The Sixto-Clementine Vulgate or Clementine Vulgate is the edition of the Latin Vulgate from 1592, prepared by Pope Clement VIII. It was the second edition of the Vulgate authorised by the Catholic Church, the first being the Sixtine Vulgate.
Frontispiece and title of the Sixto-Clementine Vulgate (1592)
|Genre||Official Bible of the Catholic Church|
|Published||1592 (2nd edition in 1593; 3rd edition in 1598)|
|Preceded by||Vulgata Sixtina|
|Followed by||Nova Vulgata|
|Part of a series on the|
The Clementine Vulgate is cited in all critical editions and it is designated by the siglum vgc or vgcl.
Revision of the Sixtine Vulgate
Gregory XIV's two pontifical committees
The Sixtine Vulgate prepared by Pope Sixtus V was published in 1590, "accompanied by a Bull, in which [...] Sixtus V declared that it was to be considered as the authentic edition recommended by the Council of Trent, that it should be taken as the standard of all future reprints, and that all copies should be corrected by it."
The College of Cardinals was dissatisfied with the Sixtine Vulgate, "and a week after the death of Pope Sixtus V (27 August 1590) they ordered, first, the suspension of the selling of this edition and the destruction of the printed copies shortly thereafter." Since an official version of the Vulgate was still needed, Pope Gregory XIV, created a fourth committee in 1591, which reorganized into the fifth and final committee in the same year. "The basis of the Committee’s work was the Codex Carafianus, viz. the Leuven Vulgate emended by Carafa’s third Committee."
After the passing of Gregory XIV, Clement VIII (1592–1605) resumed the work on the revision; Clement VIII ordered Francisco de Toledo, Augustino Valeier, Frederico Borromeo, Robert Bellarmine, Antonius Agellius, and Petrus Morinus to make corrections and to prepare a revision to the Sixtine Vulgate. "Under the leadership of Pope Clement VIII, the work of the comission was continued and drastically revised, with the Jesuit scholar Cardinal Robert Bellarmine (1542–1624) bringing to the task his lifelong research on the Vulgate text."
Clement VIII's recall of the Sixtine Vulgate
In 1592, Clement VIII recalled all the copies of the Sixtine Vulgate almost immediately after his election in January 1592, as one of his first acts. The reason invoked for recalling Sixtus V's edition was printing errors, however the Sixtine Vulgate was mostly free of printing errors.
According to James Hastings, "[t]he real reasons for the recall of the editions must have been partly personal hostility to Sixtus, and partly a conviction that the book was not quite a worthy representative of the Vulgate text." Nestle "suggests that the revocation was really due to the influence of the Jesuits, whom Sixtus had offended by putting one of Bellarmine's books on the Index Librorum prohibitorum." Kenyon writes that the Sixtine Vulgate was "full of errors", but that Clement VIII was also motivated in his decision to recall the edition by the Jesuits, "whom Sixtus had offended." Sixtus V objected to some of the Jesuits' rules and especially to the title "Society of Jesus". He was on the point of changing these when he died. Sixtus V "had some conflict with the Society of Jesus more generally, especially regarding the Society’s concept of blind obedience to the General, which for Sixtus and other important figures of the Roman Curia jeopardized the preeminence of the role of the pope within the Church." Jaroslav Pelikan, without giving any more details, says that the Sixtine Vulgate "proved to be so defective that it was withdrawn".
The Clementine Vulgate was printed on 9 November 1592, with an anonymous preface written by Cardinal Robert Bellarmine. It was issued with the Bull Cum Sacrorum (9 November 1592) which asserted that every subsequent edition must be assimilated to this one, no word of the text may be changed, nor even variant readings printed in the margin. "The misprints of this edition were partly eliminated in a second (1593) and a third (1598) edition."
This new official version of the Vulgate, known as the Clementine Vulgate or Sixto-Clementine Vulgate, became the official Bible of the Catholic Church.
The Clementine Vulgate contained in the Appendix additional apocryphal books: Prayer of Manasseh, 3 Esdras, and 4 Esdras. It contained also the Psalterium Gallicanum and not the Versio juxta Hebraicum.
It contains texts of Acts 15:34 and the Comma Johanneum, 1 John 5:7. The new system of verse enumeration introduced by the Sixtine Vulgate was dropped and replaced with the system of division of verses enumeration of the 1551 edition of the Bible of Stephanus.
"To avoid the appearance of a conflict between the two Popes [Sixtus V and Clement VIII], the Clementine Bible was boldly published under the name of Sixtus, with a preface by Bellarmine asserting that Sixtus had intended to bring out a new edition in consequence of errors that had occurred in the printing of the first, but had been prevented by death; now, in accordance with his desire, the work was completed by his successor."
The full name of the Clementine Vulgate was: Biblia sacra Vulgatae Editionis, Sixti Quinti Pont. Max. iussu recognita atque edita. (translation: The Holy Bible of the Common/Vulgate Edition identified and published by the order of Pope Sixtus V). The fact that the Clementine edition retained the name of Sixtus on its title page is the reason why the Clementine Vulgate is sometimes known as the Sixto-Clementine Vulgate.
"It may be added that the first edition to contain the names of both the Popes [Sixtus V and Clement VIII] upon the title page is that of 1604. The title runs: "Sixti V. Pont. Max. iussu recognita et Clementis VIII. auctoritate edita.""
Differences to the Sixtine Vulgate
Some examples are:
|Vulgata Sixtina||Vulgata Clementina|
|18:2||in terra||in terram|
|18:4||laventur pedes vestri||lavate pedes vestros|
|11:14||constituit te||te constituit|
The differences between the Sixtine and the Clementine editions of the Vulgate was an opportunity too good for Protestants to miss; Thomas James in his Bellum Papale sive Concordia discors (London, 1600) "upbraids the two Popes on their high pretensions and the palpable failure of at least one, possibly both of them." He gave a long list of the differences (about 2,000) between these two editions. Translators of the King James Version in the preface to the first edition from 1611 accused the pope of perversion of the Holy Scripture.
Hastings "willingly admit[s]" that "on the whole [...] the Clementine text is critically an improvement upon the Sixtine." However, Kenyon argues that the changes which differentiate the Clementine edition from the Sixtine edition "exept where they simply remove an obvious blunder, are, for the most part, no improvement" Henri Quentin wrote: "Overall, the Clementine edition is a little better than the Sistine, but it does not mark a considerable progress"
The Clementine Vulgate was criticised by such textual critics as Richard Bentley, John Wordsworth, Henry Julian White, Samuel Berger, and Peter Corssen. Monsignor Roger Gryson, a patristics scholar at the Catholic University of Louvain, asserts in the preface to 4th edition of the Stuttgart Vulgate (1994) that the Clementine edition "frequently deviates from the manuscript tradition for literary or doctrinal reasons, and offers only a faint reflection of the original Vulgate, as read in the pandecta of the first millennium." By the same token however, the great extent to which the Clementine edition preserves contaminated readings from the medieval period can itself be considered to have critical value; Frans Van Liere states: "for the medieval student interested in the text as it was read, for instance, in thirteenth century Paris, the Sixto-Clementine Vulgate might actually be a better representative of the scholastic biblical text that the modern critical editions of the text in its pre-Carolingian form." Houghton states that "[t]he Clementine Vulgate is often a better guide to the text of the mediaeval Vulgate than critical editions of the earliest attainable text."
"At the beginning of the twentieth century, awareness of the inadequacies of the Clementine text increased. In 1906, Michael Hetzenauer produced a new edition of the Clementine Vulgate based on its three printings in 1592, 1593, and 1598 and incorporating officially-authorized corrections[.] The current standard reference edition [of the Clementine Vulgate] is that of Colunga & Turrado 1946, a form of which is available online."
Replacement by the Nova Vulgata
- See the Title section.
- Three committees had been previously created by Pius IV, Pius V, and Sixtus V. See Vulgata Sixtina#Three pontifical committees.
- The codex containing the propositions made to Sixtus V by the committee presided by cardinal Carafa.
- 1547 edition of the Vulgate edited by Hentenius in Leuven.
- This frontispiece is reproduced from the Sixtine Vulgate (way worse scan quality).
- See also Bellarmine's testimony in his autobiography:
"In 1591, Gregory XIV wondered what to do about the Bible published by Sixtus V, where so many things had been wrongly corrected. There was no lack of serious men who were in favor of a public condemnation. But, in the presence of the Sovereign Pontiff, I demonstrated that this edition should not be prohibited, but only corrected in such a way that, in order to save the honor of Sixtus V, it be republished amended: this would be accomplished by making disappear as soon as possible the unfortunate modifications, and by reprinting under the name of this Pontiff this new version with a preface where it would be explained that, in the first edition, because of the haste that had been brought, some errors were made through the fault either of printers or of other people. This is how I returned good for evil to Pope Sixtus. Sixtus, indeed, because of my thesis on the direct power of the Pope, had put my Controversies on the Index of Prohibited Books until after correction; but as soon as he died, the Sacred Congregation of Rites ordered my name to be removed from the Index. My advice pleased Pope Gregory. He created a Congregation to quickly revise the Sistine version and to bring it closer to the vulgates in circulation, in particular that of Leuven. [...] After the death of Gregory (XIV) and Innocent (V), Clement VIII edited this revised Bible, under the name of Sixtus (V), with the Preface of which I am the author."
Bellarmino, Roberto Francesco Romolo (1999). "Memorie autobiografiche (1613)". In Giustiniani, Pasquale (ed.). Autobiografia (1613) (in Italian). Translated by Galeota, Gustavo. Internet Archive. Brescia: Morcelliana. pp. 59–60. ISBN 88-372-1732-3.
(in original Latin: Vita ven. Roberti cardinalis Bellarmini, pp. 30–31); (in French here, pp. 106–107)
- Here (reference given in the source).
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- Scrivener, Frederick Henry Ambrose; Edward Miller (1894). A Plain Introduction to the Criticism of the New Testament, vol. 2 (4 ed.). London: George Bell & Sons. p. 64.
- Gerace, Antonio (2016). "Francis Lucas 'of Bruges' and Textual Criticism of the Vulgate before and after the Sixto-Clementine (1592)". Journal of Early Modern Christianity (pp. 201-237). 3 (2): 225. doi:10.1515/jemc-2016-0008 – via KULeuven.
- Gerace, Antonio (2016). "Francis Lucas 'of Bruges' and Textual Criticism of the Vulgate before and after the Sixto-Clementine (1592)". Journal of Early Modern Christianity (pp. 201-237). 3 (2): 210, 225. doi:10.1515/jemc-2016-0008 – via KULeuven.
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sixto-Clementine Vulgate.|
- Vulgata Clementina – VulSearch & the Clementine Vulgate project
- van Ess, Leander, ed. (1822–1824). Biblia Sacra, Vulgatæ Editionis, Sixti V et Clementis VIII, 1590, 1592, 1593, 1598.CS1 maint: date format (link) (edition of the 1592 version of the Vulgate with variations from the two other subsequent editions (1593 and 1598) as well as of the 1590 Sixtine Vulgate)
- Catholic Public Domain Version, 2009 (open source translation of the Clementine Vulgate into English)