Saturn AL-31

The Saturn AL-31 is a family of military turbofan engines, developed by the Lyulka, now NPO Saturn, in the Soviet Union/Russia, originally for the Sukhoi Su-27 air superiority fighter. It produces a thrust of 28,000 lbf (123 kN) with afterburning in the AL-31F, 31,000 lbf (137 kN) in the AL-31FM (AL-35F) and 33,000 lbf (145 kN) in the AL-37FU variants. Currently it powers all Su-27 derivatives and the Chengdu J-10 multirole jet fighter which has been developed by China.

AL-31 / 41F
Saturn AL-31 FN turbofan engine
Type Turbofan
National origin USSR/Russia
Manufacturer NPO Saturn, UMPO, NPC Saljut
Major applications Sukhoi Su-27
Sukhoi Su-30
Sukhoi Su-35
Shenyang J-11
Chengdu J-10
Chengdu J-20


Name Description Builder Year Thrust Thrust vectoring Aircraft Status
AL-31F[1][2][3][4] The basic engine developed to power the Su-27 fighter Salyut, UMPO 1981 27,700 lbf (123 kN) No Sukhoi Su-27, Shenyang J-11, Sukhoi Su-30MKK, Sukhoi Su-30 (Salyut) In service/production
AL-31F3 Improved variant for the naval version Su-33 Saturn Lyul'ka 28,200 lbf (125.57 kN) No Sukhoi Su-33 In service/production
AL-31FP Improved variant for the Indian Su-30MKI with thrust vectoring Salyut, HAL 2000 27,700 lbf (123 kN) Yes Sukhoi Su-30 MKI, Sukhoi Su-30MKM In service/production
AL-31FN[5] Improved variant for the Chengdu J-10 Salyut 2002 28,000 lbf (124.5 kN) No Chengdu J-10 In service/production
AL-31FN Series 3[6] Improved variant for the Chengdu J-10B Salyut 2013 30,200 lbf (134.3 kN) No Chengdu J-10 In service/production[7]
AL-31F M1[8] Improved version for the Russian Air Force Salyut 2007 30,300 lbf (135 kN) Yes Sukhoi Su-27SM, Sukhoi Su-30, Sukhoi Su-34 In service/production
AL-31F M2[9] Improved version for the Su-34 and Chengdu J-20 Salyut 2012 32,600 lbf (145 kN) No Sukhoi Su-34, Chengdu J-20 In service/production
AL-37FU Advanced derivative for the Su-37 UMPO 32,600 lbf (145 kN) Yes Sukhoi Su-37 Experimental derivative for the Su-37
AL-41F-1S (117S)[10] Advanced derivative for the Su-35 UMPO 2010 31,900 lbf (142 kN) Yes Sukhoi Su-35 In service/production
AL-41F1 (117) Advanced derivative for the Sukhoi Su-57 UMPO 2010 33,000 lbf (147 kN) Yes Sukhoi Su-57 prototype In service/production

The AL-31FP and AL-37FU variants have thrust vectoring. The former is used in the Su-30MKI export version of the Su-30 for India & Sukhoi Su-30MKM for Malaysia . The AL-31FP can deflect its nozzle to a maximum of ±15° at a rate of 30°/sec. The vectoring nozzle is used primarily in the pitch plane. The AL-31FP is built in India by HAL at the Koraput facility under a deep technology transfer agreement.

It can tolerate severely distorted air flow from the intake. In the twin-engine Su-27, left and right engines are interchangeable. The Mean Time Between Overhaul (MTBO) for the AL-31F is 1000 hours with a full-life of 3000 hours.

Salyut supplies AL-31 variants to fighters operated by the People's Republic of China. The J-10 uses the AL-31FN while the J-20 uses the AL-31FM2 as an interim engine until the domestic WS-15 is ready.[11]

According to Saturn's Victor Mihailovich Chepkin, chief designer of the 117 and 117S engines, the Chinese WS-10 was developed with the aid of the AL-31's maintenance technical documentation.,[12] this was recently confirmed by AVIC [13]


Intended to power the Su-35BM, the Izdeliye 117S (AL-41F1S) is an upgrade of the AL-31F that uses technology from the AL-41F. The engine produces 142 kN (32,000 lb) of thrust in afterburner and 19,400 lbf (86.3 kN) dry.[14] It features a fan 3% larger in diameter (36.7 in (932 mm) versus 35.6 in (905 mm), advanced high- and low-pressure turbines, an all-new digital control system, and provisions for thrust-vectoring nozzles similar to the AL-31FP. This engine will have an assigned life of 4,000 hours and an MTBO of 1,000 hours.[15] The first flight of this engine was completed in an Su-35BM on 20 February 2008.[16] On 9 August 2010, Ufa-based company UMPO started supplying 117S engines (AL-41F1S) intended for Su-35S fighters.[17]


Intended to power the fifth-generation Sukhoi Su-57 fighter. The Izdeliye 117 (AL-41F1) is a highly improved AL-31F derivative based on the 117S engine of the Su-35S fighter. Its development began in 2004 and the engine features an increased diameter fan, new high and low pressure turbines, and a digital control system (FADEC). According to Sukhoi director Mikhail Pogosyan, the 117 is a new fifth-generation engine built specifically for the Su-57 Prototype. Though the specifics of the 117 engine remain classified, the engine's thrust was increased by 5,500 lbf (24.5 kN) over the AL-31 while the engine weight was reduced by 330 lb (150 kg). The new engine produces 33,000 lbf (147 kN) of thrust in afterburner and has a dry weight of 3,130 lb (1,420 kg) and thrust-to-weight ratio of 10.5:1.[18] Like the AL-31F, the 117 has 4 low-pressure compressor (fan) and 9 high-pressure compressor stages.[19] Mikhail Pogosyan further mentioned that the 117 engine meets the Russian Air Force requirements and will be installed in production Su-57 fighter which will be supplied to the Russian Air Force and prospective foreign clients.[18]

The 117 is an interim engine meant for prototype and initial production batches of the Su-57. The definitive second stage for the aircraft is designated Izdeliye 30 and will eventually replace the 117 after 2020. The new engine has increased thrust and fuel efficiency as well as improved reliability and lower costs. Bench testing of the new engine will start in 2014 according to the general designer-director of the NPO Saturn Eugeny Marchuk.[20] Serial production began in April 2019.[21]

Specifications (AL-31F)

Data from [22]

General characteristics



Dry thrust: 0.87 lb/lbf/h (24.6 g/kN/s)
With afterburner: 1.92 lb/lbf/h (54.3 g/kN/s)

Specifications AL-41F-1S (117S)

Data from Rosobornexport[24]

General characteristics

  • Type: Two-shaft afterburning turbofan
  • Length: 194.6 in (494.2 cm)
  • Diameter: 36.7 in (93.2 cm) inlet
  • Dry weight: 3,536 lb (1,604 kg)


  • Compressor: Axial, 4 stage fan, 9 stage compressor
  • Combustors: Annular
  • Turbine: 2 single stage turbines


  • Maximum thrust:
    • 19,400 lbf (86.3 kN) dry
    • 32,000 lbf (142.2 kN) with afterburner
  • Turbine inlet temperature: 2,681 °F; 1,472 °C (1,745 K),
  • Fuel consumption:
    • 15,020 lb/h (6,813 kg/h) dry
    • 55,050 lb/h (24,969 kg/h) with afterburner
  • Specific fuel consumption:
    • 0.790 lb/lbf/h (22.37 g/kN/s) dry
    • 1.819 lb/lbf/h (51.53 g/kN/s) with afterburner
  • Thrust-to-weight ratio: 5.49 (dry),
    9.04 with afterburner

See also

Comparable engines

Related lists


  1. "UMPO page on AL-31F". Retrieved 3 April 2018.
  2. Salyut page on AL-31F
  3. "AL-31F". Rosoboronexport.
  5. "JOINT-STOCK COMPANY "GAS-TURBINE ENGINEERING RESEARCH AND PRODUCTION CENTER «SALUT" - NEWS - NEWS - FSUE "Gas-Turbine Engineering RPC "Salut" has successfully completed the first phase of engine longevity and performance bench tests in view of future deliveries of a new version of AL-31FN Series 3". Retrieved 3 April 2018.
  6. "JOINT-STOCK COMPANY "GAS-TURBINE ENGINEERING RESEARCH AND PRODUCTION CENTER «SALUT" - NEWS - NEWS - The FSUE "GTE-RPC "Salut"-produced AL-31FN series-3 engine receives code letter "O1"". Retrieved 3 April 2018.
  7. "АО "НПЦ газотурбостроения «САЛЮТ" - Продукция - АВИАЦИОННЫЕ ДВИГАТЕЛИ - АЛ-31Ф серии 42 (М1)". Retrieved 3 April 2018.
  8. "JOINT-STOCK COMPANY "GAS-TURBINE ENGINEERING RESEARCH AND PRODUCTION CENTER «SALUT" - NEWS - NEWS - AL-31F M2 engine contemplated by OKB Sukhogo (Sukhoi Design Bureau)". Retrieved 3 April 2018.
  9. "UMPO press release". Retrieved 3 April 2018.
  10. {{Cite web |last=Rupprecht |first=Andreas |url= |title=China’s new J-20 “Mighty Dragon” stealth fighter officially unveiled and ready to enter active service
  11. Коробковwrote, Егор; 14:23:00, 2011-08-17 14:23:00 Егор Коробков korobok12 2011-08-17. "О положении дел в Российском авиамоторостроении. Год 2008". Retrieved 3 April 2018.
  12. F_200788. "AVIC report: China's Taihang engine widely deployed in military - People's Daily Online". Retrieved 3 April 2018.
  13. Hillebrand, Niels. "MILAVIA Aircraft - Sukhoi Su-35 (Su-27BM) "4++ Generation Flanker"". Retrieved 3 April 2018.
  14. "NPO Saturn finishes endurance tests for S-117 Engine meant for Su-35". Archived from the original on 28 March 2008. Retrieved 3 April 2018.
  15. "Новый истребитель Су-35 полностью выполнил программу первого полета". 20 February 2008. Retrieved 3 April 2018.
  16. "Новости - Приволжский федеральный округ -". Retrieved 3 April 2018.
  17. PAK-FA is flying with new engine already installed Archived July 27, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  18. Butowski, Piotr. "Is Russia’s fifth-generation PAK FA fighter programme still on track?". Air International, June 2015, pp. 76–81. Stamford, UK: Key Publishing.
  19. "НПО "Сатурн" создает двигатель поколения 5+ - Еженедельник "Военно-промышленный курьер"". Retrieved 3 April 2018.
  20. "Двигатель "первого этапа" для Су-57 прошел все испытания и запущен в серию". TASS. 23 April 2019. Retrieved 28 April 2019.
  21. AL=31F specification.
  22. "". Retrieved 3 April 2018.
  23. "AL-41F-1S". Rosobornexport.
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