Site-specific theatre

Site-specific theatre is any type of theatrical production designed to be performed at a unique, specially adapted location other than a standard theatre. This specific site either may be originally built without any intention of serving theatrical purposes (for example, in a hotel, courtyard, or converted building), or may simply be considered an unconventional theatre space (for example, in a forest).[1] A performance in a traditional theatre venue, which has been transformed to resemble a specific space (for example, a junkyard), can also be considered as site-specific, in as it doesn't have the functionality (i.e. seats, stages) that a traditional theatre would have.

When the location is meant to imitate, or is itself, the setting of the theatrical story (as is common with site-specific theatre), the performance may also then be called environmental theatre. Site-specific theatre is commonly more interactive than conventional theatre and, with the expectation of audience members predominantly to walk or move about (rather than sit), may be called promenade theatre. Site-specific theatre frequently takes place in structures originally built for non-theatrical reasons that have since been renovated or converted for new, performance-based functions.

Definitions of site-specific theatre are complicated by its use in both theatre studies and visual art, where it is also referred to as site-specific performance.[2]


Examples of site-specific theatre include Ferry Play,[3] a podplay for the Staten Island Ferry in New York City, Psycho-So-Matic, and Downsize, staged by Chicago's Walkabout Theater in a laundromat and a series of public restrooms, respectively;[4] Girls Just Wanna Have Fund$, staged by Women's Project in the lobbies, escalators, and bridges of New York's World Financial Center;[5] Supernatural Chicago, staged in an allegedly haunted nightclub,[6] and Small Metal Objects, staged by Australia's Back To Back Theater at the Whitehall Ferry Terminal.[7]

Another example of this form is the Ramlila, dramatic enactment of Hindu epic, Ramayana, started in 1830 by Maharaja Udit Narayan Singh of Varanasi. It is held each year over the period of 31 days, during autumn festive season of Dussehra at Ramnagar, Varanasi in India, and is staged in permanent structures created as sets throughout the three square mile area, where the audience follow the actors. Ramlila has been declared by the UNESCO as a Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity in 2005.[8][9]

Site-specific theatre can also include environmental theatre: a production that attempts to immerse the audience in the performance by bringing the action off the stage area. For example, some acting may happen in aisles. In the case of a black box theater, acting platforms may even be built between audience section. Sometimes a performer will talk to, or otherwise involve an audience member in a scene. This can be a real audience member, as in interactive theater, or an actor planted to appear as an audience member.

There are variations on site-specific theatre, including:

  • Environmental theatre, in which a pre-existing production is placed in an environment similar to the one in which the play is set (for example, performing Hamlet in a Danish Castle).[10]
  • Promenade theatre, in which audience members generally stand and walk about rather than sit, watching the action happening among them and even following the performers around the performance space.[11]

Additional examples of Site-Specific Theatre and Immersive theatre are the following:

Ragtime On Ellis Island - A "developmental concert" of the musical was presented on Ellis Island on August 8, 2016. The concert is directed by Sammi Cannold, and featured Brian Stokes Mitchell as the narrator, Laura Michelle Kelly as Mother, Andy Mientus as Younger Brother, Brandon Victor Dixon as Coalhouse Walker Jr., Michael Park as Father, Shaina Taub as Emma Goldman, Aisha Jackson as Sarah and Robert Petkoff reprising his 2009 Broadway revival role of Tateh.

Sweeney Todd - The Tooting Arts Club production transferred to Off-Broadway, transforming the Barrow Street Theatre into a working re-creation of Harrington's pie shop. This is an example of immersive theatre as they are building a pre-existing space, it is not considered a found space.

Little Shop of Horrors - A production of the musical will be presented at Bool's Flower Shop in Ithaca, New York on April 24, 2019. The production is produced by Jacob Stuckelman and features local Ithaca artists. During the summer of 2018 after sitting on the idea for several months, Producer Jacob Stuckelman committed to creating a fully staged production of Little Shop of Horrors inside a flower shop, a concept that has never been seen before. In addition, this production will be celebrating Bool's Flower Shops 125th anniversary.[12]


  1. Field, Andy (2008-02-06). "'Site-specific theatre'? Please be more specific". The Guardian. London.
  2. Pearson, Mike (2010). Site-Specific Performance. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 7. ISBN 9780230576711.
  3. Ferry Play
  4. Sondak, Justin (2007-07-27). "Overnight Lows, Low Down". Chicagoist. Archived from the original on 2008-04-01. Retrieved 2008-12-29.
  5. Hoffmann, Babara (2007-05-15). "Interest compounded at world financial center stages". New York Post. Archived from the original on 2013-01-30.
  6. Armour, Terry (2005-10-27). "Supernatural Chicago". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on 2011-09-22.
  7. Soloski, Alexis (2008-01-01). "Under the Radar Tries its Hand at Site-Specific Work". The Village Voice.
  8. Ramlila - the Traditional Performance of the Ramayana UNESCO.
  9. A Maharajah´s Festival for Body and Soul New York Times, Monday, March 30, 2009.
  10. 1934-, Schechner, Richard. Environmental theater : an expanded new edition including 'Six axioms for environmental theater' (New, expanded ed.). New York. ISBN 1557831785. OCLC 29877118.
  11. "Promenade" (Press release). Scottish Arts Council. Retrieved 2008-12-19.
  12. "Little Shop of Bools | Ithaca, NY". Little Shop of Bools. Retrieved 2019-03-27.
  • Pearson, Mike (2010). Site-Specific Performance. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978023057611.
  • Pearson, Mike; Shanks, Michael (2001). Theatre/archaeology: Disciplinary Dialogues. Routeledge. ISBN 0-415-19458-X. ISBN 978-0-415-19458-7
  • Kaye, Nick (2000). Site Specific Art: Place and Documentation. Routeledge. ISBN 0-415-18558-0.
  • Schechner, Richard; Shanks (1973). Environmental Theater. Hawthorne Books. ISBN 1557831785.
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