Six o'clock swill
The six o'clock swill was an Australian and New Zealand slang term for the last-minute rush to buy drinks at a hotel bar before it closed. During a significant part of the 20th century, most Australian and New Zealand hotels shut their public bars at 6 pm. A culture of heavy drinking developed during the time between finishing work at 5 pm and the mandatory closing time only an hour later.
Introduction of early closing
|Restricted hotel trading hours|
Six o'clock closing was introduced during the First World War, partly as an attempt to improve public morality and partly as a war austerity measure. Before this reform, most hotels and public houses in Australia had closed at 11 or 11:30 pm. Support for changing hotel closing times originally came from the temperance movement, which hoped that implementing restrictions on the sale of alcohol would lead eventually to its total prohibition. Although the movement had been active since the 1870s, it had been gaining ground since the 1900s following the introduction of 6 o'clock retail trade closing, first legislated in Western Australia in 1897. The argument made by the temperance movement challenged the grounds for public houses being "kept open while bakers' shops were shut". Prominent groups in this movement were the Woman's Christian Temperance Union and the Rechabites. Their agitation was augmented with the outbreak of war in 1914 where it was argued that a "well-ordered, self-disciplined and morally upright home front was a precondition for the successful prosecution of the war."
The first state to introduce early closing was South Australia in March 1916 where the rationale was for supporting the war effort. The law had been approved in the previous year in a referendum held in conjunction with the state election. Six o'clock closing was subsequently adopted in New South Wales, Victoria and Tasmania in the same year. It was introduced in New Zealand in December 1917. Western Australia adopted a 9 pm closing time, but Queensland retained the old closing times until it introduced 8 o'clock closing in 1923.
The question of closing hours was put to New South Wales voters in June 1916. The question had previously been put to the vote in December 1913 when the results of the Local Option Poll were in favour of 11 o'clock closing. The 1916 vote was influenced by a recent riot involving drunken soldiers. In February 1916, troops mutinied against conditions at the Casula Camp. They raided hotels in Liverpool before travelling by train to Sydney, where one soldier was shot dead in a riot at Central Railway station.
Although it was introduced as a temporary measure, it was made permanent in New Zealand in 1918 and in Victoria and South Australia in 1919. The New South Wales government brought in temporary extensions and discussed putting the matter to a referendum. In 1923, however, without testing the matter by a popular vote, the government enacted 6 pm as the closing time.
The rush to drink
Six o'clock closing often fuelled an hour-long speed-drinking session, as men raced to get as drunk as possible in the limited time available. An unintended consequence was that patrons would save their glasses during the hour before closing time until the last call came for drinks, where the glasses would be refilled and patrons attempted to drink them all in the time left. The pressure to serve customers led to innovations such as a pipe from the taps so that the bartender did not need to carry the customer's glass to them.
Hotels catered for the short heavy drinking period after work by extending their bars and tiling walls for easy cleaning. The phenomenon changed Australian and New Zealand pubs as rooms in the building were converted to bar space; billiard rooms and saloon bars disappeared and separate bar counters were combined.
End of early closing hours
Bar closing times were extended to 10 pm in Tasmania in 1937. The issue of ending early closing was put to voters in New South Wales in a referendum in 1947, but it was rejected; in the same year, the Supreme Court of New South Wales ruled that private clubs were exempt from alcohol restrictions, allowing them to trade alcohol legally after 6 pm. A second referendum held in 1954 narrowly passed, and closing hours were extended to 10 pm in New South Wales in the following year. Hours were extended in Victoria in 1966, and South Australia was the last state to abolish six o'clock closing with legislation introduced by Don Dunstan in 1967 and the first legal after-six beer being drunk on 28 September.
Bar closing times were extended to 10 pm in New Zealand on 9 October 1967, three weeks after the 1967 licensing hours referendum. An earlier referendum in 1949 had voted three to one to retain six o'clock closing, but there was a partial repeal of the law in 1961 which allowed restaurants to sell liquor until midnight but not hotel bars.
Early public house closing times had only limited success; they did not have a significant effect on reducing alcohol consumption and probably contributed to the growth of "sly-grog" venues and the illicit alcohol trade. Car crashes were most common between 6pm and 8pm as patrons drove to their homes in an inebriated state during an era of virtually non-existent Drink-Drive Laws. In many cases, patrons would buy alcohol at bottle shops to consume at home after the six o'clock swill.
Machine gun murders
In New Zealand in December 1963 two men thought to have been operating an illegal beerhouse business were murdered with a machine gun, a weapon thought not to exist in the country at the time.
References in culture
Caddie, the Story of a Barmaid, an autobiography of a depression-era barmaid, describes the six o'clock swill, at a time (1952) when it was presumed that the reader would be familiar with the concept.
- Phillips, Walter (1980). "'Six o'clock swill': the introduction of early closing of hotel bars in Australia". Historical Studies. 19 (75): 250–266. doi:10.1080/10314618008595637.
- Joan Beaumont, ed. (1995). Australia's War 1914-18. Sydney, Australia: Allen & Unwin. ISBN 978-1-86373-461-5., page 81.
- "'Six o'clock swill' begins". Ministry for Culture and Heritage. 20 December 2012. Retrieved 2 August 2013.
- Robson, LL (1969). Australia & the Great War: 1914-1918. Australia: Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-333-11921-1., pages 12 and 63-65.
- Freeland, JM (1966). The Australian Pub. Australia: Melbourne University Press., page 175.
- Peluso, Jr., A. J. (2001). "Saloon Nudes". Maine Antique Digest. Archived from the original on 14 July 2011. Retrieved 22 December 2007. quoting Red Smith's coverage of the 1956 Olympics at Melbourne
- Freeland, op. cit., p. 155
- Strawhan, Peter (2004). "The Importance of Food and Drink in the Political and Private Life of Don Dunstan" (PDF). Archived from the original (pdf (342 pages)) on 20 August 2006. Retrieved 22 December 2002. Cite journal requires
|journal=(help) - see page 61 (page 71 of the pdf)
- Phillips, Jock (1967). "The 'six o'clock swill'" (image plus caption). New Zealand in brief: Sports and leisure. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand (New Zealand Government: Ministry for Culture and Heritage). Retrieved 22 December 2007.
- Hickie, David (1985). The Prince and the Premier. North Ryde: Angus & Robertson Publishers. pp. 98–122. ISBN 978-0-207-15153-8.
- Tanja Luckins, (2007). Pigs, Hogs and Aussie Blokes: The emergence of the term 'Six o'clock swill'. History Australia, 4(1), Monash University Press.
- Anna.Leask@Nzherald.Co.Nz @Annaleask, Anna Leask Anna Leask is Senior Police Reporter for the New Zealand Herald (6 December 2013). "The day Chicago came to Auckland". NZ Herald. Retrieved 14 May 2017.
- State Library of New South Wales: Picture of patrons at the Northern Club Hotel toasting the introduction of 10 pm closing, 1 February 1955
- The Political Economy of Six O’Clock Closing (in New Zealand) Tim Mulcare. (Rich Text Format)
- A 1940s Lodge cartoon, the 6-o'clock swill
- Unique and Deplorable: Regulating Drinking in Victoria