Simple shear is a deformation in which parallel planes in a material remain parallel and maintain a constant distance, while translating relative to each other.
In fluid mechanics
And the gradient of velocity is constant and perpendicular to the velocity itself:
where is the shear rate and:
The displacement gradient tensor Γ for this deformation has only one nonzero term:
The mathematical model representing simple shear is a shear mapping restricted to the physical limits. It is an elementary linear transformation represented by a matrix. The model may represent laminar flow velocity at varying depths of a long channel with constant cross-section. Limited shear deformation is also used in vibration control, for instance base isolation of buildings for limiting earthquake damage.
In solid mechanics
In solid mechanics, a simple shear deformation is defined as an isochoric plane deformation in which there are a set of line elements with a given reference orientation that do not change length and orientation during the deformation. This deformation is differentiated from a pure shear by virtue of the presence of a rigid rotation of the material. When rubber deforms under simple shear, its stress-strain behavior is approximately linear. A rod under torsion is a practical example for a body under simple shear.
If e1 is the fixed reference orientation in which line elements do not deform during the deformation and e1 − e2 is the plane of deformation, then the deformation gradient in simple shear can be expressed as
We can also write the deformation gradient as
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