Schwarzheide is a town in the Oberspreewald-Lausitz district, in southern Brandenburg, Germany. It is situated on the river Schwarze Elster, 11 km southwest of Senftenberg, 110 km south of Berlin and 40 km north of Dresden. The little river Pössnitz runs through the eastern part of Schwarzheide.
Coat of arms
|Coordinates: 51°28′59″N 13°52′00″E|
|• Mayor||Christoph Schmidt (Ind.)|
|• Total||33.23 km2 (12.83 sq mi)|
|Elevation||99 m (325 ft)|
|• Density||170/km2 (440/sq mi)|
|Time zone||CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)|
|Vehicle registration||OSL (to 1994 SFB)|
- Schwarzheide-West (former Zschornegosda)
- Schwarzheide-Ost, consisting of Victoria and Naundorf
The town's landmark is the watertower. Today´s industrial town, Schwarzheide, was created on October 1, 1936, from the independent communities, Zschornegosda (today Schwarzheide-West) and Naundorf (now part of Schwarzheide-Ost). The name was translated from the Sorbian name, "Zschornegosda", (corny = black, gozd = heath, wood). The date of foundation of this community is unknown. Zschornegosda and Naundorf were founded in the 12th or the 13th century after the Christianization of the Sorbs.
The first written evidence of Naundorf (as Nuwendorff) came from a pledge deed from 1421. Zschornegosda was first written in 1449 (as Cschörnegast) in feudal deed of Duke Frederick II, Elector of Saxony. Naundorf is a typical street village. Zschornegosda is a rotunde called okolnica. The chapel was on the highest point of a sandy knoll.
The development of both villages was retarded by wars, fires, and epidemics. Until the 18th century, the villages had no more than 100 inhabitants.
In 1780, the discovery of lignite coal west of Zschornegosda in Bockwitz lead to mining and the foundation of briquette factories (Ferdinand, Victoria, Victoria II). The river, Schwarze Elster, was drained and converted to a canal, so it was no longer possible to live from fishing. Highway A13 was built in 1936.
- World War II
- In 1937, Brabag (German: Braunkohlen Benzin AG) completed the Brabag II facility in Ruhland-Schwarlheide (the 4th Nazi Germany Fischer-Tropsch plant) to produce gasoline and diesel fuel from lignite coal. The plant was a target of the Oil Campaign of World War II, used Sachsenhausen concentration camp forced labor, and became a post-war Soviet Joint Stock Company. The factory became VEB Synthesewerk Schwarzheide on January 1, 1954.
When the village's population reached eight-thousand inhabitants, the village became a town on January 11, 1967.
The river, Schwarze Elster, forms the border between lower and upper Lusatia. From 1635, both Zschornegosda and Naundorf were part of Saxony. In 1815 both villages came to Prussia because of the Congress of Vienna. Between 1818 and 1952, Zschornegosda and Naundorf were part of Kreis Calau. From 1952 to 1990, Schwarzheide was a part of Kreis Senftenberg in Bezirk Cottbus.
The town parliament of Schwarzheide comprises the mayor and 18 members.
- CDU 5 seats (27,3%)
- FWS 4 seats (22,3%)
- SPD 3 Sitze (18,2%)
- the Left (Germany) 3 seats (17,0%)
- FDP 3 Sitze (15,2%)
The turnout stood at 56,9 percent.
Culture and art
Symbol is the 36 m high watertower built in 1943/44 by French prisoners of war.Lutherkirche from 1754 is also located in the center. The oldest nightclub in eastern Germany is Freizeitpark Wandelhof and there is also a cinema with four sals and 650 places.
- Kulturhaus of BASF (Schipkauer Straße)
- Museum of Schwarzheide (Dorfaue)
- Evangelical church (1953 first new church in the GDR, Otto-Nuschke-Straße)
- Luther church (Schwarzheide)
- Evangelical chapel (Parkstraße)
- Catholic Holy Cross church (Otto-Nuschke-Straße)
Natur and recreation areas
Eurospeedway Lausitz is near.
A 13 (E 55): Berlin–Dresden (Anschlussstelle (16) Schwarzheide and Anschlussstelle (17) Ruhland)
RE 18: Falkenberg (Elster)–Bad Liebenwerda–Lauchhammer–Ruhland–Schwarzheide-Ost–Senftenberg–Drebkau–Cottbus
The largest employer is BASF Schwarzheide GmbH, and the company is building a battery supply plant. Other companies include Fränkische Rohrwerke and PeinigerRöRo.
- Local broadcasting Schwarzheide & Ruhland (LSR)
- 2002: Hans-Herman Dehmel (CEO of BASF Schwarzheide from 1990 to 1995)
- 2004: Sokratis Giapapas (chief of Fränkisch Rohrwerke in Schwarzheide)
- "Bevölkerung im Land Brandenburg nach amtsfreien Gemeinden, Ämtern und Gemeinden 31. Dezember 2018". Amt für Statistik Berlin-Brandenburg (in German). July 2019.
- Webseite der Stadt → Stadtentwicklungskonzept, S. 12
- Strange, Anthony N (2003). "Germany's Synthetic Fuel Industry 1927-45" (PDF). Fischer-Tropsch.org. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-09-24. Retrieved 2009-10-20.
- Detailed data sources are to be found in the Wikimedia Commons.Population Projection Brandenburg at Wikimedia Commons
- Sauerbier, Michael (10 December 2019). "Nach Tesla: BASF baut in Brandenburg Batteriefabrik für 500 Mio. Euro". bild.de (in German).