Senna (plant)

Senna (from Arabic sanā), the sennas, is a large genus of flowering plants in the legume family Fabaceae, and the subfamily Caesalpinioideae[2] and the tribe Cassieae. This diverse genus is native throughout the tropics, with a small number of species in temperate regions. The number of species is estimated to be from about 260[3] to 350.[4] The type species for the genus is Senna alexandrina. About 50 species of Senna are known in cultivation.[5]

Senna
Senna alexandrina
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Fabales
Family: Fabaceae
Tribe: Cassieae
Genus: Senna
Mill.
Type species
Senna alexandrina
Mill.
Species

Over 300; see text

Synonyms[1]
  • Adipera Raf. 1838
  • Cassia (Mill.) Benth. 1871
  • Cassia sect. Senna (Tournefort) DC. ex Colladon 1816
  • Cassia sect. Senna sensu Benth. 1865
  • Cassia subgen. Senna Benth. 1870
  • Cathartocarpus (partim)
  • Chamaefistula (DC.) G. Don
  • Chamaesenna (DC.) Raf. ex Pittier
  • Desmodiocassia Britton & Rose
  • Diallobus
  • Earleocassia Britton
  • Echinocassia Britton & Rose
  • Gaumerocassia Britton
  • Herpetica (DC.) Raf.
  • Isandrina
  • Leonocassia Britton
  • Palmerocassia Britton
  • Peiranisia Raf.
  • Phragmocassia Britton & Rose
  • Pseudocassia Britton & Rose
  • Pterocassia Britton & Rose
  • Sciacassia Britton
  • Senna sensu Gaertn. 1791
  • Senna sensu Link 1831
  • Senna sensu Roxb. 1832
  • Sericeocassia Britton
  • Tharpia Britton & Rose
  • Vogelocassia Britton
  • Xerocassia Britton & Rose

Description

Senna includes herbs, shrubs, and trees. The leaves are pinnate with opposite paired leaflets. The inflorescences are racemes at the ends of branches or emerging from the leaf axils. The flower has five sepals and five usually yellow petals. There are ten straight stamens. The stamens may be different sizes, and some are staminodes. The fruit is a legume pod containing several seeds.[6]

Systematics

Chamaecrista, Cassia, and Senna form a monophyletic group which some authors have called Cassia sensu lato.[7] In 1982, the group was named Cassiinae and classified as a subtribe of the tribe Cassieae.[8] The tribe Cassieae contains 21 genera and is now known to be polyphyletic,[7] but the classification is still accepted because a revision of Fabaceae has yet to be published.[7]

The genus Senna has had a complex taxonomic history.[9] What is now known as Senna was included by Linnaeus in his concept of Cassia in Species Plantarum in 1753.[10] Philip Miller segregated Senna from Cassia in 1754 in the fourth edition of The Gardeners Dictionary.[11] Until 1982, many authors, following Linnaeus, did not recognize Senna and Chamaecrista, but included them in a broadly circumscribed Cassia sensu lato. Phylogenetic analyses of DNA have shown that Chamaecrista, Cassia, and Senna are all monophyletic, but the relationships between these three genera have not been resolved.[3] They are therefore shown in phylogenetic trees as a tritomy.

Etymology

The genus name derives from the Arabic sana, describing plants whose leaves and pods have catharitic and laxative properties.[12]

Ecology

The caterpillars of many Lepidoptera species feed on Senna plants. The black witch (Ascalapha odorata), two-barred flasher (Astraptes fulgerator), common emigrant (Catopsilia pomona), and mottled emigrant (C. pyranthe) have all been recorded on candle bush (S. alata), for example.

Pollination

Senna species are pollinated by a variety of bees, especially large female bees in genera such as Xylocopa.[3] They rely on "buzz pollination" and some within that on "ricochet pollination", which is a secondary pollen presentation where the pollen is not deposited on the pollinator's body by direct contact with the anthers.[13] The flowers have two sets of stamen: feeding stamens, which are longer, and pollinating stamens, which are smaller in size.[14] Due to buzz pollination, the pollens from the pollinating stamens get thrown from the anthers and ricochets against the petals multiple times before it settles on the dorsal side of the pollinating bee. The roughness on the petal walls causes the pollen to slow down its speed. The ricocheting effect alone cannot ensure effective pollen dissemination. It is aided by static charges wherein the flying bees become positively charged owing to the friction in the air and the pollen becomes negatively charged because of which they naturally get attracted to the bees body. The pollinator bee ends up carrying the pollen and also gets to feed on the pollen which is on the feeding stamens.[13] Some species also have extrafloral nectaries on the leaves or flower stalks, which attract ants, but do not benefit pollinators.[3]

Uses

Some Senna species are used as ornamental plants in landscaping. The species is adapted to many climate types.

Cassia gum, an extract of the seeds of Chinese senna (S. obtusifolia), is used as a thickening agent. The leaves and flowers of Siamese cassia (S. siamea) are used in some Southeast Asian cuisines, such as Thai, Shan/Burmese and Lao cuisines. They are known as khi-lek in Thai, and are used in curries.[15]

Laxative

Historically, Egyptian senna (S. alexandrina) was used as a laxative in the form of senna pods, or as herbal tea made from the leaves. Senna is considered to be a bowel stimulant on the myenteric plexus of the colon to induce peristaltic contractions and decrease water absorption from inside the colon, effects that would provide relief from constipation.[16]

Senna or its extracted sennosides, alone or in combination with sorbitol or lactulose, have been evaluated in systematic reviews and Cochrane reviews for treatment of constipation in children and the elderly. Some studies showed limited evidence for efficacy,[17][18][19] whereas others indicated the study designs were too weak to be certain of senna having utility as a laxative.[16][20][21]

Fossil record

A fossil seed pod of Senna sp. from the middle Eocene epoch has been described from the Rancho clay pit in Henry County, Tennessee (United States).[22]

List of species

Senna comprises the following species:[23][24][25]

  • Senna acanthoclada (Griseb.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna acclinis (F. Muell.) Randell
  • Senna aciphylla (Benth. ex A. Gray) Randell
  • Senna aculeata (Benth.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna acunae (Borhidi) Barreto & Yakovlev
  • Senna acuparata H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna acuruensis (Benth.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. acuruensis (Benth.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. catingae (Harms)Irwin & Barneby
    • var. interjecta Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna acuta (Vogel) Zoellner & San Martin
  • Senna acutisepala (Benth.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna affinis (Benth.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna alata (L.) Roxb.—candlebush, Christmas candle, empress candleplant, candlestick tree, ringworm bush, seven-golden-candles
  • Senna alcaparra (Phil.) Zoellner & San Martin
  • Senna alexandrina Mill.—Alexandrian senna, Indian senna, Tinnevelly senna, true senna
  • Senna andrieuxii (Benth.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna angulata (Vogel) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. angulata (Vogel) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. miscadena (Vogel) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna angustifolia (Vahl) Batka
  • Senna angustisiliqua (Lam.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. angustisiliqua (Lam.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. fulgens (Macfad.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. inaguensis (Britton & Rose) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna ankaranensis Du Puy & R.Rabev.
  • Senna anthoxantha (Capuron) Du Puy & R.Rabev.
  • Senna aphylla (Cav.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna apiculata (M. Martens & Galeotti) H.S. Irwin & Barneby
    • var. apiculata (M. Martens & Galeotti) H.S. Irwin & Barneby
    • var. longipes H.S. Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna appendiculata (Vogel) Wiersema
  • Senna apsidoneura (H.S. Irwin & Barneby) H.S. Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna araucarietorum H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna argentea (Kunth) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna arida (Rose) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna aristeguietae H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna armata (S.Watson) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna arnottiana (Hook.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna artemisioides Isely—grey cassia, leafless cassia, woody cassia, puntybush, silverbush
    • subsp. alicia Randell
    • subsp. artemisioides Isely
    • subsp. circinnata (Benth.) Randall
    • subsp. coriacea (Benth.) Randell
    • subsp. filifolia Randell
    • subsp. hamersleyensis (Symon) Randell
    • subsp. helmsii (Symon) Randell
    • subsp. oligophylla (F.Muell.) Randell
    • subsp. petiolaris Randell
    • subsp. quadrifolia Randell
    • subsp. sturtii (R.Br.) Randell
    • subsp. zygophylla (Benth.) Randall
  • Senna atomaria (L.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna aurantia (G.Don) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna auriculata (L.) Roxb.—avaram, Matara-tea, tanner's cassia
  • Senna aversiflora (Herbert) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna aversifolia (Herbert) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna aymara H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna baccarinii (Chiov.) Lock
  • Senna bacillaris (L.f.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby—West Indian showertree
    • var. bacillaris (L.f.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. benthamiana (Macbr.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna barclayana (Sweet) Randell—pepper-leaf senna, smooth senna, yellow peabush
  • Senna bauhinioides (A.Gray) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna benitoensis (Britton & P. Wilson) H.S. Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna bicapsularis (L.) Roxb.—rambling senna, Christmas bush, money bush, yellow candlewood
    • var. augusti (Harms) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. bicapsularis (L.) Roxb.
  • Senna biglandularis A.O. Araujo & V.C. Souza
  • Senna birostris (Vogel) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. arequipensis (Vogel) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. birostris (Vogel) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. campiana H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. helveola (Macbr.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. hookeriana (Hook.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. huancavensis (Macbr.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. totorae H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna bosseri Du Puy & R.Rabev.
  • Senna bracteosa D. Cardoso & L.P. Queiroz
  • Senna brongniartii (Gaudich.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna burkartiana (Villa) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna cajamarcae H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna cana (Nees & Mart.) H.S. Irwin & Barneby
    • var. calva H.S. Irwin & Barneby
    • var. cana (Nees & Mart.) H.S. Irwin & Barneby
    • var. hypoleuca (Benth.) H.S. Irwin & Barneby
    • var. phyllostegia H.S. Irwin & Barneby
    • var. pilosula H.S. Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna candolleana (Vogel) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna capensis (Thunb.) E. Mey.
  • Senna cardiosperma (F. Muell.) Randell
    • subsp. cardiosperma (F. Muell.) Randell
    • subsp. gawlerensis Randell
  • Senna caudata (Standl.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby (Costa Rica, Panama)
    • var. caudata (Standl.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. diadena H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna centranthera H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna cernua (Balb.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna chacoensis (L.Bravo) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna chapmanii (Isely) Barreto & Yakovlev
  • Senna chloroclada (Harms) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna chrysocarpa (Desv.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna clavigera (Domin) Randell
  • Senna cobanensis (Britton & Rose) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna coimbrae M. Nee & Barneby
  • Senna collicola H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna confinis (Greene) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna coquimbensis (Vogel) Zoellner & San Martin
  • Senna corifolia (Benth.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. caesia (Harms) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. corifolia (Benth.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna cornigera H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna coronilloides (Benth.) Randell
  • Senna corymbosa (Lam.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby—Argentine senna, Argentine wild sensitive plant[26]
  • Senna costata (J. F. Bailey & C. White) Randell
  • Senna covesii (A.Gray) H.S.Irwin & Barneby—Coues' cassia, Coves' cassia, desert senna[26]
  • Senna crassiramea (Benth.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna crotalarioides (Kunth) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna cruckshanksii (Hook.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna cuatrecasasii H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna cumingii (Hook. & Arn.) H.S. Irwin & Barneby
    • var. alcaparra (Philippi) H.S. Irwin & Barneby
    • var. coquimbensis (Vogel) H.S. Irwin & Barneby
    • var. cumingii (Hook. & Arn.) H.S. Irwin & Barneby
    • var. eremobia (Philippi) H.S. Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna cushina (J.F.Macbr.) H.S.Irwin & Barneb
  • Senna dardanoi Alf.Fern. & P.Bezerra
  • Senna dariensis (Britton & Rose) H.S. Irwin & Barneby
    • var. dariensis (Britton & Rose) H.S. Irwin & Barneby
    • var. gatunensis (Britton & Rose) H.S. Irwin & Barneby
    • var. hypoglauca H.S. Irwin & Barneby
    • var. smaragdina H.S. Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna davidsonii (V.Singh) V.Singh
  • Senna demissa (Rose) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. demissa (Rose) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. radicans (H.S.Irwin & Barneby) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna didymobotrya (Fresen.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby—candelabra-tree, peanut butter cassia, African senna
  • Senna dimidiata Buch.-Ham. ex Roxb.
  • Senna divaricata (Nees & Blume) Lock
  • Senna domingensis (Spreng.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby (Cuba, Hispaniola)
  • Senna durangensis (Rose) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. durangensis (Rose) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. iselyi (H.S.Irwin & Barneby) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna ellisiae (Brenan) Lock
  • Senna fabrisii (L.Bravo) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna floribunda (Cav.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna foetidissima (G.Don) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. foetidissima (G.Don) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. grandiflora (Benth.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna formosa H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna fruticosa (Mill.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna galegifolia (Jacq.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna galeottiana (M.Martens) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna gardneri (Benth.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna garrettiana (Craib) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna gaudichaudii (Hook. & Arn.) H.S. Irwin & Barneby—climbing cassia, heuhiuhi (Pacific Islands, Queensland)[27][28]
  • Senna georgica H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. bangii H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. georgica H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna glutinosa (DC.) Randell
    • subsp. chatelainiana (Gaudich.) Randell
    • subsp. ferraria (Symon) Randell
    • subsp. glutinosa (DC.) Randell
    • subsp. leurssenii (Domin) Randell
    • subsp. pruinosa (F.Muell.) Randell
  • Senna gossweileri (Baker f.) Lock
  • Senna guatemalensis (Donn.Sm.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. calcarea H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. chiapensis (Standley) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. guatemalensis (Donn.Sm.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. hidalgensis H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. oligantha H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. scopulorum (Britton & Rose) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna gundlachii (Urb.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna harleyi H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna haughtii (J.F.Macbr.) H.S.Irwin & Barneb
  • Senna hayesiana (Britton & Rose) H.S. Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna hebecarpa (Fernald) H.S.Irwin & Barneby—American senna, wild senna
  • Senna herzogii (Harms) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna hilariana (Benth.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna hirsuta (L.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby—woolly senna, woolly wild sensitive plant
    • var. acuminata (Benth.)H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. glaberrima (M.E.Jones) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. hirsuta (L.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. hirta H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. leptocarpa (Benth.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. puberula H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. streptocarpa H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna holosericea (Fresen.) Greuter
  • Senna holwayana (Rose) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. absoidea H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. holwayana (Rose) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna hookeriana Batka
  • Senna huancabambae (Harms) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna huidobriana (Phil.) Zoellner & San Martin
  • Senna huilana (Britton & Rose ex Britton & Killip) H.S. Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna humifusa (Brenan) Lock
  • Senna incarnata (Benth.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna insularis (Britton & Rose) H.S. Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna intermedia ("Sharma, Vivek. & Rathakr.") V.S
  • Senna italica Mill.—Port Royal senna, dog senna, Italian senna, Spanish senna
    • subsp. arachoides (Burchell) Lock
    • subsp. italica Mill.
    • subsp. micrantha (Brenan) Lock
  • Senna itatiaiae H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna koelziana H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna kuhlmannii Hoehne
  • Senna kurtzii (Harms) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna lactea (Vatke) Du Puy
  • Senna lasseigniana H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. canarensis (A.Lasseigne) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. lasseigniana H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna latifolia (G.Mey.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna leandrii (Ghesq.) Du Puy
  • Senna lechriosperma H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna leiophylla (Vogel) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna ligustrina (L.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby—privet senna
  • Senna lindheimeriana (Scheele) H.S.Irwin & Barneby—velvet-leaf senna, showy senna
  • Senna longiglandulosa (Benth.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna longiracemosa (Vatke) Lock
  • Senna loretensis (Killip) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna lourteigiana H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna macranthera (Collad.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. andina H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. lindeni H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. macranthera (Collad.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. micans (Nees) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. nervosa (Vogel) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. pudibunda (Benth.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. quadrifoliolata (Pittier) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. striata (Vogel) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna macrophylla (Kunth) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. gigantifolia (Britton & Killip) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. macrophylla (Kunth) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna magnifolia (F. Muell.) Randell[29]
  • Senna malaspinae H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna mandonii (Benth.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna marilandica (L.) Link—Maryland senna
  • Senna martiana (Benth.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna mensicola (H.S. Irwin & Barneby) H.S. Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna meridionalis (R.Vig.) Du Puy—Madagascar senna
  • Senna mexicana (Jacq.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby—Mexican senna
    • var. berteriana (DC.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. chapmanii (Isely) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. latifolia (Benth.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. mexicana (Jacq.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. shaferi (Britton & Wilson) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna mollissima (Willd.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. glabrata (Benth.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. mollissima (Willd.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna monilifera H.S. Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna monozyx (H.S. Irwin & Barneby) H.S. Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna montana (Roth) V.Singh
  • Senna morongii (Britton) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna mucronifera (Benth.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna multifoliolata (Paul G. Wilson) H.S. Irwin & Barneby
    • var. eurystegia H.S. Irwin & Barneby
    • var. metaxi H.S. Irwin & Barneby
    • var. mimetes H.S. Irwin & Barneby
    • var. multifoliolata (Paul G. Wilson) H.S. Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna multiglandulosa (Jacq.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby—glandular senna, downy senna
  • Senna multijuga (Rich.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby—false sicklepod
    • subsp. doylei (Britton & Rose) H.S. Irwin & Barneby
    • subsp. lindleyana (Gardner) H.S. Irwin & Barneby
    • subsp. multijuga (Rich.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna mutisiana (Kunth) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna nana (Benth.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna neglecta (Vogel) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. furnicola H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. grandiflora H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. neglecta (Vogel) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. oligophylla (Benth.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna nicaraguensis (Benth.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna nitida (Rich.) H.S.Irwin & Barnebyhediondilla
  • Senna nomame (Makino) T.C. Chen
  • Senna notabilis (F. Muell.) Randell[30]
  • Senna nudicaulis (Burkart) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna obliqua (G.Don) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna oblongifolia (Vogel) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna obtusifolia (L.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby—coffee-weed, java-bean, American sicklepod
  • Senna occidentalis (L.) Link—antbush, coffee-senna, negro-coffee, septicweed, stinkingweed[31]
  • Senna odorata (R.Morris) Randall
  • Senna oligoclada (F. Muell.) Randell[32]
  • Senna orcuttii (Britton & Rose) H.S. Irwin & Barneby—Orcutt's senna, Orcutt's wild sensitive plant
  • Senna organensis (Harms) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. extratropica (Harms) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. friburgensis H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. heterandra H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. organensis H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna oxyphylla (Kunth) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. hartwegii (Benth.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. oxyphylla (Kunth) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna pachyrrhiza (L.Bravo) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna pallida (Vahl) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. bahamensis H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. brachyrrhachis H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. cordillerae H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. delgadoana H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. foliolosa (Benth.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. gaumeri (Britton & Rose) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. geminiflora H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. goldmaniana H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. isthmica H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. lemniscata H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. longirostrata (Britton & Rose) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. macdougalliana H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. nemorosa (Kunth) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. pallida (Vahl) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. palmeri (Britton & Rose) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. quiedondilla (M.Micheli) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. shreveana H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. trichocraspedon (Sandw.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. triquetripes H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. tuerckheimiana H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna papillosa (Britton & Rose) H.S. Irwin & Barneby
    • var. angusta (Britton & Killip) H.S. Irwin & Barneby
    • var. papillosa (Britton & Rose) H.S. Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna paradictyon (Vogel) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna paraensis (Ducke) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna pendula (Willd.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby—Easter cassia, valamuerto
    • var. advena (Vogel) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. ambigua H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. dolichandra H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. eriocarpa (Griseb.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. glabrata (Vogel) H.S.Irwin & Barneby - Christmas cassia
    • var. hemirostrata (A.Lasseigne) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. indistincta H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. meticola H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. missionum H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. ovalifolia H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. paludicola H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. pendula (Willd.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. praeandina H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. recondita H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. scandens (Benth.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. stahlii (Urban) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. tenuifolia (Benth.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna pentagonia (Mill.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. pentagonia (Mill.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. valens H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna peralteana (Kunth) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna perrieri (R.Vig.) Du Puy
  • Senna petersiana (Bolle) Lock
  • Senna phlebadenia H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna phyllodinea (R. Br.) Symon
  • Senna pilifera (Vogel) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. pilifera (Vogel) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. subglabra (S.Moore) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. tubata H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna pilosior (J.F.Macbr.) H.S.Irwin & Barneb—Trans-Pecos senna, Trans-Pecos wild sensitive plant
  • Senna pinheiroi H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna pistaciifolia (Kunth) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. glabra (Benth.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. picta (G.Don) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. pistaciifolia (Kunth) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna planitiicola (Domin) Randell
  • Senna pleurocarpa (F. Muell.) Randell—stripe-pod cassia[33]
  • Senna pneumatica H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna podocarpa (Guill. & Perr.) Lock
  • Senna polyantha (Collad.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna polyphylla (Jacq.) H.S.Irwin & Barnebyretama prieta
    • var. montis-christi H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. neglecta H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. polyphylla (Jacq.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna praeterita H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna pumilio (A.Gray) H.S.Irwin & Barneby—dwarf senna
  • Senna punoensis Lass.
  • Senna purpurea Roxb.
  • Senna purpusii (Brandegee) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna quinquangulata (Rich.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. meizonoloba H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. quinquangulata (Rich.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna racemosa (Mill.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby—limestone senna
    • var. coalcomanica H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. liebmannii (Benth.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. moctezumae H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. racemosa (Mill.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. sororia H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna reniformis (G.Don) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna reticulata (Willd.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna rigida (Hieron.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna rigidicaulis (L.Bravo) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna ripleyana (H.S. Irwin & Barneby) H.S. Irwin & Barneby—Ripley's senna, Ripley's wild sensitive plant
  • Senna rizzinii H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna robiniifolia (Benth.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna roemeriana (Scheele) H.S.Irwin & Barneby—twoleaf senna, Roemer senna
  • Senna rostrata (Mart.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby—New Mexico wild sensitive plant
  • Senna rotundifolia Pers.
  • Senna rugosa (G.Don) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna ruiziana (G.Don) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. micrandra H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. ruiziana (G.Don) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna rupununiensis H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna ruspolii (Chiov.) Lock
  • Senna saeri (Pittier) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna sandwithiana H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna santanderensis (Britton & Killip) H.S. Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna scabriuscula (Vogel) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna scandens (G.Don) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna septemtrionalis (Viv.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby—arsenic-bush, Dooleyweed, laburnum, smooth senna
  • Senna shaferi (Britton & P. Wilson) Barreto & Yakovlev
  • Senna siamea (Lam.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby—kassodtree, Siamese cassia, Thai cassia, Thailand shower
  • Senna silvestris (Vell.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • subsp. bifaria H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • subsp. silvestris (Vell.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna singueana (Delile) Lock
  • Senna skinneri (Benth.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna smithiana (Britton & Killip) H.S.Irwin &
  • Senna socotrana (Serrato) Lock
  • Senna sophera (L.) Roxb.algarrobilla
    • var. purpurea (Lindl.) V.Singh
    • var. sophera (L.) Roxb.
  • Senna sousana H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna spectabilis (DC.) H.S.Irwin & Barnebycasia amarilla
    • var. excelsa (Schrader) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. spectabilis (DC.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna spinescens (Vogel) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. schultesiana H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. spinescens (Vogel) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna spiniflora (Burkart) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna spinigera (Rizzini) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna splendida (Vogel) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. gloriosa H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. splendida (Vogel) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna stenocarpa Vogel
  • Senna stenophylla (Benth.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna stipulacea (Aiton) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. anglorum H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. stipulacea (Aiton) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna suarezensis (Capuron) Du Puy
  • Senna subtrijuga H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna subulata (Griseb.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna sulfurea (Collad.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna surattensis (Burm.f.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby—glossy shower
    • subsp. retusa (Vogel) Randell
    • subsp. sulfurea (DC. ex Collad.) Randell
    • subsp. surattensis (Burm.f.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. glauca (Lam.) X.Y. Zhu
  • Senna talpana H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna tapajozensis (Ducke) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna tenuifolia (Vogel) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna timoriensis (DC.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna tonduzii (Standl.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna tora (L.) Roxb.—sickle wild sensitive-plant, sickle senna, foetid cassia
  • Senna trachypus (Benth.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna trianae H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna trichosepala (Chodat & Wilczek) H.S. Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna trolliiflora H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna tropica (Vell.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna truncata (Brenan) Lock
  • Senna tuhovalyana (Ake Assi) Lock
  • Senna uncata H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna undulata (Benth.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna uniflora (Mill.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna unijuga (Rose) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna urmenetae (Phil.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna vargasii (Schery) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna velutina (Vogel) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna venusta (F. Muell.) Randell[24]
  • Senna versicolor (Vogel) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. heterosperma H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. versicolor (Vogel) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna viarum (Little) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna viciifolia (Benth.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna viguierella (Ghesq.) Du Puy
  • Senna villosa (Mill.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna viminea (L.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna weddelliana H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna williamsii (Britton & Rose) H.S. Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna wislizeni (A.Gray) H.S.Irwin & Barneby—Wislizenus' senna, shrubby senna
    • var. painteri (Britton & Rose) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. pringlei (Rose) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. villosa (Britton & Rose) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
    • var. wislizeni (A.Gray) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna wurdackii H.S.Irwin & Barneby

Species names with uncertain taxonomic status

The status of the following species is unresolved:[25]

  • Senna arequipensis H.S. Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna artemisioides (Gaudich. ex DC.) Randell
  • Senna barronfieldii (Colla) Hewson
  • Senna catingae (Harms) L.P.Queiroz
  • Senna cearensis Afr.Fern.
  • Senna charlesiana (Symon) Randell
  • Senna cuthbertsonii (F.Muell.) Randell
  • Senna ferraria (Symon) Randell
  • Senna flexuosa (Randell) Randell
  • Senna foliosa (Phil.) Zoellner & San Martin
  • Senna glaucifolia (Randell) Randell
  • Senna hamersleyensis (Symon) Randell
  • Senna lanceolata Link
  • Senna manicula (Symon) Randell
  • Senna obtusata Link
  • Senna officinalis Gaertn.
  • Senna officinalis Roxb.
  • Senna orientalis Walp.
  • Senna paposana (Phil.) Zoellner & San Martin
  • Senna pilocarina (Symon) Randell
  • Senna pleuricarpa F. Muell.
  • Senna pubescens Mart.
  • Senna ripleyi (H.S.Irwin & Barneby) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
  • Senna sensitiva Roxb.
  • Senna sericea (Symon) Albr. & Symon
  • Senna sophora Roxb.
  • Senna stowardii (S.Moore) Randell
  • Senna stricta (Randell) Randell
  • Senna symonii (Randell) Randell
  • Senna tenella Roxb.
  • Senna tomentosa Batka

References

  1. Irwin HS, Barneby RC (1982). The American Cassiinae: A synoptical revision of Leguminosae tribe Cassieae subtribe Casiinae in the New World, Part 1 (PDF). Bronx, N.Y.: New York Botanical Garden. OCLC 8553234. b1010840.
  2. The Legume Phylogeny Working Group (LPWG) (2017). "A new subfamily classification of the Leguminosae based on a taxonomically comprehensive phylogeny". Taxon. 66 (1): 44–77. doi:10.12705/661.3.
  3. Marazzi, B.; et al. (2006). "Phylogenetic relationships within Senna (Leguminosae, Cassiinae) based on three chloroplast DNA regions: patterns in the evolution of floral symmetry and extrafloral nectaries". American Journal of Botany. 93 (2): 288–303. doi:10.3732/ajb.93.2.288. PMID 21646190.
  4. Randell, B. R. and B. A. Barlow. 1998. Senna. pp 89-138. In: A. S. George (executive editor). Flora of Australia volume 12. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra, Australia.
  5. Huxley, A., et al. (1992). The New Royal Horticultural Society Dictionary of Gardening. The Macmillan Press, Limited: London. The Stockton Press: New York. ISBN 978-0-333-47494-5 (set).
  6. Senna. Flora of China.
  7. Lewis, G., et al. 2005. Legumes of the World. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew: Richmond, England. ISBN 978-1-900347-80-8
  8. Irwin H. S., Barneby R. C. (1982). "The American Cassiinae: A synoptical revision of Leguminosae tribe Cassieae subtribe Cassiinae in the New World". Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden. 35: 1–119.
  9. Singh, V. 2001. Monograph on the Indian Subtribe Cassiinae. Scientific Publishers (India): Jodhpur, India.
  10. Linnaeus, C. 1753. Cassia. page 376. In: Species Plantarum volume 1. Cassia (including Senna) In:Species Plantarum volume 1 At: Biodiversity Heritage Library
  11. Miller, P. 1754. The Gardeners Dictionary, Abridged 4th edition.
  12. B.R.Randell, B.R. & Barlow, B.A. (2017) "Senna". In: Flora of Australia. Australian Biological Resources Study, Department of the Environment and Energy, Canberra. Retrieved 10 June 2019.
  13. Bir Bahadur (2019). Asymmetry in Plants: Biology of Handedness. CRC Press. ISBN 9780429960710.
  14. Bruna Karen Pinheiro-Costa, José Neiva Mesquita-Neto, Juliana Ordones Rego, Clemens Schlindwein; et al. (2018). "Trade off between quantity and size of pollen grains in the heterandrous flowers of Senna pendula (Fabaceae)". SciELO Analytics, Google Scholar H5M5 (2018). 32 (3): 446–453. doi:10.1590/0102-33062018abb0132.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  15. Teangpook C.; et al. (2011). "Production and nutrition of Khi Lek (Siamese cassia) curry from central Thailand" (PDF). Kasetsart. J. (Nat. Sci.). 45: 510–20.
  16. Leung, L; Riutta, T; Kotecha, J; Rosser, W (2011). "Chronic constipation: An evidence-based review". The Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine. 24 (4): 436–51. doi:10.3122/jabfm.2011.04.100272. PMID 21737769.
  17. Mueller-Lissner, S. A.; Wald, A (2010). "Constipation in adults". BMJ Clinical Evidence. 2010: 0413. PMC 3217654. PMID 21418672.
  18. Wald, A (2016). "Constipation: Advances in Diagnosis and Treatment". JAMA. 315 (2): 185–91. doi:10.1001/jama.2015.16994. PMID 26757467.
  19. Izzy, M; Malieckal, A; Little, E; Anand, S (2016). "Review of efficacy and safety of laxatives use in geriatrics". World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 7 (2): 334–342. doi:10.4292/wjgpt.v7.i2.334. PMC 4848256. PMID 27158549.
  20. CADTH Rapid Response Reports (2014). "Treatments for Constipation: A Review of Systematic Reviews". Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health. PMID 25535635.
  21. Gordon, M; MacDonald, J. K.; Parker, C. E.; Akobeng, A. K.; Thomas, A. G. (2016). "Osmotic and stimulant laxatives for the management of childhood constipation". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (8): CD009118. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD009118.pub3. PMC 6513425. PMID 27531591.
  22. The Fossil History of Leguminosae from the Eocene of Southeastern North America by Patrick S. Herendeen, Advances in Legume Systematics: Part 4, The Fossil Record, Ed. P. S. Herendeen & Dilcher, 1992, The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, ISBN 0 947643 40 0
  23. "ILDIS LegumeWeb entry for Senna". International Legume Database & Information Service. Cardiff School of Computer Science & Informatics. Retrieved 6 January 2017.
  24. USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. "GRIN species records of Senna". Germplasm Resources Information Network—(GRIN) [Online Database]. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. Retrieved 6 January 2017.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  25. "The Plant List entry for Senna". The Plant List. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and the Missouri Botanical Garden. 2013. Retrieved 6 January 2017.
  26. Senna. Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS).
  27. "kolomona, kalamona, heuhiuhi, uhiuhi". Hawaiian Ethnobotany Online Database. Bernice P. Bishop Museum. Retrieved 2009-03-10.
  28. "Senna gaudichaudii". Hawaiian Native Plant Propagation Database. University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa. Retrieved 2009-03-10.
  29. Senna magnifolia. The Plant List.
  30. "Senna notabilis". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 12 December 2017.
  31. "Senna occidentalis". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 12 December 2017.
  32. Senna oligoclada. The Plant List.
  33. "Senna pleurocarpa". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 12 December 2017.
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