Slice of life
In fiction, slice of life is the depiction of mundane experiences. In theater it refers to naturalism, while in literary parlance it is a narrative technique in which a seemingly arbitrary sequence of events in a character's life is presented, often lacking plot development, conflict and exposition, and often having an open ending.
Film and theater
In theatrical parlance, the term slice of life refers to a naturalistic representation of real life, sometimes used as an adjective, as in "a play with 'slice of life' dialogue". The term originated between 1890 and 1895 as a calque from the French phrase tranche de vie, credited to the French playwright Jean Jullien (1854–1919).
Jullien introduced the term not long after a staging of his play The Serenade, as noted by Wayne S. Turney in his essay "Notes on Naturalism in the Theatre":
The Serenade was introduced by the Théâtre Libre in 1887. It is a prime example of rosserie, that is, plays dealing with corrupt, morally bankrupt characters who seem to be respectable, "smiling, smiling, damned villains..." Jullien gave us the famous apothegm defining naturalism in his The Living Theatre (1892): "A play is a slice of life put onstage with art." He goes on to say that "...our purpose is not to create laughter, but thought." He felt that the story of a play does not end with the curtain which is, he says, "only an arbitrary interruption of the action which leaves the spectator free to speculate about what goes on beyond your expectation..."
During the 1950s, the phrase was commonly used in critical reviews of live television dramas, notably teleplays by JP Miller, Paddy Chayefsky, and Reginald Rose. At that time, it was sometimes used synonymously with the pejorative term kitchen sink realism adopted from British films and theatre.
In literary parlance, the term "slice of life" refers to a storytelling technique that presents a seemingly arbitrary sample of a character's life, which often lacks a coherent plot, conflict, or ending. The story may have little plot progress and often has no exposition, conflict, or dénouement, but rather has an open ending. A work that focuses on minute and faithful reproduction of some bit of reality, without selection, organization, or judgment and that every smallest detail is presented with scientific fidelity is an example of the "slice of life" novel. This is demonstrated in the case of Guy de Maupassant's novel A Woman's Life, which told the story of a woman who transferred an unreturned love for her husband into a pathological affection for her son.
In the United States, slice-of-life stories were particularly given emphasis by the Chicago school at the end of the 19th century, a period when the novel and social sciences became different systems of discourse. These produced literary texts by researcher-authors that were written to represent the subject's stories and sentiment-free social realism using the language of ordinary people. It formed part of the late 19th- and early 20th-century naturalism in literature, which was inspired by the adaptation of principles and methods of social sciences such as the Darwinian view of nature. The movement was an extension of realism, presenting the faithful representation of reality without moral judgment. Some authors, particularly playwrights, used it by focusing on the "underbelly of life" to expose social ills and repressive social codes with the aim of shocking the audience so that they call for social reform.
Japanese animation and comics
Robin E. Brenner's 2007 book "Understanding manga and anime" holds that in anime and manga, "slice of life" is a genre that is more akin to melodrama than drama, bordering on absurd due to the large numbers of dramatic and comedic events in very short spans. This genre claims a large section of the Japanese manga market and usually focuses on school, which is the most dominant force in young people's lives, including their interpersonal relationships both in and out of their families. Themes usually range from teen coming-of-age, interpersonal relationships, family, romance, to fantasy and science fiction. A common trait in slice of life anime and manga is their emphasis on seasonality or procedures. Settings of the narratives would often include cafes and restaurants and also introduce specific trends or groups, which are often coming from society's outsiders.
- Jewell, Elizabeth J. & Abate, Frank R. (editors) (September 2001). "Slice of Life". The New Oxford American Dictionary (First ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-511227-X.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
- "Slice of life". Random House Unabridged Dictionary. 2006.
- Turney, Wayne S. "Notes on Naturalism in the Theatre". wayneturney.20m.com. Archived from the original on 2008-05-14.
- Gottfried, Martin. All His Jazz, Da Capo, 2003.
- Dowler, Kevin. "Reginald Rose". Museum of Broadcast Communications.
- Stuart Eddy Baker (2002). Bernard Shaw's remarkable religion: a faith that fits the facts. University Press of Florida. pp. 83–84.
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- Lehan, Richard (2005). Realism and Naturalism: The Novel in an Age of Transition. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. p. 193. ISBN 0299208702.
- Denzin, Norman; Lincoln, Yvonna (2005). The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Research. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE. p. 16. ISBN 0761927573.
- Augustyn, Adam (2010). American Literature from the 1850s to 1945. New York: Britannica Educational Publishing. p. 71. ISBN 9781615302345.
- Downs, William; Wright, Lou Anne; Ramsey, Erik (2016). The Art of Theatre: Then and Now. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning. p. 372. ISBN 9781305954700.
- Brenner, Robin (2007). Understanding Manga and Anime. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 112. ISBN 9781591583325.
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