.
|Part of the American Indian Wars|
|Commanders and leaders|
Reuben F. Maury
George B. Currey
Louis H. Marshall
William C. McKay
1st Oregon Cavalry
1st Regiment Washington Territory Volunteer Infantry
1st Nevada Cavalry
1st Oregon Infantry
U.S. 14th Infantry Regiment
U.S. 1st Cavalry Regiment
8th Cavalry Regiment
U.S. Army Wasco Scouts
|Casualties and losses|
|Total casualties: ~1762|
The conflict was a result of increasing tension over several years between the Native tribes and the settlers who were encroaching on their lands, and competing for game and water. Explorers passing through had minimal effect. In October 1851, Shoshone Indians killed eight men in Fort Hall Idaho. From the time of the Clark Massacre, in 1851 the regional Native Americans, commonly called the "Snakes" by the white settlers, harassed and sometimes attacked emigrant parties crossing the Snake River Valley. European-American settlers retaliated by attacking Native American villages. In September 1852, Ben Wright and a group of miners responded to an Indian attack by attacking the Modoc village near Black Bluff in Oregon, killing about 41 Modoc. Similar attacks and retaliations took place in the years leading up to the Snake War.
In August 1854, Native attacks on several pioneer trains along the Snake River culminated in the Ward Massacre on August 20, 1854, in which Native Americans killed 21 people. The following year, the US Army mounted the punitive Winnas Expedition. From 1858 at the end of the Spokane-Coeur d'Alene-Paloos War, the US Army protected the migration to Oregon by sending out escorts each spring. Natives continued to attack migrant trains, especially stragglers such as the Myers party, killed in the Salmon Falls Massacre of September 13, 1860. As Federal troops withdrew in 1861 to return east for engagements of the American Civil War, California Volunteers provided protection to the emigrants. Later the 1st Washington Territory Infantry Regiment and the 1st Oregon Cavalry replaced Army escorts on the emigrant trails.
As gold mining declined in California in the later 1850s, miners searching for gold started to move north and eastward into the upper Great Basin, and Snake River valley, they competed more for resources with the Native Americans. They lived on the land longer and consumed more game and water. Many isolated occurrences resulted in violence, with the result that both sides were taking to arms. The influx of miners into the Nez Perce reservation during the Clearwater Gold Rush raised tensions among all the tribes. The Nez Perce were divided when some chiefs agreed to a new treaty that permitted the intrusion. As miners developed new locations near Boise in 1862 and in the Owyhee Canyonlands in 1863, an influx of white settlers descended on the area. Western Shoshone, Paiute and other local Indians resisted the encroachment, fighting what was called the Snake War from 1864 to 1868.
About the war
The Snake War was not defined by one large battle but was a series of guerrilla skirmishes between the Indians and American patrols from many small camps, taking place across California, Utah, Nevada, Oregon, and Idaho. Unlike other Indian Wars, the Snake War had few notable leaders on either side. Probably the best-known Indian leader was Pahninee aka Chief Paulina and the most well-known U.S. Army commander of the Snake War was George Crook. He had played a significant role for the Union in the Civil War and following his success in ending the Snake War, would lead operations in the Apache Wars. Many of the U.S. troops fighting in the beginning of the war were volunteer regiments from the states of Oregon and California and from Washington Territory. The regular US Army called the period of their involvement in the Snake War, the Campaign against Indians, Oregon, Idaho, and California (1865–1868).
The Snake War wound down after peace talks between George Crook and Snake chief Weahwewa had taken place. The Snake War has been widely forgotten in United States history. One reason was that the Paiute and Western Shoshone did not have notable reputations as warriors, unlike the Apache. Few reporters covered the war, and Joe Wasson was one of the first. More significantly, much of the nation was concentrating on the American Civil War and its aftermath. Despite its being overlooked, the Snake War was statistically the deadliest of the Indian Wars in the West in terms of casualties.
By the end, a total of 1,762 men were known to have been killed, wounded, and captured on both sides. By comparison, the Battle of the Little Bighorn produced about 847 casualties.
Snake War posts, California, Idaho, Nevada, Oregon,
- Fort Dalles, Oregon, (1850–1867)
- Fort Churchill, Nevada 1860–1869
- Camp Nye, Nevada (1861–1865)
- Fort Ruby, Nevada (1862–1869)
- Camp Smoke Creek, Nevada, (1862–1864)
- Camp Dun Glen, Nevada (1863, 1865–1866)
- Fort Trinity, Eightmile, Nevada, 1863 - 1864
- Fort Klamath, Oregon, (1863–1890)
- Fort Boise, Boise, Idaho, (1863–1879),
- Camp Susan, Susanville, California 1864
- Post at Friday's Station, 1864
- Camp Bidwell, California (1865–1879) (Later Fort Bidwell)
- Antelope Station, Nevada, 1864
- Camp Alvord, Oregon (1864–1866)
- Camp Dalgren, Oregon (1864)
- Camp Henderson, Oregon, 1864-1866
- Camp Lincoln, Oregon 1864
- Camp Maury, Oregon 1864
- Camp Russell, Oregon 1864-1865
- Camp Watson, Oregon 1864-1869
- Samuel Smith's Camp, Idaho (1864), near the mouth of the Raft River.
- Quinn River Camp, Nevada 1865
- Fort McDermitt, Nevada 1865–1889
- Fort McGrary, Nevada 1865–1868
- Camp McKee, Nevada 1865–1866
- Camp Overend, Nevada, 1865
- Camp Reed, Idaho (1865–1866), near Twin Falls on old Kelton Road near its crossing of Rock Creek.
- Camp Wallace or Cantonment Soldier, Idaho (1865), located on the Big Camas Prairie near Fairfield, Idaho.
- Camp Lyon, Idaho, (1865–1869), near Jordan Valley, Oregon on Jordan Creek within one mile of the Idaho state line.
- Camp Colfax, Oregon, 1865, 1867
- Camp Currey, Oregon 1865-1866
- Camp Logan, Oregon (1865–1868)
- Camp Polk, Oregon (1865–1866)
- Camp on Silvies River, Oregon (1864?)
- Camp Wright, Oregon (1865–1866)
- Camp Buford, Idaho, (1866)
- Old Camp Warner, Oregon (1866–1867)
- Camp Warner, Oregon (1867–1874)
- Camp Winthrop, September 26, 1866 - April, 1867
- Hubert Howe Bancroft, History of Oregon, Volume II, 1848-1888, The History Company, San Francisco, 1888, p.462 note 4.
- "Settlement: Hostiles Erupt." National Park Service: John Day Fossil Beds. 25 April 2002 (retrieved from web.archive.org 7 August 2011)
- Michno, Gregory, The Deadliest Indian War in the West: The Snake Conflict, 1864-1868. Caldwell: Caxton Press, 2007. pp 345-346
- Near Carson City, A depot for California Volunteers and after 1864 Nevada Volunteers. Located in the Washoe Valley five miles north of Carson City.
- Near Robbers Roost, Nevada A temporary Army post that was intermittently occupied. Located near the Smoke Creek Depot (or Smoke Creek Station) on the Honey Lake stage route. The site is not shown on most maps, but it was located five miles from the state line west of Smoke Creek Desert and north of the Pyramid Lake Indian Reservation.
- This camp was established at the request of the citizens of Dun Glen to protect them from attacks of the Snake Indians.
- Eightmile, Nevada Located at the Goshute Indian Reservation between Tippett and the state line. Originally called Eight Mile Station, it was frequently occupied by troops from Fort Ruby.
- IDAHO STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY, REFERENCE SERIES, FORT BOISE - (United States Army), Number 356, August 2, 1965
- The California State Military Museum, Historic California Posts: Camp Susan
- The California State Military Museum, Historic California Posts: Post at Friday's Station
- At Little Antelope Mountain, it was an important stage station located about 40 miles west of Ely, Nevada in operation during the 1860s and 1870s. Garrisoned by California Volunteers in 1864.
- Carey, History of Oregon, pg. 671. On Horse Creek in the Alvord Valley, east of the Steen Mountain Range
- Carey, History of Oregon, pg. 671 Located slightly east of Camps Maury and Polk.
- Carey, History of Oregon, pg. 671. This camp, named for Oregon's representative in Congress at that time, was established early in 1864, near the mouth of Jordan Creek, 330 miles from Walla Walla, and was the center of operations in Southeastern Oregon for some time afterward.
- Carey, History of Oregon, pg. 671 Near Canyon City, on the headwaters of John Day River.
- Carey, History of Oregon, pg. 671. On the Deschutes River near the mouth of Crooked River.
- A Civil War training camp once located in Salem, Oregon, at the state fairgrounds, present-day 17th Street and Silverton Road.
- Near Gerlach, Nevada. Originally called Detachment at Granite Creek, the Army occupied the Granite Creek Station after Indians burned it and killed its employees. Located north of town and east of Granite Mountain.
- A temporary Army post near Golconda, Nevada that lasted only a few days. It was located south of Golconda at Summit Springs.
- Carey, History of Oregon, pg. 671 In the Jordan Valley, east of the Owyhee River.
- IDAHO STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY REFERENCE SERIES, CAMP LYON, Number 357 July 16, 1965
- Carey, History of Oregon, pg. 671. At the Willow Creek crossing of the Canyon City - Boise Road, south of Baker City.
- Carey, History of Oregon, pg. 671. On Silver Creek.
- Carey, History of Oregon, pg. 671 East of Canyon City, on the road to Colfax.
- Carey, History of Oregon, pg. 671. On the Deschutes River near the mouth of Crooked River.
- Carey, History of Oregon, pg. 674. Located on the on Silvies River, north of Malheur Lake.
- Carey, History of Oregon, pg. 671. North of Harney Lake. A temporary state militia encampment on the Silvies River, possibly to the south of Burns, Oregon. Originally Adobe Camp (1865), a 25-yard square sod-walled post, was located here before being replaced after only two weeks.
- IDAHO STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY, REFERENCE SERIES, Number 63, IDAHO MILITARY POSTS AND CAMPS, May 1971
- Carey, History of Oregon, pg. 671. Located east of Warner Lakes. A Federal camp originally located 20 miles east of Warner (Hart) Lake. It was moved in 1867
- Carey, History of Oregon, pg. 671. Located west of Warner Lakes.
- IDAHO STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY REFERENCE SERIES, CAMP THREE FORKS, Number 358, July 12, 1965
- The Snake War, 1864-1868, Idaho State Historical Society Reference Series #236, 1966
- Hubert Howe Bancroft, Mrs. Frances Auretta Fuller Barrett Victor, HISTORY OF OREGON, Vol. II. 1848-1888, The History Company, San Francisco, 1888, Chapters XX MILITARY ORGANIZATION AND OPERATIONS 1861-1865 and XXI THE SHOSHONE WARS 1866-1868, pp. 488–654
- Michno, Gregory, The Deadliest Indian War in the West: The Snake Conflict, 1864-1868. Caldwell: Caxton Press, 2007.
- Wooster, Robert, The Military and United States Indian Policy 1865-1903, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1988.
- Hook, Jason, and Martin Pegler, To Live and Die in the West: The American Indian Wars, Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, 2001.