Semarang is the capital and largest city of Central Java province in Indonesia. A major port during the Dutch colonial era, and still an important regional centre and port today.

City of Semarang
Kota Semarang
Other transcription(s)
From top, left to right:
Semarang city skyline, Semarang's Blenduk Church is the oldest Church in Central Java, The Great Mosque of Central Java, Gedung Batu Temple (the oldest Chinese temple), Pagoda Avalokitesvara, Rawa Pening (Pening swamp) water tourism, and iconic building of Lawang Sewu.

Venetië van Java, Lumpia City
Semarang Kota ATLAS
Location within Central Java
Location in Downtown Semarang, Java and Indonesia
Semarang (Java)
Semarang (Indonesia)
Coordinates: 6°58′S 110°25′E
Country Indonesia
Province Central Java
  MayorHendrar Prihadi
  Vice MayorHevearita Gunaryanti Rahayu
  City373.78 km2 (144.32 sq mi)
1,643.4 km2 (634.5 sq mi)
4 m (13 ft)
  Density4,200/km2 (11,000/sq mi)
  Metro density1,900/km2 (5,000/sq mi)
  Ethnic groupsJavanese
  Religion[1]Islam 86.78%
Protestantism 6.91%
Catholicism 4.97%
Buddhism 0.64%
Hinduism 0.10%
Confucianism 0.07%
Others 0.01%
Time zoneUTC+7 (IWST)
Area code(+62) 24
Vehicle registrationH

It has an area of 373.78 square kilometres (144.32 sq mi) and is located at 6°58′S 110°25′E. The population of the city is approximately 1.8 million people, making it Indonesia's seventh most populous city[2] after Jakarta, Surabaya, Bandung, Bekasi, Medan, and Tangerang. The built-up (metro) area had 3,183,516 inhabitants at the 2010 census spread on 2 cities and 26 districts.[3] Greater Semarang (a.k.a. Kedungsapur) has a population of close to 6 million (see Greater Semarang section). Population of the city is predominantly Javanese with significant Chinese population.


Historical affiliations
Demak Sultanate 1547-1554

Kingdom of Pajang 1568-1587
 Mataram Sultanate 1587-1705
 Dutch East India Company 1705-1799
 Dutch East Indies 1800-1942
 Empire of Japan 1942-1945
 Dutch East Indies 1945-1949
United States of Indonesia 1949-1950

 Indonesia 1950-present

The history of Semarang goes back to the 9th century, when it was known as Bergota. At the end of the 15th century, an Arab named Kyai Pandan Arang founded a village and an Islamic school in this fishing village. On 2 May 1547, Sultan Hadiwijaya of Pajang Kyai declared Pandan Arang the first bupati (mayor) of Semarang, thus creating Semarang administratively and politically.

In 1678, Sunan Amangkurat II promised to give control of Semarang to the Dutch East India Company (VOC) as a part of a debt payment. In 1682, the Semarang state was founded by the Dutch colonial power. On 5 October 1705 after years of occupations, Semarang officially became a VOC city when Susuhunan Pakubuwono I made a deal to give extensive trade rights to the VOC in exchange of wiping out Mataram's debt. The VOC, and later, the Dutch East Indies government, established tobacco plantations in the region and built roads and railroads, making Semarang an important colonial trading centre.

The historic presence of a large Indo (Eurasian) community in the area of Semarang is also reflected by the fact a creole mix language called Javindo existed there.[4]

Classical Indische Town (1678–1870)

Semarang was handed by the Sultan of Mataram to the Dutch East Indies in 1678. The city was pictured as a small settlement with a pious Muslim area called Kauman, a Chinese quarter, and a Dutch fortress. The fortress has a pentagonal form with only one gate in the south and five monitoring towers to protect the Dutch settlement from rebellion actions, segregating the spaces between Dutch settlement and other areas.[5] In fact, the city of Semarang was only referred to the Dutch quarter while the other ethnic settlement were considered as villages outside the city boundary. The city, known as de Europeesche Buurt, was built in classical European style with church located in the centre, wide boulevards, streets and villas.[6] According to Purwanto (2005),[7] the urban and architectural form of this settlement is very similar to the design principles applied in many Dutch cities, which begun to concern on the urban beautification.

Due to the long and costly Java War, there was not much funding from the Dutch East Indies government, which affected Semarang's development. The majority of land was used for rice fields and the only small improvement was the development of a surrounding fortress. Although less developed, Semarang has a fairly arranged city system, in which urban activities were concentrated along the river and the settlement was linked to a market where different ethnic groups met to trade. The existence of the market, in the later years, become a primary element and a generator of urban economic growth.[8]

An important influence on urban growth was the Great Mail Road project in the 1847, which connected all the cities in the northern coast of Central and East Java and positioned Semarang as the trade centre of agricultural production.[9] The project was soon followed by the development of the Netherlands Indies railway and the connecting roads into the inner city of Semarang at the end of 19th century.[8] Colombijn (2002)[9] marked the development as the shift of urban functions, from the former river orientation to all services facing the roads.

The modern city (1870–1922)

Improved communication, the result of the Mail and Railway projects, brought an economic boom to the city in the 1870s. There were hospitals, churches, hotels, and large houses built along new main roads; Bojongscheweg, Pontjolscheweg, and Mataram street, densified population in the ethnic settlements and created the urban kampong (village).[6]

Urban growth densified the urban kampong, reaching 1,000 inhabitants per hectare and degrading the quality of living conditions.[10] In the early 20th century, mortality rate were high due to the overcrowding and lack of hygiene that triggered cholera and tuberculosis outbreaks.[11] Cobban (1993)[10] noted the ethical movement of kampongverbetering led by Henry Tillema in 1913 and the concern of the Advisor for Decentralisation for kampong improvement through the betterment of public toilets, drainage, and the planning of public housing.

In 1917, a healthy housing project was implemented in the Southern part of Semarang called Candi Baru. Thomas Karsten, the advisor for city planning, transformed the concept of ethnic segregation that divided previous urban settlements into a new housing district plan based on economic classes. Although practically the three ethnic groups were also divided into three economic classes where the Dutch and rich Chinese occupied the largest lots in the housing district,[6] Karsten had effectively emerged the developed district by integrating the road network, introducing newly improved public washing and bathing, squares and sporting facilities that could be used communally.[12] Following the Candi Baru, there were three other housing plans between 1916–1919 to accommodate a 55% population increase in Semarang; 45,000 Javanese, 8500 Chinese and 7000 Europeans. Karsten marked a new approach to town planning with emphasis on the aesthetic, practical and social requirements, articulated not in terms of race but economic zones.[12]

Driven by economic growth and spatial city planning, the city had doubled in size and expanded to the south by the 1920s, creating a nucleus of a metropolis where multi-ethnic groups lived and traded in the city. The villages in the suburbs such as Jomblang and Jatingaleh steadily became the satellite towns of Semarang, more populated with a bigger market area. Before the invasion of Japan in 1942, Semarang had already become the capital of Central Java Province, as the result of trade and industrial success and spatial planning.[6]

Japanese occupation and early independence

The Japanese military occupied the city, along with the rest of Java, in 1942, during the Pacific War of World War II. During that time, Semarang was headed by a military governor called a Shiko, and two vice governors known as Fuku Shiko. One of the vice governors was appointed from Japan, and the other was chosen from the local population.

After Indonesian independence in 1945, Semarang became the site of a battle between Indonesian and Japanese soldiers in October 1945.[13] It also became the capital of Central Java province.


Semarang city administration is headed by mayor, with a legislative assembly. Both mayor and members of legislative assembly are elected by direct vote. Semarang City Government had implemented the smart city concept since 2013[14][15].

Juridically, Semarang City is a municipality (second level area) consisting of 16 sub-districts (kecamatan), which again divided into 177 administartive villages (Kelurahan). The widest sub-district area in Semarang City is Mijen Sub-District which has an area of 57.55 square kilometers. The smallest sub-district area is South Semarang District, which is only 5.93 square kilometers. The city of Semarang is divided into five urban areas, including: Central Semarang, East Semarang, West Semarang, South Semarang, and North Semarang. Following are the sub-districts and administrative villages of semarang,

Sub-districtAdminitrative villages
BanyumanikPudakpayung, Gedawang, Jabungan, Padangsari, Banyumanik, Srondol Wetan, Pedalangan, Banyumanik, Semarang, Sumurboto, Banyumanik, Semarang, Srondol Kulon, Banyumanik, Semarang, Tinjomoyo, Ngesrep
CandisariCandi, Jatingaleh, Jomblang, Kaliwiru, Karanganyargunung, Tegalsari, Wonotingal
GajahmungkurBendanduwur, Bendanngisor, Bendungan, Gajahmungkur, Karangrejo, Lempongsari, Petompon, Sampangan
GayamsariGayamsari, Kaligawe, Pandean Lamper, Sambirejo, Sawah Besar, Siwalan, Tambakrejo
GenukBangetayu Kulon, Bangetayu Wetan, Banjardowo, Gebangsari, Genuksari, Karangroto, Kudu, Muktiharjo Lor, Penggaron Lor, Sembungharjo, Terboyo Kulon, Terboyo Wetan, Trimulyo
GunungpatiCepoko, Gunungpati, Jatirejo, Kalisegoro, Kandri, Mangunsari, Ngijo, Nongkosawit, Pakintelan, Patemon, Plalangan, Pongangan, Sadeng, Sekaran, Sukorejo, Sumurejo
MijenCangkiran, Bubakan, Jatibarang, Jatisari, Karangmalang, Kedungpane, Mijen, Ngadirgo, Pesantren, Polaman, Purwosari, Tambangan, Wonolopo, Wonoplumbon,
NgaliyanBambankerep, Beringin, Gondoriyo, Kalipancur, Ngaliyan, Podorejo, Purwoyoso, Tambak Aji, Wonosari
PedurunganGemah, Kalicari, Muktiharjo Kidul, Palebon, Pedurungan Kidul, Pedurungan Lor, Pedurungan Tengah, Penggaron Kidul, Plamongan Sari, Tlogomulyo, Tlogosari Kulon, Tlogosari Wetan,
Semarang BaratBojongsalaman, Bongsari, Cabean, Gisikdrono, Kalibanteng Kidul, Kalibanteng Kulon, Karangayu, Kembangarum, Krapyak, Krobokan, Manyaran, Ngemplaksimongan, Salamanmloyo, Tambakharjo, Tawangmas, Tawangsari
Semarang SelatanBarusari, Bulustalan, Lamper Kidul, Lamper Lor, Lamper Tengah, Mugassari, Peterongan, Pleburan, Randusari, Wonodri
Semarang TengahBangunharjo, Brumbungan, Gabahan, Jagalan, Karangkidul, Kauman, Kembangsari, Kranggan, Miroto, Pandansari, Pekunden, Pendrikan Kidul, Pendrikan Lor, Purwodinatan, Sekayu
Semarang TimurBugangan, Karangtempel, Karangturi, Kebonagung, Kemijen, Mlatibaru, Mlatiharjo, Rejomulyo, Rejosari, Sarirejo, Bandarharjo
Semarang UtaraBulu Lor, Dadapsari, Kuningan, Panggung Kidul, Panggung Lor, Plombokan, Purwosari, Tanjungmas
TembalangBulusan, Jangli, Kedungmundu, Kramas, Mangunharjo, Meteseh, Rowosari, Sambiroto, Sendangguwo, Sendangmulyo, Tandang, Tembalang
TuguJerakan, Karanganyar, Mangkang Kulon, Mangkang Wetan, Mangunharjo, Randu Garut, Tugurejo


Semarang is located on the northern coast of Java. The city of Semarang is one of the important cities located on the north coast of Java and as the main hub connecting Jakarta and Surabaya, and cities in the southern interior of Java Surakarta and Yogyakarta. Semarang City has a height of 2 meters below sea level up to 340 meters above sea level with a slope of 0% - 45%. Semarang City is a city that has a unique topographic condition in the form of a narrow lowland area and hilly areas extending from the west side to the east side of Semarang City. The city is located about 558 km east of Jakarta , or 312 km west of Surabaya

Lowland areas in Semarang City are very narrow. The lowland area in the western region of Semarang City only has a width of 4 kilometers from the coastline, while in the eastern region of the City of Semarang the low-lying area is widening to 11 kilometers from the coastline. This lowland area is a flood plain from the large rivers that flow in Semarang City, such as Kali Garang (West Flood Canal), Pengkol River, and Bringin River. This low-lying area stretches on the northern side of Semarang City and almost covers 40% of the total area of Semarang City. This lowland area is known as the lower town ( Semarang Ngisor ), as well as the center of the city's economic activity. Under these conditions, the lower city area is often hit by annual flooding and its peak during the rainy season. A number of regions, especially North Semarang, this flood is sometimes also caused by overflowing sea tides (tidal floods). The hilly area in Semarang City stretches on the south side. These hills are part of a series of northern Java mountain ranges that stretch from Banten to East Java. The hilly area in the city of Semarang is known as the upper city ( Semarang Dhuwur ). This hilly region is also the upstream area of the big rivers that flow in the city of Semarang. The upper city area is also part of the Ungaran volcano, which is located on the southern side of Semarang City.


Semarang features a tropical rainforest climate that borders on a tropical monsoon climate (Am). The city features distinctly wetter and drier months, with June through August being the driest months. However, in none of these months does average precipitation fall below 60 mm, hence the tropical rainforest categorization. Semarang on average sees approximately 2800 mm of rain annually. Average temperatures in the city are relatively consistent, hovering around 28 degrees Celsius. Semarang is also known for having Indonesia's hottest maximum temperature record; reaching a scorching 39.5º degrees Celsius (103.1º F) on October 14, 2014 [16]

Climate data for Semarang
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 29
Average low °C (°F) 25
Average precipitation mm (inches) 430
Source: Weatherbase [17]

Semarang River and flood control

Like Singapore River, Semarang is constructing Semarang River at Banjir Kanal Barat (Garang River) near Karangayu Bridge. In the middle of July 2011, gardens in river banks and some traditional boats are available to use. The project will be finished in 2013 with river gardens, trotoars, garden lighting, water activities, art sites, sport sites and balconies and stairs for sightseeing.[18] In August 2011, a 421 metres (1,381 ft) tunnel dodger at Kreo river has been finished and Jatibarang Dam construction can begin, with completion targeted for July 2013. The dam is planned to ease 230 cubic metres (8,100 cu ft) per second of flood water and will generate 1.5 Megawatts of electricity, provide a drinking water resource and a boost to tourism.[19]


The largest ethnicity of Semarang includes the Javanese, followed by minorities of Chinese, Indian, Arabic, and others (including local ethnicities such as Sundanese, Batak, Madura, etc.). The dominant religion is Islam.

Semarang has a large Chinese community. As in other regions of Java, especially in Central Java, they have mingled closely with the local population and use Javanese in communication for hundreds of years. About 4-5 % of the city's population is ethnic Chinese, many residing in a Chinatown in the vicinity of Gang Pinggir. The Chinatown is called "Kampong Pecinan Semawis" and expresses many aspects of traditional Chinese culture including foods, rituals, and houses of worship.


As the capital city of Central Java, and fifth largest city of Indonesia, economy of Semarang is quite large. Semarang has transformed and changed dynamically towards a better direction. In a period of less than 10 years, Semarang Metropolitan continues to build a vital financial contribution to Indonesia due to the growing trade and industry and services. As a consequence, people's purchasing power increased, capital inflows, consumer confidence and doing business indexes were relatively conducive to the development of several Central business district such as Simpang Lima City Center (SLCC), Pemuda Central Business District (PCBD), and Gajahmada Golden Triangle (GGT). Most of the banks in Indonesia such as BCA, BNI, Panin Bank, HSBC, Permata, and Bank Mandiri have regional offices in Semarang.

The western part of the city has many industrial parks and factories. Like other big cities in Indonesia, Semarang also has many shopping malls. Supermarket/department store chains Hypermart, Giant, and now Carrefour also have outlets in the city.



Semarang is on Indonesian National Route 1 which connects it to Merak and Ketapang (Banyuwangi). Indonesian National Route 14 toward Bawen starts here. Semarang has a toll road, the Semarang Toll Road.[20] The city is connected to Solo by Semarang–Solo Toll Road.[21]

Semarang's largest bus terminals are Mangkang and Terboyo[22].The primary means of public transportation is by minibus, called "bis". Ojek (motorcycle taxis), Angkot micro-buses, taxi-cabs plays vital role in public tranportation of the city. Go-Jek and Grab have taxi and Ojek services.

Semarang is served by bus rapid transit called Trans Semarang, which operates in six routes.[23] DAMRI bus also serves in six designated routes in the city.


Semarang was connected to Surakarta (Solo) by a rail line in 1870.[24] At present there are two large train stations in Semarang: Semarang Poncol and Semarang Tawang. Semarang is connected to Bandung, Jakarta, and Surabaya by inter-city train services.


Semarang's Ahmad Yani International Airport is served by a number of operators including AirAsia, Silk Air, Citilink, Batik Air, Garuda Indonesia, Sriwijaya Air, and Lion Air which provide services to Jakarta, Bali, Kuala Lumpur, and Singapore.[25] In 2018, the airport (under the same name) was relocated to a new and much larger site; the old airport continues to be used for government and military flights.[26]


The main seaport is the Tanjung Mas seaport.

Landmarks and places of interest

  • Semarang old town (Kota Lama), which is sometimes referred to by locals as "Little Netherlands." It was established in the 18th century when Indonesia was a Dutch colony. There are more than 50 well-maintained colonial buildings in Kota Lama, displaying 18th, 19th, and 20th century European-influenced architecture[27].
  • China Town: China town in Semarang has a night market known as 'Pasar Semawis', which is known for its cuisine and Chinese new year celebration[28].
  • Tugu Muda (English "Young Monument") is a monument built to commemorate the services of the heroes who have fallen in the Battle of Five Days in Semarang. The height of Tugu Muda is 53 meters. Tugu Muda is located in front of Lawang Sewu at Pemuda street. It depicts the Tugu Muda fighting spirit and patriotism of Semarang residents, especially the youth who are persistent, self-sacrificing in high spirits maintaining the independence of Indonesia.[29]
  • Lawang Sewu was built as the headquarters of the Dutch East Indies Railway Company. The colonial era building is reputedly a haunted house.
  • Blenduk Church (Nederlandsch Indische Kerk) was built in 1753, the church is one of the oldest building in Kota Lama.
  • The Sam Poo Kong temple is the oldest Chinese temple in the city.[30]
  • Central Java Grand Mosque: This mosque has a Muslim museum, located at Jl. Gajah Raya. The architecture of the mosque is inspired by the mosques in Mecca and Medina[31].
  • Vihara Buddhagaya Watugong: The 45-meter Vihara has been named by MURI as the highest pagoda in Indonesia. It’s located at Jl. Perintis Kemerdekaan Watugong, about 45 minutes drive from the center.
  • Simpanglima Square: A public arena at the town center. It has tourist pedicabs, cars, bicycles, chairs, pedestrian track, public toilet, roller skates, traditional games, grass field and others.



There are 593 elementary schools, 220 junior high schools, 106 senior high schools, and 88 vocational high schools, both public and private in Semarang.[32]

There are 20 universities in Semarang, 12 of them private and 8 public. The most renowned universities of Semarang are Diponegoro University and Soegijapranata University.

  • Dipenegoro University (UNDIP): It is one of national or state-owned universities in Semarang, founded in 1956. The university has 11 faculties: Faculty of Economics and Business, Faculty of Social and Political Sciences, Faculty of Humanities, Faculty of Law, Faculty of Medicine, Faculty of Engineering, Faculty of Fishery and Marine Sciences, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Faculty of Public Health, Faculty of Animal Agriculture, and Faculty of Psychology. The university also offers a postgraduate program.
  • Soegijapranata Catholic University (UNIKA): It is one of the private universities in Semarang, founded in 1982. There are 8 faculties in UNIKA: Faculty of Architecture and Design, Faculty of Law and Communication, Faculty of Engineering, Faculty of Language and Arts, Faculty of Economics and Business, Faculty of Agricultural and Technology, Faculty of Psychology, and Faculty of Computer Science.


There are several sport centres in Semarang. Jatidiri sport centre or Jatidiri Stadium is one of the biggest sport centres in Semarang, located in Karangrejo, Gajahmungkur. The centre comprises a soccer field, in line skate track, tennis filed, climbing wall, swimming pool, and many others. The capacity of the centre is about 21.000 people.[33]

Knight Stadium is a futsal and basketball centre in Semarang, located in Grand Marina complex. There is a café and fitness centre in Knight Stadium.[34]


Semarang is widely known for its Bandeng presto (pressure-cooked milkfish), Lumpia, Wingko, Tahu Gimbal, and Ganjel Rel. Semarang has also been called 'The city of Jamu' because it is an important centre for the production of jamu which are a range of Indonesian herbal medicines that are popular across Indonesia[35] Semawis Market, also known as Pecinan Semarang (Semarang’s Chinatown), hosts a plethora of street food vendors, offering a wide varieties of dishes [36].


Dugderan is an annual festival in Semarang desecrated to welcome the Ramadan month (a fasting month for Moslems). The word "dug" describes the sound of bedug (traditional Indonesian musical instrument). The word "der" describes the sound of fireworks.

The icon of the festival is a special puppet dragon-like animal called Warak Ngendog. The word "warak" stands for "holy" and the word "ngendog" expresses a reward for Moslems. Warak Ngendog's feet are chained, representing people's desire that should be postponed during this holy month. As Dugderan is a festival unique for Semarang, it represents an important attraction for both local people and visitors.[37]


Semarang has got Adipura Award for 6 times in a row since 2012. Adipura Award is given for achievement in cleanliness and greenery at parks, streets, markets, shop buildings, premises, schools, even cleanliness of water ways and rivers.[38]Semarang City received the title of Best Smart Living and Best Smart Economy City in the Indonesia Smart Nation Award 2018[39].

Greater Semarang

Greater Semarang was initially defined by the government as Semarang, Semarang Regency, the newly carved Salatiga city, Kendal Regency, and Demak Regency.[40] Despite the definition, this includes a lot of rural areas and the urban cores remain distinct; they have not amalgamated into a characterless metro area as in Greater Jakarta.

Administrative division Area (km²) Population '000s (2000 Census) Population '000s (2010 Census) Population '000s (2015 Census) Population density (/km²)
Semarang Municipality 373.67 1,339 1,556 1,699 4,547
Semarang Regency 946.86 843 931 1,000 1,056.1
Salatiga Municipality 52.96 151 170 181 3,417.7
Kendal Regency 1,002.27 850 900 942 939
Demak Regency 897.43 974 1056 1117 1244.7
Grobogan Regency 1,975.865 1,268 1,309 1,351 683.7
Greater Semarang 5,287.96 5,425,000 5,922,000 6,290,000 1,189.7

Sources: BPS Jateng[41]

Notable people from Semarang

Sister cities

Semarang is twinned with:


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