Sir Charles Knowles, 1st Baronet
Sir Charles Knowles, 1st Baronet (c. 1704 – 9 December 1777) was an officer of the Royal Navy, who saw service during the War of Jenkins' Ear, the wider War of the Austrian Succession, and the Seven Years' War. He also briefly served with the Imperial Russian Navy during the Russo-Turkish War. He rose to the rank of Admiral in a long and varied career, crowned with both success, and at times, controversy. He was highly educated, and particularly skilled in building and destroying fortifications. His career was mainly centred on the West Indies, where he commanded ships and squadrons in actions against both Spanish and French ships and settlements. Despite an active naval career that saw him rise to be Rear-Admiral of Great Britain, Knowles found time to devote to his studies, working on translations of foreign scientific studies, and developing his own inventions. His career at sea was blighted however by several failures, which may have been a cause of his move to Russia during the later part of his life to oversee the development of the Russian fleet. He is also remembered for causing the Knowles Riot in Boston.
Sir Charles Knowles, Bt
Sir Charles Knowles
|Died||9 December 1777|
Bulstrode Street, London
|Years of service||1718–1774|
|Commands held||HMS Diamond|
Commander-in-Chief, Barbadoes and Leeward Islands
|Battles/wars||Battle of Cape Passaro|
Battle of Cartagena de Indias
Battle of La Guaira
Battle of Puerto Cabello
Battle of Havana
|Relations||Charles Knowles (son) Edward Knowles (son)|
Family and early life
Knowles was probably born c. 1704, though some sources date his birth to as early as 1697. He was reputed to be an illegitimate son of Charles Knowles or Knollys, the titular fourth Earl of Banbury. His education was overseen by his half-brother, Lord Wallingford, and Knowles entered the navy in March 1718, having been recommended to Admiral Sir George Byng by Wallingford. Knowles went aboard one of the ships of Byng's fleet, the 70-gun HMS Buckingham, under Captain Charles Strickland, though he moved in April aboard HMS Lenox as a captain's servant. He remained aboard the Lenox until December 1720, serving with Byng's fleet in the Mediterranean. He was present at the Battle of Cape Passaro on 11 August 1718, where he may have temporarily been aboard Byng's flagship HMS Barfleur.
Knowles then moved aboard HMS Lyme in June 1721, initially serving as a servant to Captain Vere Beauclerk, and after the first eighteen months as an able seaman. Knowles remained on the Lyme's books throughout her commission in the Mediterranean, discharging in June 1726. This appears to have been a titular posting only, and he probably spent most of his time ashore in studies. On his return to Britain Knowles was appointed to serve aboard the guard ship HMS Winchester at Portsmouth, and then Sir Charles Wager's flagship HMS Torbay at Kinsale, under the command of Vere Beauclerk. He went on to serve aboard HMS Faversham and HMS Lion until his promotion to be lieutenant of the sloop HMS Tryall on 30 May 1730. He returned to serve aboard the Lion in March the following year, when she went to the West Indies as the flagship of Rear-Admiral Charles Stewart.
Having by now established a reputation as an engineer it appears that after his return to Britain he was given an advisory and supervisory role in the drawing up of plans for Westminster Bridge, for which he travelled to France to study the Pont Neuf. Unfortunately the project was given to another and the bridge eventually gave way precisely where Knowles had predicted. He had been promoted to commander of the 40-gun HMS Southampton in 1732, but the position appears to have been for rank only, as he did not become post-captain until 4 February 1737, when he was appointed to command HMS Diamond. He was ordered to reinforce Admiral Edward Vernon's West Indies fleet in 1739, as the War of Jenkins' Ear developed. Knowles rendezvoused with the admiral at Port Royal, having captured two Spanish ships en route, one of which was a register ship carrying 120,000 pieces of eight, and clothing for 6,000 men. Knowles was unable to sail with Vernon when he sailed the fleet to Portobelo, but arrived there on 27 November, five days after Vernon's victory there. Vernon gave Knowles the task of destroying the Spanish forts, which owing to their solid construction eventually took three weeks and 122 barrels of gunpowder. When the task was completed the British withdrew, Knowles having impressed Vernon with his competent command of land operations.
Vernon next appointed Knowles to cruise off Cartagena, watching the Spanish forces and interdicting any enemy supply ships. Knowles was then moved into the fireship HMS Success and ordered to examine the approaches to the port of Chagres. Having completed the mission and formulated a plan of attack, Knowles was given command of the bomb vessels, fireships and other small boats, and duly bombarded the fortress of San Lorenzo, at the mouth of the Chagres River. The town and castle surrendered on 24 March 1740 and Knowles was appointed Governor of the castle. Vernon ordered the removal of the goods gathered at the port for shipping to Spain, and the sinking of several privateer vessels. Knowles was given the task of demolishing the castle, which he achieved by detonating several mines under the bastions, and burning the apartments. Having completed the task, Vernon's fleet withdrew at the end of March, returning to Port Royal by way of Portobelo.
Vernon and the Battle of Cartagena de Indias
Knowles spent the next few months cruising, before returning to England in company with HMS Torrington as an escort for a 25 ship strong fleet of merchantmen. Knowles and the Diamond arrived at Spithead on 4 August 1740, shortly after which Knowles took command of the 50-gun HMS Lichfield. He soon moved to command the 60-gun HMS Weymouth, and sailed with her from St Helens Roads on 24 October 1740 as part of Sir Chaloner Ogle's fleet to reinforce Vernon in the West Indies. Knowles formed part of Vernon's council of war on 16 February 1741, which resolved to make a naval and land assault on Cartagena. Vernon placed Knowles in command of the operations to reconnoitre the Spanish defences, and subsequently draw up a plan of attack. Having done this Knowles formed a key part of the early stages of the attack, he stormed and captured one of the forts, captured the Spanish flagship and broke the boom across the entrance to the harbour, allowing the British fleet access.
Several British ships entered the harbour the next day, including Knowles aboard the Weymouth. Under Vernon's orders Knowles destroyed several enemy batteries, captured the Castillo Grande and navigated further into the harbour to cut off enemy supplies. Vernon appointed him governor of Castillo Grande, and ordered him to demolish the fort as the British prepared to evacuate. Knowles duly carried the task out, rendering 59 pieces of ordnance unusable, and carrying off a large amount of lime and limestone. The failure of the British to take Cartagena led to considerable bitterness between the army and naval forces, and Knowles appears to have been the author of a pamphlet published in 1743 entitled An Account of the Expedition to Carthegena, with Explanatory Notes and Observations, a work that criticised the actions of the army. The fleet returned to Jamaica, whereupon Knowles returned to his previous command, the Lichfield. He remained based in the West Indies, and was engaged primarily in strengthening the fortifications and improving the facilities for ships at Port Antonio, Port Royal, and subsequently at Antigua. He became a commodore after this, flying his flag aboard HMS Superb and then HMS Severn. Between 1743 and 1745, he served as the second in command on the Jamaica station under Sir Chaloner Ogle, who had replaced Admiral Edward Vernon.
Battles of La Guaira and Puerto Cabello
Knowles took command of the 70-gun HMS Suffolk in 1742, and in 1743 received orders from Ogle to attack the Spanish settlements of La Guaira and Puerto Cabello. The Spanish governor of Venezuela Gabriel de Zuluaga, well informed of the Royal Navy plans, recruited extra defenders and obtained gunpowder from the Dutch. Consequently, an attack on La Guaira on 2 March 1743 was beaten off by the defenders. Knowles withdrew his force and refitted at Curacao before attempting an assault on Puerto Cabello on 15 April, and again on 24 April, but both assaults were again beaten back. Knowles called off the expedition and returned to Jamaica.
Governor of Louisbourg
Between 1743 and 1745 he captured a large number of prizes, with his success leading to a letter addressed to him and signed by 63 of the principal figures in Jamaica;
Sir, Though we are certain that the public services you have done, and are continually doing, proceed, as they always will, from the noblest principle, and without the least expectation of popular applause; yet, being fully sensible, and having indeed been immediate partakers of them, we should think it an unpardonable neglect at least, if it did not deserve a worse appellation, should we omit to make our joint acknowledgement thereof, &c.
During this period he also found time to design the first British Tower in the west Indies, the 1745 River Fort Barbuda, a very early prototype of the later Martello Tower. Knowles was later appointed as captain of the newly built HMS Devonshire in 1745. He returned to Britain later that year, and in January 1746 he was aboard HMS Canterbury as commander of a squadron in the Downs, under Vice-Admiral William Martin. He was briefly detached to examine French invasion preparations, and on his return in February he captured two French ships. He shifted his pennant to HMS Edinburgh on 21 March, and escorted a convoy from St Helens into the English Channel, after which he moved aboard the 50-gun HMS Norwich.
In spring 1746 he was appointed to take over as governor of Louisbourg from Peter Warren. He sailed for his new post on 31 March 1746, in company with HMS Canterbury and HMS Ruby. He spent nearly two years as governor, and having initially complained to the Duke of Newcastle about the "confused, dirty, beastly condition" of the fortress, was largely engaged in repairing and improving the defences. During this time his troops were involved in one battle, the Battle at Port-la-Joye. Following the brave defence of the garrison at Fort at Number 4 by Capt Phinehas Stevens in 1747 against the french militia and Abenaki warriors, Knowles was so impressed that he presented Stevens with “as costly and elegant a sword as could be procured in Boston”. Afterwards the township was named Charlestown in honour of Charles Knowles. He was promoted to rear-admiral of the white on 15 July 1747, and appointed as commander in chief on the Jamaica Station. On taking up his new post he raised his flag aboard HMS Canterbury, but soon shifted it to HMS Cornwall. He had initially intended to take his squadron and attack Santiago de Cuba, but contrary winds led to him deciding instead to attack Fort Saint Louis de Sud. He arrived on 8 March 1748, and after subjecting the fort to a heavy bombardment forced its surrender. Knowles was promoted to rear-admiral of the red on 12 May 1748. He returned to Santiago de Cuba on 5 April and carried out another attack, but was unable to capture the port, and duly returned to Jamaica.
Battle of Havana
After having his ships refitted Knowles sailed on a cruise, hoping to intercept a Spanish treasure fleet off Cuba. On 30 September he fell in with HMS Lenox, under Captain Charles Holmes, who reported that he had encountered a Spanish fleet some days earlier. The fleet was sighted the next morning but confusion over signals and a struggle to keep the weather gauge meant that the British fleet failed to attack in an organised manner. Though the Battle of Havana ended with the capture of one Spanish ship and another being badly damaged, it was not the major British victory hoped for. Knowles was accused of badly mismanaging the action and faced a court martial in December 1749. The result was a reprimand for the poor tactics he employed, while several of the other captains involved were also reprimanded. There was considerable bad feeling between Knowles and his subordinates, and several challenges to duel were issued. In once instance Knowles exchanged shots with Holmes, and in another two of his captains, Innes and Clarke, duelled, which resulted in Innes being mortally wounded. King George II eventually intervened to forbid any more duels over the matter.
Governor of Jamaica
Knowles was briefly Member of Parliament for Gatton between 1749 and 1752, and in 1752 he was appointed Governor of Jamaica. In 1754, the Maroons of Crawford's Town rose up in revolt, and Knowles put down the rebellion, defeating and capturing its leader, Quao. Over his four-year period as governor he took steps to reform the legal system, and also moved the administrative capital from Spanish Town to Kingston, arguing that the latter was more defensible. His attempts to ensure the subordination of the Jamaican Assembly to the British government led to calls for his removal as governor, but his policies were subsequently upheld by the British government. The Assembly had the last word however, and Knowles resigned the governorship in January 1756 and returned to England. There was a lot of celebration in Jamaica, as the planters in the Assembly re-established Spanish Town as the capital of the island colony. He had been promoted to vice-admiral of the red on 4 February 1755.
In 1756 the Cuban governor extended an official invitation to him to pay a visit to Havana, the strongest naval and military Spanish base in the Caribbean and the Americas. The offer was accepted with pleasure, and he spent much of his time memorising the details of Havana’s defences. Later he had drawn up plans for the capture of “The Havannah” which he submitted to Mr Pitt, probably the same which he laid before the cabinet at the time of his resignation as Prime Minister. By 1761 he had shown his plans to the Duke of Cumberland who championed the idea and wrote to the military commander of the expedition, the earl of Albermarle “..I dread the loss of one single day at present and that not the less for Knowles’ company, who is here croaking every day at dinner. Any bystander would think me the projector and fitter out of the expedition…” On 13 August 1762 Havana formally surrendered.
Later service and Russia
Knowles was second in command under Admiral Edward Hawke (1705–1781) in the Rochefort Expedition in 1757, during the Seven Years' War, with Knowles flying his flag aboard HMS Neptune. Knowles oversaw a bombardment, but the expedition was judged a failure, and Knowles was one of the figures subsequently criticised for his actions. He defended himself with the publication of a pamphlet entitled The Conduct of Admiral Knowles on the late Expedition set in a true light. The pamphlet was unfavourably reviewed by Tobias Smollett in The Critical Review, in terms that led to Knowles successfully suing Smollett for libel. Knowles briefly flew his flag aboard HMS Royal Anne in the winter of 1757, but the debacle at Rochefort meant he was soon removed from active service. In the war of 1758 Knowles was offered £20,000 by the French government for his recipe for curing beef and pork but he refused to sell to the french or to receive any compensation from his government. The subsequent publication of this recipe caused an entire revolution in the method of preparing beef and pork for sea use in the prevention of scurvy. He was promoted to full admiral on 3 December 1760, and was created a baronet on 31 October 1765. He became Rear-Admiral of Great Britain on 5 November 1765.
Admiral of the Russian Fleet
He resigned from the navy in 1770 and accepted an appointment from Catherine of Russia as a first admiral in her fleet with a seat in her Council at the Highest Court of the Russian Empire to advise on the development and revitilisation of the Imperial Russian Navy, which was then in a deplorable state, during the war against Turkey. Twenty years later a pamphlet lamented “our permitting Sir Charles Knowles to act for that ambitious and formidable state in the capacity of lord high admiral, at a time when his abilities might have turned to great account in his native country." Amongst other reasons for going, he saw the possibilities of a new Anglo-Russian alliance to balance a Spanish French compact. He served in a mainly administrative role as “General Intendant” the highest position on the administration of all the wharfs, ship construction, workers, and supplies in all ports of the Empire, being based at St Petersburg until 1774, when he returned to England. By the time he left Russia, he had presented Catherine with an impressive array of achievements: a detailed plan for rebuilding the navy along English lines, plus at least five new warships… ….the Ezekial of 80 guns “esteemed the finest ship in the navy” built to his own design...and under his supervision, launched after 8.5 months, while usually it took up to 5 years to build a ship of a similar class.....a black sea squadron that had achieved permanent paramountcy over the Turks, a reconstructed dry dock, and a new canal for the fraction of the anticipated cost…. In 1773 he introduced steam technology from Scotland to pump water from the dry dock at Kronstadt a full 26 years before the British Admiralty were persuaded to try out a steam engine at Portsmouth. It was his insistence on the use of a steam engine pump which had a significant impact on the growth of interest of steam application to all facets of Russian industrial life. Sir John Jervis and Captain Samuel Barrington visited Russia in the early 1770s where they spent time in Saint Petersburg and inspected the arsenal and dockyards at Kronstadt and took a tour of the yacht designed by Knowles for Catherine of Russia.Amongst articles devoted to outstanding military figures in the immense and distinguished Military Encyclopaedia of Sytin (the common unofficial name of the multi-volume 'Military Encyclopaedia' published by Ivan Sytin in St Petersburg 1911-1915) his departure is described as undoubtably a major loss to their fleet. The Naval Chronicle called him the Father of the Russian Navy.
Family and personal life
Knowles married Mary, the sister of Rebecca, wife of William Bouverie, 1st Earl of Radnor, and Sir John Alleyne, later a Speaker of the Barbados House of Assembly, on 23 December 1740. The marriage produced a son, Edward Knowles, who followed his father into the navy, but was lost when his vessel, the sloop HMS Peregrine foundered in 1762. He married in 1750 for the second time, Maria Magdalena Therese de Bouget (1733–1796), the daughter of Henri Francois, Compte de Bouget. The couple produced one son, Charles Knowles, and two daughters, one of whom, Anna Charlotte Christiana Knowles (1752-1839) m 1781 Captain John Winder of the Kings Dragoon Guards. She accompanied her father to Russia where she became “perfectly well acquainted with the Names, Persons and Characters of everybody at. the Court at Petersburg” She was a great favourite of the Empress who made her a maid of honour and presented her with her diamond monogrammed brooch and other jewels.
He translated M. de la Croix's Abstract of the Mechanisms of the Motions of Floating Bodies in 1775, noting in his preface that he had carried out experiments that validated de la Croix's findings. He also invented a device for measuring the pressure and velocity of wind, a fact acknowledged by Leonhard Euler as having been discovered before him.
He was a real reformer. In writing to Admiral Anson about ship construction, masts, sails, rigging and the treatment of timber in the dockyards he anticipated much of what Kempenfelt was to say nearly forty years later. In 1758, an anonymous pamphlet by Philo Nautilus attributed to Knowles “outlined perhaps the most utopian plan ever proposed to solve Britain’s naval manning problem” He proposed a plan to solve the navy's recruiting problem by building hundreds of low rent houses for navy men and their families at dockyards. If implemented, the plan would have dramatically reduced the navy's dependence on impressment. His posthumous reputation is suggested in “Plain suggestions of a British seaman” 1794, 4: “We had not in England a man more thoroughly conversant in nautical affairs, or who better considered the interest of our navy” He died at Bulstrode Street, London on 9 December 1777, and was buried at Guildford, Surrey.
- Lee, Sidney, ed. (1892). . Dictionary of National Biography. 31. London: Smith, Elder & Co. p. 292.
- "Biographical Memoir of Admiral Sir Charles Knowles, Bart". The Naval Chronicle. p. 89.
- Lee, Sidney, ed. (1892). . Dictionary of National Biography. 32. London: Smith, Elder & Co. p. 293.
- "Biographical Memoir of Admiral Sir Charles Knowles, Bart". The Naval Chronicle. p. 92.
- The New England Historical and genealogical Register Vol XXVIII. Boston. 1874 pp. 459
- "Biographical Memoir of Admiral Sir Charles Knowles, Bart". The Naval Chronicle. p. 93.
- "Biographical Memoir of Admiral Sir Charles Knowles, Bart". The Naval Chronicle. p. 94.
- "Biographical Memoir of Admiral Sir Charles Knowles, Bart". The Naval Chronicle. p. 95.
- "Biographical Memoir of Admiral Sir Charles Knowles, Bart". The Naval Chronicle. p. 96.
- "Biographical Memoir of Admiral Sir Charles Knowles, Bart". The Naval Chronicle. p. 97.
- "Biographical Memoir of Admiral Sir Charles Knowles, Bart". The Naval Chronicle. p. 98.
- "Biographical Memoir of Admiral Sir Charles Knowles, Bart". The Naval Chronicle. p. 100.
- "Biographical Memoir of Admiral Sir Charles Knowles, Bart". The Naval Chronicle. p. 101.
- "Biographical Memoir of Admiral Sir Charles Knowles, Bart". The Naval Chronicle. p. 109.
- “Martello Towers Worldwide” by Bill Clements, Pen & Sword Military 2011 pp. 146-148
- Winfield. British Warships of the Age of Sail. p. 32.
- "Biographical Memoir of Admiral Sir Charles Knowles, Bart". The Naval Chronicle. p. 110.
- The New England Historical and genealogical Register Vol XXVIII. Boston. 1874 pp.463
- Cundall, p. xx
- "Biographical Memoir of Admiral Sir Charles Knowles, Bart". The Naval Chronicle. p. 111.
- "Biographical Memoir of Admiral Sir Charles Knowles, Bart". The Naval Chronicle. p. 112.
- Michael Siva, After the Treaties: A Social, Economic and Demographic History of Maroon Society in Jamaica, 1739-1842, PhD Dissertation (Southampton: Southampton University, 2018), pp. 54-6.
- "Biographical Memoir of Admiral Sir Charles Knowles, Bart". The Naval Chronicle. p. 119.
- C.V. Black, History of Jamaica (London: Collins, 1965), pp. 91-2.
- Battle for Empire The very first world war 1756-63 by Tom Pocock. Michael O’Mara Books Ltd. 1998. pp.185, 199, 207.
- "Biographical Memoir of Admiral Sir Charles Knowles, Bart". The Naval Chronicle. p. 120.
- Lee, Sidney, ed. (1892). . Dictionary of National Biography. 31. London: Smith, Elder & Co. p. 294.
- The New England Historical and genealogical Register Vol XXVIII. Boston. 1874 pp.461-462
- The Navy & Army Illustrated Vol. VII. - No. 102 Saturday January 14th 1899 p.402
- from The Analytical review Vol 18 Feb 1794 p 90-92 - Plain Suggestions of a British Seaman respecting the present Admiralty, and the Mode of constituting the Board, etc, etc, as also the Figure made by this Country on the Seas, during the present War, with loose Hints for a Plan for manning the Fleet without Pressing. 8vo. 40 pages Jordan 1794.
- Glendenning. Philip. “ Admiral Sir Charles Knowles and Russia 1771-1774” The Mariner’s Mirror 61 (1) :39-49 see p. 43.
- History of Domestic shipbuilding 18-21 centuries. in five volumes. Sailing wooden shipbuilding V.D. Dotsenko, I.V. Bogatyrev, G.A. Varhalovsky, P.A. Krotov, A.G. Satskiy - SPB: Shipbuilding, 1994 pp. 209-210
- Clendenning, Philip. "Admiral Sir Charles Knowles and Russia 1771-1774". The Mariner's Mirror. 61 (1): 39–49. doi:10.1080/00253359.1975.10658004. See p. 46.
- Glendenning. Philip. “ Admiral Sir Charles Knowles and Russia 1771-1774” The Mariner’s Mirror 61 (1) :39-49 see p. 45-46.
- Tucker, Jedediah Stephens (1844). Admiral the Right Hon The Earl of St Vincent GCB &C. Memoirs. 1. Richard Bentley, New Burlington Street. OCLC 6083815. p. 40
- "Biographical Memoir of Admiral Sir Charles Knowles, Bart". The Naval Chronicle. p. 118.
- Ian R Christie (ed) The Correspondance of Jeremy Bentham Vol 3: January 1781 to October 1788 pp. 203 UCL Press 2017
- "Biographical Memoir of Admiral Sir Charles Knowles, Bart". The Naval Chronicle. p. 123.
- Tunstall. Brian. edited Dr Nicholas Tracy. Naval Warfare in the age of Sail The evolution of Fighting Tactics 1650-1815. 1990 p. 101
- Brunsman. Denver. The Evil Necessity, British Naval Impressment in the Eighteenth Century Atlantic World. p.240 University of Virginia Press 2013
- Publications of the Navy Records Society Vol 119. The Manning of the Royal Navy: Selected Pamphlets, 1693-1873. pp. 104 - 113
- Publications of the Navy Records Society Vol 119. The Manning of the Royal Navy: Selected Pamphlets, 1693-1873. p. 383
- "Biographical Memoir of Admiral Sir Charles Knowles, Bart". The Naval Chronicle. 1. London: J. Gold 1799. 1842.
- Cundall, Frank (1915). Historic Jamaica. West India Committee.
- Family Bouget
- Works by Charles Knowles at Project Gutenberg
- Works by or about Charles Knowles at Internet Archive
| Commander-in-Chief, Jamaica Station
|Parliament of Great Britain|
| Member of Parliament for Gatton
With: Paul Humphrey (1749–1751)
Sir James Colebrooke, Bt (1751–1752)
Sir James Colebrooke, Bt
| Governor of Jamaica
| Rear-Admiral of Great Britain
|Baronetage of Great Britain|
|New title|| Baronet
(of Lovell Hill)