Sextus Julius Caesar
Sextus Julius Caesar was the name of several Roman men of the Julii Caesares. Sextus was one of three praenomina used by the Julii Caesares, the others being Lucius and Gaius, the latter being the praenomen of the most famous Julius Caesar.
Sextus Julius Caesar (praetor 208 BC)
The first Sextus Julius Caesar was praetor in 208 BC, and assigned the province of Sicily. He commanded the legiones Cannenses, the legions formed from the survivors of Cannae. After the consuls were ambushed by Hannibal, leaving Marcus Claudius Marcellus dead, and Titus Quinctius Crispinus mortally wounded, Sextus was dispatched by the Roman Senate to ask Quinctius to nominate a dictator.
Sextus Julius Caesar (consul 157 BC)
Sextus Julius Caesar, son of the praetor of 208 BC, was the first of the Julii Caesares to hold the consulship, in BC 157. He first appears in history as a military tribune serving under the proconsul Lucius Aemilius Paullus in Liguria in 181 BC. In 170, he was sent to Greece as a diplomatic legate for restoring the liberty of Abdera, Thrace, and helped lead the search for those who had been unjustly sold into slavery. Curule aedile in 165, he and his colleague Gnaeus Cornelius Dolabella presented games (ludi) at which Terence's Hecyra was first performed, with a notorious lack of success. He held the praetorship no later than 160. In 147 BC, ten years after his consulship, he was sent to rebuke the Achaean League for their treatment of Roman allies, and to caution them against engaging in hostilities against Rome. Critolaos, a leader of the Achaeans, blocked Caesar's efforts to arbitrate in the dispute between the League and Sparta, and war was declared the following year.
Sextus Julius Caesar (triumvir monetalis 129 BC)
Sextus Julius Caesar (praetor urbanus 123 BC)
Sextus Julius Caesar, son of the consul of 157, was praetor urbanus in 123 BC.
Sextus Julius Caesar (consul 91 BC)
Sextus Julius Caesar, the son of Gaius Julius Caesar and Marcia, is best known as the uncle of Gaius Julius Caesar, the dictator. He was praetor by 94 BC, and held the consulship in 91. Proconsul in 90, he won a military victory, probably over the Paeligni. He died while laying siege to Asculum.
Sextus Julius Caesar (Flamen Quirinalis)
Sextus Julius Caesar (governor of Syria)
Son of the Sextus Julius Caesar who was Flamen Quirinalis, this Sextus Julius Caesar served under his kinsman, Gaius Julius Caesar, in Spain during the Civil War in 49 BC, probably as a military tribune. He continued his service in 48, most likely as quaestor. He was appointed to a command in Syria around July 47, either as a legate, or more likely proquaestor pro praetore. He remained as promagistrate for 46 in Syria, where he was killed in a revolt led by a Caecilius Bassus, a supporter of Pompeius. His command was given to Quintus Cornificius, tentatively identified as a praetor of 45, who at the time was promagistrate in Cilicia.
- T.R.S. Broughton, The Magistrates of the Roman Republic (American Philological Association, 1951, 1986), vol. 1, p. 290.
- Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, William Smith, ed. (1870), vol. II, p. 536.
- Livy 40.27.4–6; Broughton, MRR1, p. 385.
- Livy 43.4.12–13; Broughton, MRR1, p. 421.
- Broughton, MRR1, p. 438.
- Broughton, MRR1, p. 445.
- Polybius 38.9–11; Cassius Dio, frg. 72; Broughton, MRR1, p. 464; Cambridge Ancient History VIII2 322
- British Museum; The Fitzwilliam Museum
- Broughton, The Magistrates of the Roman Republic (American Philological Association, 1986), vol. 3, p. 443.
- Rhetorica ad Herennium 2.19 (though the passage could perhaps refer to the consul of 91 BC); Cicero, De domo sua 136; Broughton, MRR1, pp. 513, 515 (note 2).
- Broughton, MRR2, p. 12.
- Broughton, MRR2, p. 20.
- Appian, Bellum Civile 1.48; Broughton, MRR2, p. 27.
- Cicero, De Haruspicum Responsis 12; Broughton, MRR2, p. 199.
- Napoleon III. Histoire de Jules César Volume 1, p. 253 Paris: H. Plon 1865
- Caesar, Bellum Civile 2.20.7; Broughton, MRR2, p. 264.
- Cassius Dio 47.26.3; Broughton, MRR2, pp. 274 and 285 (note 5).
- De Bello Alexandrino 66.1; Livy, Periochae 114; Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews 14.160, 170, 178, 180, and The Jewish War 1.205, 211–213, 216; Appian, Bellum Civile 3.77, 4.58; Cassius Dio 47.26.3; Broughton, MRR2, pp. 285 (note 5), 289, 297.
- Sextus Julius Caesar at Livius.org